Browsing by Subject "TOBACCO"

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  • Bricknell, Ryan A. T.; Ducaud, Christobal; Figueroa, Alejandra; Schwarzman, Logan S.; Rodriguez, Pura; Castro, Grettel; Zevallos, Juan Carlos; Barengo, Noel C. (2021)
    Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) are growing in use and many of the health implications with these devices remain unknown. This study aims to assess, using a survey representative of the USA general population, if an association exists between a history of ENDS use and a history of stroke. This cross-sectional study was a secondary data analysis using the 2016 behavioral risk factor surveillance system survey. The main exposure variable of the study was a self-reported history of ENDS use. The main outcome was a self-reported history of stroke. Covariates included sex, race, traditional cigarette use, smokeless tobacco use, chronic kidney disease, diabetes, myocardial infarction, and coronary artery disease. Unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression analyses were done. Adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. Of the 486,303 total behavioral risk factor surveillance system survey participants, 465,594 met the inclusion criteria for this study of ENDS use and stroke. This study shows that current ENDS use was positively associated with a history of stroke. AOR of some daily ENDS use with stroke was 1.28 (95% CI: 1.02-1.61) and AOR of current daily ENDS use with stroke was 1.62 (95% CI: 1.18-2.31). The majority (55.9%) of current daily ENDS users reported former traditional cigarette smoking. Female sex, non-white ethnicity, elderly age, chronic kidney disease, coronary artery disease, diabetes, and traditional cigarette use characteristics were all also associated with increased odds of reporting a stroke. This study found a statistically significant and positive association between ENDS use and a history of stroke. Further research is warranted to investigate the reproducibility and temporality of this association. Nevertheless, this study contributes to the growing body of knowledge about the potential cardiovascular concerns related to ENDS use and the need for large cohort studies.
  • Hirvonen, Eveliina; Stepanov, Mikhael; Kilpeläinen, Maritta; Lindqvist, Ari; Laitinen, Tarja (2019)
    Introduction: Smoking has a significant impact on the development and progression of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Self-reported questionnaires and structured interviews are usually the only way to study patients' smoking history. In this study, we aim to examine the consistency of the responses of asthma and COPD patients to repeated standardised questions on their smoking habits over the period of 10 years. Methods: The study population consisted of 1329 asthma and 959 COPD patients, who enrolled in the study during years 2005-2007. A follow-up questionnaire was mailed to the participants 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 years after the recruitment. Results: Among the participants who returned three or more questionnaires (N = 1454), 78.5 % of the patients reported unchanged smoking status (never smoker, ex-smoker or current smoker) across the time. In 4.5% of the answers, the reported smoking statuses were considered unreliable/conflicting (first never smoker and, later, smoker or ex-smoker). The remainder of the patients changed their status from current smoker to ex-smoker and vice versa at least once, most likely due to struggling with quitting. COPD patients were more frequently heavy ex- or current smokers compared to the asthma group. The intraclass coefficient correlations between self-reported starting (0.85) and stopping (0.94) years as well as the consumption of cigarettes (0.74) over time showed good reliability among both asthma and COPD patients. Conclusion: Self-reported smoking data among elderly asthma and COPD patients over a 10-year follow-up is reliable. Pack years can be considered a rough estimate for their comprehensive consumption of tobacco products over time. We also observed that the questionnaire we used was not designed for dynamic changes in smoking which are rather common among heavy smokers especially when the follow-up time is several years, as in our study.
