Browsing by Subject "TOLERANCE"

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  • Clement, Cristina C.; D'Alessandro, Angelo; Thangaswamy, Sangeetha; Chalmers, Samantha; Furtado, Raquel; Spada, Sheila; Mondanelli, Giada; Ianni, Federica; Gehrke, Sarah; Gargaro, Marco; Manni, Giorgia; Lopez Cara, Luisa Carlota; Runge, Peter; Tsai, Wanxia Li; Karaman, Sinem; Arasa, Jorge; Fernandez-Rodriguez, Ruben; Beck, Amanda; Macchiarulo, Antonio; Gadina, Massimo; Halin, Cornelia; Fallarino, Francesca; Skobe, Mihaela; Veldhoen, Marc; Moretti, Simone; Formenti, Silvia; Demaria, Sandra; Soni, Rajesh K.; Galarini, Roberta; Sardella, Roccaldo; Lauvau, Gregoire; Putterman, Chaim; Alitalo, Kari; Grohmann, Ursula; Santambrogio, Laura (2021)
    Tryptophan catabolism is a major metabolic pathway utilized by several professional and non-professional antigen presenting cells to maintain immunological tolerance. Here we report that 3-hydroxy-l-kynurenamine (3-HKA) is a biogenic amine produced via an alternative pathway of tryptophan metabolism. In vitro, 3-HKA has an anti-inflammatory profile by inhibiting the IFN-gamma mediated STAT1/NF-kappa Beta pathway in both mouse and human dendritic cells (DCs) with a consequent decrease in the release of pro-inflammatory chemokines and cytokines, most notably TNF, IL-6, and IL12p70. 3-HKA has protective effects in an experimental mouse model of psoriasis by decreasing skin thickness, erythema, scaling and fissuring, reducing TNF, IL-1 beta, IFN-gamma, and IL-17 production, and inhibiting generation of effector CD8(+) T cells. Similarly, in a mouse model of nephrotoxic nephritis, besides reducing inflammatory cytokines, 3-HKA improves proteinuria and serum urea nitrogen, overall ameliorating immune-mediated glomerulonephritis and renal dysfunction. Overall, we propose that this biogenic amine is a crucial component of tryptophan-mediated immune tolerance. 3-hydroxy-L-kynurenamine (3-HKA) is a metabolite deriving from a lateral pathway of tryptophan catabolism. Here the authors identify 3-HKA as a biogenic amine and show it has anti-inflammatory properties that can protect mice against psoriasis and nephrotoxic nephritis.
  • Khazaei, Hamid; Stoddard, Frederick L.; Purves, Randy W.; Vandenberg, Albert (2018)
    Faba bean (Viciafaba L.) is a valuable grain legume and a staple protein crop in many countries. Its large and complex genome requires novel approaches for its genetic dissection. Here we introduce a multi-parent population developed from four founders (ILB 938/2, Disco/2, IG 114476 and IG 132238). The selection of parental lines was based on geographic (Colombia, France, Bangladesh and China), genetic and phenotypic diversity. The parental lines were inbred and then genotyped using 875 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. Based on molecular data, the parents had high homozygosity and high genetic distance among them. The population segregates for several important traits such as seed morphology, seed chemistry, phenology, plant architecture, drought response, yield and its components, and resistance to Botrytis fabae. The population was checked for unbiased segregation in each generation by observing simply inherited Mendelian traits such as stipule spot pigmentation (SSP) and flower colour at different generations. All 1200 four-way cross Fl plants had pigmented flowers and stipule spots. The segregation ratios for white flower colour (single gene, zt2) fit 7:1, 13:3 and 25:7 at F2, F3 and F4 generations, respectively, and the segregation ratio of SSP (two recessive unlinked genes, ssp1 and ssp2) fit 49:15 and 169:87 at the F2 and F3 generations, respectively, demonstrating unbiased generation advance. We will subject the F5 generation of this population to a high-throughput SNP array and make it available for further phenotyping and genotyping.
