Browsing by Subject "TMR"

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  • Puranen, Anni (Helsingfors universitet, 2011)
    Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) is a strong base which disrupts the seed coat by partial hydrolysis of hemicellulose and lignin in the rumen. NaOH can substitute for mechanical processing of cereal grains. Using total mixed ration including NaOH –treated grains, is an opportunity to avoid the metabolic problems caused by high dietary starch content. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of various levels of NaOH –treated wheat grains in ad libitum total mixed ration diet on feed intake and production of dairy cows. Commonly used oats-barley diet was a control. This study was conducted at the experimental farm of Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden from September to November 2010. There were 17 multiparous and 6 primiparous cows in the study (Swedish red breed). The cows were kept in a warm loose house barn and intake of total mixed ration was measured by using scale cups. Experimental treatments were ground barley and ground oats in the ratio of 1:1, ground wheat in the ratio of 1:0, ground wheat and NaOH –treated whole wheat in the ratio of 1:1 and NaOH –treated whole wheat in the ratio of 1:0. All the diets were formulated to have a dry matter content of 370 g/kg and crude protein content of 180 g/kg dry matter. Apparent digestibility of nutrient was determined using acid insoluble ash as a marker. Utilization of nitrogen was evaluated using calculated nitrogen balance. The experiment was conducted according to the 4x4 Latin square designs and the statistical differences between the treatments were detected by contrasts. Intakes of dry matter (PQ=0.02) and organic matter (PQ=0.02) increased in pursuance of their improved digestibility as half of the dried wheat was supplemented for NaOH –treated wheat. There was no significant difference between treatments in milk yield or energy corrected milk yield. Milk fat yield (PQ=0.04) and concentration of milk fat increased clearly (PQ=0.004) as half of the dry wheat was substituted for NaOH –treated wheat. By substituting all dry wheat for NaOH -treated wheat, milk protein concentration decreased (PL<0.001). The same occurred for milk urea concentration (PL=0.002). The NaOH –treatment did not result in any economic improvement in this study because concentration of milk protein decreased and intake increased, while milk production remained the same. The best production response was achieved by the mix diet of dried wheat and NaOH –treated wheat.