Browsing by Subject "TIO2"

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  • Mera-Adasme, Raul; Xu, Wen-hua; Sundholm, Dage; Mendizabal, Fernando (2016)
    Solar power is a strong alternative to the currently used fossil fuels in order to satisfy the world's energy needs. Among them, dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC) represent a low-cost option. Efficient and cheap dyes are currently needed to make DSSCs competitive. Computational chemistry can be used to guide the design of new light-absorbing chromophores. Here, we have computationally studied the lowest excited states of ZnPBAT, which is a recently synthesized porphyrinoid chromophore with high light-absorption efficiency. The calculations have been performed at ab initio correlated levels of theory employing second-order coupled clusters (CC2) and algebraic diagrammatic construction using second order (ADC(2)) methods and by performing density functional theory (DFT) calculations using the time-dependent DFT (TDDFT) approach for excitation energies. The ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectrum calculated at the ADC(2) and CC2 levels agrees well with the experimental one. The calculations show that ZnPBAT has six electronic transitions in the visible range of the absorption spectrum. The ab initio correlated calculations and previously reported experimental data have been used to assess the performance of several well-known density functionals that have been employed in the present TDDFT study. Solvent effects have been estimated by using the conductor-like screening model (COSMO). The influence of the addition of a TiO2 cluster to the chromophore systems has also been investigated. The results indicate that both CAM-B3LYP and Becke's "half-and-half'' (BHLYP) density functionals are appropriate for the studies of excitation energies in the blue range of the visible spectrum for these kinds of porphyrinoid chromophores, whereas the excitation energies of the Q band calculated at the ab initio correlated level are more accurate than those obtained in the present TDDFT calculations. The inclusion of solvent effects has a modest influence on the spectrum of the protonated form of the studied chromophores, whereas solvent models are crucial when studying the absorption spectrum of the anionic chromophore. The calculated UV-vis spectrum for the chromophore anion is not significantly affected by attaching a TiO2 cluster to it.
  • Ruoko, Tero-Petri; Hiltunen, Arto; Iivonen, Tomi; Ulkuniemi, Riina; Lahtonen, Kimmo; Ali-Löytty, Harri; Mizohata, Kenichiro; Valden, Mika; Leskelä, Markku; Tkachenko, Nikolai V. (2019)
    We employ atomic layer deposition to prepare 50 nm thick hematite photoanodes followed by passivating them with a 0.5 nm thick Ta2O5-overlayer and compare them with samples uniformly doped with the same amount of tantalum. We observe a three-fold improvement in photocurrent with the same onset voltage using Ta-overlayer hematite photoanodes, while electrochemical impedance spectroscopy under visible light irradiation shows a decreased amount of surface states under water splitting conditions. The Tadoped samples have an even higher increase in photocurrent along with a 0.15 V cathodic shift in the onset voltage and decreased resistivity. However, the surface state capacitance for the Ta-doped sample is twice that of the reference photoanode, which implies a larger amount of surface hole accumulation. We further utilize transient absorption spectroscopy in the sub-millisecond to second timescale under operating conditions to show that electron trapping in both Ta2O5-passivated and Ta-doped samples is markedly reduced. Ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy in the sub-picosecond to nanosecond timescale shows faster charge carrier dynamics and reduced recombination in the Ta-doped hematite photoanode resulting in the increased photoelectrochemical performance when compared with the Ta2O5-overlayer sample. Our results show that passivation does not affect the poor charge carrier dynamics intrinsic to hematite based photoanodes. The Ta-doping strategy results in more efficient electron extraction, solving the electron trapping issue and leading to increased performance over the surface passivation strategy.
  • Fang, Jiaxi; Wang, Yang; Kangasluoma, Juha; Attoui, Michel; Junninen, Heikki; Kulmala, Markku; Petäjä, Tuukka; Biswas, Pratim (2017)
    Few studies reported the formation of Ti-containing clusters in the initial stages of TiO2 flame synthesis. The conversion from synthesis precursor to TiO2 monomers was commonly assumed to take place through global reaction such as thermal decomposition and/or hydrolysis at high temperatures. More recent studies have been able to identify stable intermediates of Ti-containing monomers, most commonly Ti(OH)(4), as the final step before the formation of TiO2. However, no larger Ti-containing cluster formation mechanisms or interactions between these monomers have been tracked. To investigate cluster formation pathways of TiO2 during flame synthesis, Charged clusters were measured in an atmospheric pressure interface time-of-flight (APi-TOF) mass spectrometer. TiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized by adding titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) precursor to a premixed CH4/O-2/N-2 flat flame aerosol reactor. Pure TiO2 clusters were not detected by the APi-TOF. Results from measured mass spectra and mass defect plots show that for positively charged clusters, the abstraction of CH2 groups occurs simultaneously with the clustering of larger intermediate organometallic species. For negatively charged clusters, NOx formation pathways in the flame may play a role during the initial stages of TiO2 formation, since a lot of Ti-containing clusters were attached with nitrate-related species. These research findings provide insights on quantum dot synthesis and molecular doping where rapid dilution of the flame synthesized nanoparticles is needed to better control the particle size and chemical composition. The possible influences of and potential artifacts brought by the dilution system on observing the incipient particle formation in flames were also discussed.