  • Ouwerkerk, Janneke P.; van der Ark, Kees C. H.; Davids, Mark; Claassens, Nico J.; Finestra, Teresa Robert; de Vos, Willem M.; Belzer, Clara (2016)
    Akkermansia muciniphila colonizes the mucus layer of the gastrointestinal tract, where the organism can be exposed to the oxygen that diffuses from epithelial cells. To understand how A. muciniphila is able to survive and grow at this oxic-anoxic interface, its oxygen tolerance and response and reduction capacities were studied. A. muciniphila was found to be oxygen tolerant. On top of this, under aerated conditions, A. muciniphila showed significant oxygen reduction capacities and its growth rate and yield were increased compared to those seen under strict anaerobic conditions. Transcriptome analysis revealed an initial oxygen stress response upon exposure to oxygen. Thereafter, genes related to respiration were expressed, including those coding for the cytochrome bd complex, which can function as a terminal oxidase. The functionality of A. muciniphila cytochrome bd genes was proven by successfully complementing cytochrome-deficient Escherichia coli strain ECOM4. We conclude that A. muciniphila can use oxygen when it is present at nanomolar concentrations. IMPORTANCE This article explains how Akkermansia muciniphila, previously described as a strictly anaerobic bacterium, is able to tolerate and even benefit from low levels of oxygen. Interestingly, we measured growth enhancement of A. muciniphila and changes in metabolism as a result of the oxygen exposure. In this article, we discuss similarities and differences of this oxygen-responsive mechanism with respect to those of other intestinal anaerobic isolates. Taken together, we think that these are valuable data that indicate how anaerobic intestinal colonizing bacteria can exploit low levels of oxygen present in the mucus layer and that our results have direct relevance for applicability, as addition of low oxygen concentrations could benefit the in vitro growth of certain anaerobic organisms.
  • Pollari, Marjukka; Pellinen, Teijo; Karjalainen-Lindsberg, Marja-Liisa; Kellokumpu-Lehtinen, Pirkko-Liisa; Leivonen, Suvi-Katri; Leppä, Sirpa (2020)
    Objectives Testicular diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (T-DLBCL) is a rare and aggressive extranodal lymphoma. We have previously shown that high content of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and PD-1 expressing TILs associate with better survival in T-DLBCL. In this study, we have further characterized distinct TIL subtypes and their proportions in association with patient demographics and survival. Methods We used multiplex immunohistochemistry to characterize TIL phenotypes, including cytotoxic T-cells (CTLs; CD8(+), OX40(+), Granzyme B+, Ki-67(+), LAG-3(+), TIM-3(+), PD-1(+)), CD4(+)T-cells (CD3(+), CD4(+), TIM-3(+), LAG-3(+)), regulatory T-cells (Tregs; CD3(+), CD4(+), FoxP3(+)), and T helper 1 cells (Th1; CD3(+), CD4(+), T-bet(+)) in 79 T-DLBCLs, and correlated the findings with patient demographics and outcome. Results We observed a substantial variation in TIL phenotypes between the patients. The most prominent CD8(+)TILs were Ki-67(+)and TIM-3(+)CTLs, whereas the most prominent CD4(+)TILs were FoxP3(+)Tregs. Despite the overall favorable prognostic impact of high TIL content, we found a subpopulation of T-bet(+)FoxP3(+)Tregs that had a significant adverse impact on survival. Lower content of CTLs with activated or exhausted phenotypes correlated with aggressive clinical features. Conclusions Our results demonstrate significant variation in TIL phenotypes and emphasize the adverse prognostic impact of Tregs in T-DLBCL.
