Browsing by Subject "TIMOLOL"

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  • Ramsay, Eva; del Amo, Eva M.; Toropainen, Elisa; Tengvall-Unadike, Unni; Ranta, Veli-Pekka; Urtti, Arto; Ruponen, Marika (2018)
    On the surface of the eye, both the cornea and conjunctiva are restricting ocular absorption of topically applied drugs, but barrier contributions of these two membranes have not been systemically compared. Herein, we studied permeability of 32 small molecular drug compounds across an isolated porcine cornea and built a quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) model for the permeability. Corneal drug permeability (data obtained for 25 drug molecules) showed a 52-fold range in permeability (0.09-4.70x10(-6) cm/s) and the most important molecular descriptors in predicting the permeability were hydrogen bond donor, polar surface area and halogen ratio. Corneal permeability values were compared to their conjunctival drug permeability values. Ocular drug bioavailability and systemic absorption via conjunctiva were predicted for this drug set with pharmacokinetic calculations. Drug bioavailability in the aqueous humour was simulated to be <5% and trans-conjunctival systemic absorption was 34-79% of the dose. Loss of drug across the conjunctiva to the blood circulation restricts significantly ocular drug bioavailability and, therefore, ocular absorption does not increase proportionally with the increasing corneal drug permeability.
  • Heilkkinen, Emma M.; Auriola, Seppo; Ranta, Veli-Pekka; Demarais, Nicholas J.; Grey, Angus C.; del Amo, Eva M.; Toropainen, Elisa; Vellonen, Kati-Sisko; Urtti, Arto; Ruponen, Marika (2019)
    Lens is the avascular tissue in the eye between the aqueous humor and vitreous. Drug binding to the lens might affect ocular pharmacokinetics, and the binding may also have a pharmacological role in drug-induced cataract and cataract treatment. Drug distribution in the lens has been studied in vitro with many compounds; however, the experimental methods vary, no detailed information on distribution between the lens sublayers exist, and the partition coefficients are reported rarely. Therefore, our objectives were to clarify drug localization in the lens layers and establish partition coefficients for a wide range of molecules. Furthermore, we aimed to illustrate the effect of lenticular drug binding on overall ocular drug pharmacokinetics. We studied the distribution of 16 drugs and three fluorescent dyes in whole porcine lenses in vitro with imaging mass spectrometry and fluorescence microscopy techniques. Furthermore, we determined lens/buffer partition coefficients with the same experimental setup for 28 drugs with mass spectrometry. Finally, the effect of lenticular binding of drugs on aqueous humor drug exposure was explored with pharmacokinetic simulations. After 4 h, the drugs and the dyes distributed only to the outermost lens layers (capsule and cortex). The lens/buffer partition coefficients for the drugs were low, ranging from 0.05 to 0.8. On the basis of the pharmacokinetic simulations, a high lens-aqueous humor partition coefficient increases drug exposure in the lens but does not significantly alter the pharmacokinetics in the aqueous humor. To conclude, the lens seems to act mainly as a physical barrier for drug distribution in the eye, and drug binding to the lens affects mainly the drug pharmacokinetics in the lens.