  • Hiltunen, Arto; Ruoko, Tero-Petri; Iivonen, Tomi; Lahtonen, Kimmo; Ali-Löytty, Harri; Sarlin, Essi; Valden, Mika; Leskelä, Markku; Tkachenko, Nikolai (2018)
    Iron and titanium oxides have attracted substantial attention in photoelectrochemical water splitting applications. However, both materials suffer from intrinsic limitations that constrain the final device performance. In order to overcome the limitations of the two materials alone, their combination has been proposed as a solution to the problems. Here we report on the fabrication of an atomic layer deposited (ALD) Fe2O3 coating on porous ALD-TiO2. Our results show that successful implementation requires complete mixing of the TiO2 and Fe2O3 layers via annealing resulting in the formation of a photoactive iron titanium oxide on the surface. Moreover, we found that incomplete mixing leads to crystallization of Fe2O3 to hematite that is detrimental to the photoelectrochemical performance. IPCE and transient photocurrent measurements performed using UV and visible light excitation confirmed that the iron titanium oxide extends the photocurrent generation to the visible range. These measurements were complemented by transient absorption spectroscopy (TAS), which revealed a new band absent in pristine hematite or anatase TiO2 that we assign to charge transfer within the structure. Taken together, these results provide design guidelines to be considered when aiming to combine TiO2 and Fe2O3 for photoelectrochemical applications.
  • Bakos, Laszlo Peter; Justh, Nora; da Costa, Ulisses Carlo Moura da Silva Bezerra; Laszlo, Krisztina; Labar, Janos Laszlo; Igricz, Tamas; Varga-Josepovits, Katalin; Pasierb, Pawel; Farm, Elina; Ritala, Mikko; Leskelä, Markku; Szilagyi, Imre Miklos (2020)
    TiO2 and ZnO single and multilayers were deposited on hydroxyl functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes using atomic layer deposition. The bare carbon nanotubes and the resulting heterostructures were characterized by TG/DTA, Raman, XRD, SEM-EDX, XPS, TEM-EELS-SAED and low temperature nitrogen adsorption techniques, and their photocatalytic and gas sensing activities were also studied. The carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were uniformly covered with anatase TiO2 and wurtzite ZnO layers and with their combinations. In the photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange, the most beneficial structures are those where ZnO is the external layer, both in the case of single and double oxide layer covered CNTs (CNT-ZnO and CNT-TiO2-ZnO). The samples with multilayer oxides (CNT-ZnO-TiO2 and CNT-TiO2-ZnO) have lower catalytic activity due to their larger average densities, and consequently lower surface areas, compared to single oxide layer coated CNTs (CNT-ZnO and CNT-TiO2). In contrast, in gas sensing it is advantageous to have TiO2 as the outer layer. Since ZnO has higher conductivity, its gas sensing signals are lower when reacting with NH3 gas. The double oxide layer samples have higher resistivity, and hence a larger gas sensing response than their single oxide layer counterparts.
  • Li, Yuanyuan; Nie, Wei; Liu, Yuliang; Huang, Dandan; Xu, Zheng; Peng, Xiang; George, Christian; Yan, Chao; Tham, Yee Jun; Yu, Chuan; Xia, Men; Fu, Xiao; Wang, Xinfeng; Xue, Likun; Wang, Zhe; Xu, Zhengning; Chi, Xuguang; Wang, Tao; Ding, Aijun (2020)
    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is extensively used with the process of urbanization and potentially influences atmospheric chemistry, which is yet unclear. In this work, we demonstrated strong production of Cl-2 from illuminated KCl-coated TiO2 membranes and suggested an important daytime source of chlorine radicals. We found that water and oxygen were required for the reactions to proceed, and Cl-2 production increased linearly with the amount of coated KCl, humidity of the carrier gas, and light intensity. These results suggested that water promotes the reactivity of coated KCl via interaction with the crystal lattice to release free chloride ions (Cl-). The free Cl- transfer charges to O-2 via photoactivated TiO2 to form Cl-2 and probably the O-2(-) radical. In addition to Cl-2, ClO and HOCl were also observed via the complex reactions between Cl/Cl-2 and HOx. An intensive campaign was conducted in Shanghai, during which evident daytime peaks of Cl-2 were observed. Estimated Cl-2 production from TiO2 photocatalysis can be up to 0.2 ppb/h when the TiO2-containing surface reaches 20% of the urban surface, and highly correlated to the observed Cl-2. Our results suggest a non-negligible role of TiO2 in atmospheric photochemistry via altering the radical budget.
  • Fang, Jiaxi; Wang, Yang; Kangasluoma, Juha; Attoui, Michel; Junninen, Heikki; Kulmala, Markku; Petäjä, Tuukka; Biswas, Pratim (2018)
    The ability to properly scale the synthesis of advanced materials through combustion synthesis routes is limited by our lack of knowledge regarding the initial stages of particle formation. In flame aerosol reactors, the high temperatures, fast reaction rates, and flame chemistry can all play a critical role in determining the properties of the resulting nanomaterials. In particular, multicomponent systems pose a unique challenge as most studies rely on empirical approaches toward designing advanced composite materials. The lack of predictive capabilities can be attributed to a lack of data on particle inception and growth below 2nm. Measurements for the initial stages of particle formation during the combustion synthesis of SiO2 and composite SiO2/TiO2 using an atmospheric pressure inlet time-of-flight mass spectrometer are presented. Both positively and negatively charged clusters can be measured and results show the presence of silicic acid species which grow through dehydration, hydrogen abstraction, and interactions with hydroxyl radicals. In the case of composite SiO2/TiO2 particle formation, new molecular species containing Ti atoms emerge. Tandem differential mobility analysis-mass spectrometry (DMA-MS) provided further insight into the size-resolved chemistry of particle formation to reveal that at each cluster size, further hydroxyl-driven reactions take place. From this we can conclude that previous assumptions on collisional growth from simple monomer species of SiO2 and TiO2 do not sufficiently describe the collisional growth mechanisms for particle growth below 2nm.Copyright (c) 2018 American Association for Aerosol Research