  • Pflugmacher, Stephan; Tallinen, Saila; Kim, Young Jun; Kim, Sanghun; Esterhuizen, Maranda (2021)
    Plastic has been an environmental pollutant far longer than claimed by the first reports surfacing in 1979, meaning some plastic materials have been decaying in nature for decades. Nevertheless, the threat posed to biota is not fully understood, especially from aged microplastic. The question considered in this study was whether the adverse effects of new plastic differ from those of old plastic material. Therefore, the morphological and physiological effects on Lepidium sativum with exposure to both new and aged polycarbonate were considered against a known stressor leaching from polycarbonate with time, bisphenol-A. Exposure to new and short-term aged polycarbonate (up to 80 days) elicited the most severe effects such as germination inhibition, reduced seedling growth, decreased chlorophyll concentrations, and increased catalase activity. These adverse effects in L. sativum associated with polycarbonate exposure were reduced as a function of the ageing time applied to the polycarbonate. The chemical substances that lend new polycarbonate material its toxicity were likely leached with time during the ageing process. Based on the results obtained, temperature and humidity based artificial ageing significantly reduced the phytotoxicity of the microplastic particles
  • Liu, Miao; Liu, Xingxing; Kang, Jieyu; Korpelainen, Helena; Li, Chunyang (2020)
    This study clarifies the mechanisms of Cd uptake, translocation and detoxification in Populus cathayana Rehder females and males, and reveals a novel strategy for dioecious plants to cope with Cd contamination. Females exhibited a high degree of Cd uptake and root-to-shoot translocation, while males showed extensive Cd accumulation in roots, elevated antioxidative capacity, and effective cellular and bark Cd sequestration. Our study also found that Cd is largely located in epidermal and cortical tissues of male roots and leaves, while in females, more Cd was present in vascular tissues of roots and leaves, as well as in leaf mesophyll. In addition, the distributions of sulphur (S) and phosphorus (P) were very similar as that of Cd in males, but the associations were weak in females. Scanning electron microscopy and energy spectroscopy analyses suggested that the amounts of tissue Cd were positively correlated with P and S amounts in males, but not in females (a weak correlation between S and Cd). Transcriptional data suggested that Cd stress promoted the upregulation of genes related to Cd uptake and translocation in females, and that of genes related to cell wall biosynthesis, metal tolerance and secondary metabolism in males. Our results indicated that coordinated physiological, microstructural and transcriptional responses to Cd stress endowed superior Cd tolerance in males compared with females, and provided new insights into mechanisms underlying sexually differential responses to Cd stress.
  • Turunen, Antti; Kuuliala, Antti; Mustonen, Harri; Puolakkainen, Pauli; Kylänpää, Leena; Kuuliala, Krista (2021)
    Objectives Clinical practice lacks biomarkers to predict the severity of acute pancreatitis (AP). We studied if intracellular signaling of circulating leukocytes could predict persistent organ dysfunction (OD) and secondary infections in AP. Methods A venous blood sample was taken from 174 patients with AP 72 hours or less from onset of symptoms and 31 healthy controls. Phosphorylation levels (p) of appropriately stimulated signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1), STAT6, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappa B), Akt, and nonstimulated STAT3 in monocytes, neutrophils, and lymphocytes was measured using phosphospecific flow cytometry. Results The patients showed higher pSTAT3 and lower pSTAT1, pSTAT6, pNF-kappa B, and pAkt than healthy controls. pSTAT3 in all leukocyte subtypes studied increased, and pSTAT1 in monocytes and T cells decreased in an AP severity-wise manner. In patients without OD at sampling, high pSTAT3 in monocytes and T lymphocytes were associated with development of persistent OD. In patients with OD, low interleukin-4-stimulated pSTAT6 in monocytes and neutrophils and Escherichia coli-stimulated pNF-kappa B in neutrophils predicted OD persistence. High pSTAT3 in monocytes, CD8(+) T cells, and neutrophils; low pSTAT1 in monocytes and T cells; and low pNF-kappa B in lymphocytes predicted secondary infections. Conclusions Leukocyte STAT3, STAT1, STAT6, and NF-kappa Beta phosphorylations are potential predictors of AP severity.