  • de Oliveira Figueiredo, Rejane Augusta; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Tajara, Eloiza Helena; Strom, Peter; Carvalho, Andre Lopes; de Carvalho, Marcos Brasilino; Kanda, Jossi Ledo; Moyses, Raquel Ajub; Wunsch-Filho, Victor (2016)
    Introduction: Diabetes mellitus (DM (Diabetes Mellitus)) is directly associated with some cancers. However, studies on the association between diabetes mellitus and head and neck cancer (HNC (Head and Neck Cancer)) have rendered controversial results. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between DM and HNC, as well as the impact of metformin use on the risk of HNC. Material and methods: This case-control study was conducted within the framework of the Brazilian Head and Neck Genome Project in 2011-2014. The study included 1021 HNC cases with histologically confirmed squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck admitted to five large hospitals in Sao Paulo state. A total of 1063 controls were selected in the same hospitals. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using unconditional logistic regression. Results: Diabetic participants had a decreased risk of HNC (OR = 0.68; 95% CI: 0.49-0.95) than nondiabetic participants, and this risk was further decreased among diabetic metformin users (OR = 0.54; 95% CI: 0.29-0.99). Diabetic metformin users that were current smokers (OR = 0.13; 95% CI: 0.04-0.44) or had an alcohol consumption of >40 g/day (OR = 0.31; 95% CI: 0.11-0.88) had lower risk of HNC than equivalent non-diabetic participants. Conclusion: The risk of HNC was decreased among diabetic participants; metformin use may at least partially explain this inverse association. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Lazary, Judit; Dome, Peter; Csala, Iren; Kovacs, Gabor; Faludi, Gabor; Kaunisto, Mari; Dome, Balazs (2014)
  • NBCS Collaborators; ABCTB Investigators; kConFab Investigators; Park, Hanla A.; Neumeyer, Sonja; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Muranen, Taru A.; Nevanlinna, Heli (2021)
    Background Despite a modest association between tobacco smoking and breast cancer risk reported by recent epidemiological studies, it is still equivocal whether smoking is causally related to breast cancer risk. Methods We applied Mendelian randomisation (MR) to evaluate a potential causal effect of cigarette smoking on breast cancer risk. Both individual-level data as well as summary statistics for 164 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) reported in genome-wide association studies of lifetime smoking index (LSI) or cigarette per day (CPD) were used to obtain MR effect estimates. Data from 108,420 invasive breast cancer cases and 87,681 controls were used for the LSI analysis and for the CPD analysis conducted among ever-smokers from 26,147 cancer cases and 26,072 controls. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to address pleiotropy. Results Genetically predicted LSI was associated with increased breast cancer risk (OR 1.18 per SD, 95% CI: 1.07-1.30, P = 0.11 x 10(-2)), but there was no evidence of association for genetically predicted CPD (OR 1.02, 95% CI: 0.78-1.19, P = 0.85). The sensitivity analyses yielded similar results and showed no strong evidence of pleiotropic effect. Conclusion Our MR study provides supportive evidence for a potential causal association with breast cancer risk for lifetime smoking exposure but not cigarettes per day among smokers.
  • Risner, Victoria A.; Benca-Bachman, Chelsie E.; Bertin, Lauren; Smith, Alicia K.; Kaprio, Jaakko; McGeary, John E.; Chesler, Elissa; Knopik, Valerie S.; Friedman, Naomi P.; Palmer, Rohan H. C. (2021)
    Introduction: Heritability estimates of nicotine dependence (ND) range from 40% to 70%, but discovery GWAS of ND are underpowered and have limited predictive utility. In this work, we leverage genetically correlated traits and diseases to increase the accuracy of polygenic risk prediction. Methods: We employed a multi-trait model using summary statistic-based best linear unbiased predictors (SBLUP) of genetic correlates of DSM-IV diagnosis of ND in 6394 individuals of European Ancestry (prevalence = 45.3%, %female = 46.8%, mu(age) = 40.08 [s.d. = 10.43]) and 3061 individuals from a nationally-representative sample with Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence symptom count (FTND; 51.32% female, mean age = 28.9 [s.d. = 1.70]). Polygenic predictors were derived from GWASs known to be phenotypically and genetically correlated with ND (i.e., Cigarettes per Day [CPD], the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test [AUDIT-Consumption and AUDIT-Problems], Neuroticism, Depression, Schizophrenia, Educational Attainment, Body Mass Index [BMI], and Self-Perceived Risk-Taking); including Height as a negative control. Analyses controlled for age, gender, study site, and the first 10 ancestral principal components. Results: The multi-trait model accounted for 3.6% of the total trait variance in DSM-IV ND. Educational Attainment (beta = -0.125; 95% CI: [-0.149,-0.101]), CPD (0.071 [0.047,0.095]), and Self-Perceived Risk-Taking (0.051 [0.026,0.075]) were the most robust predictors. PGS effects on FTND were limited. Conclusions: Risk for ND is not only polygenic, but also pleiotropic. Polygenic effects on ND that are accessible by these traits are limited in size and act additively to explain risk.
  • Rajamaki, Minna-Liisa; Sikorskaite-Gudziuniene, Sidona; Sarmah, Nandita; Varjosalo, Markku; Valkonen, Jari P. T. (2020)
    BackgroundInfection of plants by viruses interferes with expression and subcellular localization of plant proteins. Potyviruses comprise the largest and most economically damaging group of plant-infecting RNA viruses. In virus-infected cells, at least two potyviral proteins localize to nucleus but reasons remain partly unknown.ResultsIn this study, we examined changes in the nuclear proteome of leaf cells from a diploid potato line (Solanum tuberosum L.) after infection with potato virus A (PVA; genus Potyvirus; Potyviridae) and compared the data with that acquired for healthy leaves. Gel-free liquid chromatography-coupled to tandem mass spectrometry was used to identify 807 nuclear proteins in the potato line v2-108; of these proteins, 370 were detected in at least two samples of healthy leaves. A total of 313 proteins were common in at least two samples of healthy and PVA-infected leaves; of these proteins, 8 showed differential accumulation. Sixteen proteins were detected exclusively in the samples from PVA-infected leaves, whereas other 16 proteins were unique to healthy leaves. The protein Dnajc14 was only detected in healthy leaves, whereas different ribosomal proteins, ribosome-biogenesis proteins, and RNA splicing-related proteins were over-represented in the nuclei of PVA-infected leaves. Two virus-encoded proteins were identified in the samples of PVA-infected leaves.ConclusionsOur results show that PVA infection alters especially ribosomes and splicing-related proteins in the nucleus of potato leaves. The data increase our understanding of potyvirus infection and the role of nucleus in infection. To our knowledge, this is the first study of the nuclear proteome of potato leaves and one of the few studies of changes occurring in nuclear proteomes in response to plant virus infection.
  • Bruserud, Oyvind; Costea, Danieta-Elena; Laakso, Saila; Garty, Ben-Zion; Mathisen, Eirik; Mäkitie, Antti; Mäkitie, Outi; Husebye, Eystein S. (2018)
    Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED) or Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type-1 (APS-1) (APECED, OMIM 240300) is a rare, childhood onset, monogenic disease caused by mutations in the Autoimmune Regulator (AIRE) gene. The overall mortality is increased compared to the general population and a major cause of death includes malignant diseases, especially oral and esophageal cancers. We here present a case series of four APS-1 patients with oral tongue cancers, an entity not described in detail previously. Scrutiny of history and clinical phenotypes indicate that chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis and smoking are significant risk factors. Preventive measures and early diagnosis are important to successfully manage this potentially fatal disease.
  • Ruokolainen, Otto; Heloma, Antero; Jousilahti, Pekka; Lahti, Jouni; Pentala-Nikulainen, Oona; Rahkonen, Ossi; Puska, Pekka (2019)
    ObjectivesSmoking is declining, but it is unevenly distributed among population groups. Our aim was to examine the socio-economic differences in smoking during 1978-2016 in Finland, a country with a history of strict tobacco control policy.MethodsAnnual population-based random sample data of 25-64-year-olds from 1978 to 2016 (N=104,315) were used. Response rate varied between 84 and 40%. In addition to logistic regression analysis, absolute and relative educational differences in smoking were examined.ResultsSmoking was more prevalent among the less educated but declined in all educational groups during the study period. Both absolute and relative differences in smoking between the less and highly educated were larger at the end of the study period than at the beginning. Cigarette price seemed to have a larger effect on the smoking among the less educated.ConclusionsSocio-economic differences in smoking among the Finnish adult population have increased since the 1970s until 2016. Further actions are needed, especially focusing on lower socio-economic positions, to tackle inequalities in health. They should include support for smoking cessation and larger cigarette tax increases.