  • Egamberdieva, Dilfuza; Wirth, Stephan; Jabborova, Dilfuza; Rasanen, Leena A.; Liao, Hong (2017)
    It is a well accepted strategy to improve plant salt tolerance through inoculation with beneficial microorganisms. However, its underlying mechanisms still remain unclear. In the present study, hydroponic experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of Bradyrhizobium japonicum USDA 110 with salt-tolerant Pseudomonas putida TSAU1 on growth, protein content, nitrogen, and phosphorus uptake as well as root system architecture of soybean (Glycine max L.) under salt stress. The results indicated that the combined inoculation with USDA 110 and TSAU1 significantly improved plant growth, nitrogen and phosphorus contents, and contents of soluble leaf proteins under salt stress compared to the inoculation with the symbiont alone or compared to un-inoculated ones. The root architectural traits, like root length, surface area, project area, and root volume; as well as nodulation traits were also significantly increased by co-inoculation with USDA 110 and TSAU1. The plant-growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) P. putida strain TSAU1 could improve the symbiotic interaction between the salt-stressed soybean and B. japonicum USDA 110. In conclusion, inoculation with B. japonicum and salt-tolerant P. putida synergistically improved soybean salt tolerance through altering root system architecture facilitating nitrogen and phosphorus acquisition, and nodule formation.
  • Nieminen, Janne K.; Niemi, Mirja; Sipponen, Taina; Salo, Harri M.; Klemetti, Paula; Färkkilä, Martti Antero; Vakkila, Jukka; Vaarala, Outi (2013)
  • Yang, Kun; Wen, Xiaopeng; Mudunuri, Suresh; Varma, G. P. Saradhi; Sablok, Gaurav (2019)
    Plants have an amazing ability to cope with wide variety of stresses by regulating the expression of genes and thus by altering the physiological status. In the past few years, canonical microRNA variants (isomiRs) have been shown to play pivotal roles by acting as regulators of the transcriptional machinery. In the present research, we present Diff isomiRs, a web-based exploratory repository of differential isomiRs across 16 sequenced plant species representing a total of 433 datasets across 21 different stresses and 158 experimental states. Diff isomiRs provides the high-throughput detection of differential isomiRs using mapping-based and model-based differential analysis revealing a total of 16,157 and 2,028 differential isomiRs, respectively. Easy-to-use and web-based exploration of differential isomiRs provides several features such as browsing of the differential isomiRs according to stress or species, as well as association of the differential isomiRs to targets and plant endogenous target mimics (PeTMs). Diff isomiRs also provides the relationship between the canonical miRNAs, isomiRs and the miRNA-target interactions. This is the first web-based large-scale repository for browsing differential isomiRs and will facilitate better understanding of the regulatory role of the isomiRs with respect to the canonical microRNAs. Diff isomiRs can be accessed at: www.mcr.org.in/diffisomirs.
  • Seppanen, Mervi M.; Ebrahimi, Nashmin; Kontturi, Juha; Hartikainen, Helina; Lopez Heras, Isabel; Camara, Carmen; Madrid, Yolanda (2018)
  • e-PREDICE Consortium; Gabriel, Rafael; Lindström, Jaana; Tuomilehto, Jaakko (2020)
    Objectives To assess the effects of early management of hyperglycaemia with antidiabetic drugs plus lifestyle intervention compared with lifestyle alone, on microvascular function in adults with pre-diabetes. Methods Trial design: International, multicenter, randomised, partially double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial. Participants Males and females aged 45–74 years with IFG, IGT or IFG+IGT, recruited from primary care centres in Australia, Austria, Bulgaria, Greece, Kuwait, Poland, Serbia, Spain and Turkey. Intervention Participants were randomized to placebo; metformin 1.700 mg/day; linagliptin 5 mg/day or fixed-dose combination of linagliptin/metformin. All patients were enrolled in a lifestyle intervention program (diet and physical activity). Drug intervention will last 2 years. Primary Outcome: composite end-point of diabetic retinopathy estimated by the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study Score, urinary albumin to creatinine ratio, and skin conductance in feet estimated by the sudomotor index. Secondary outcomes in a subsample include insulin sensitivity, beta-cell function, biomarkers of inflammation and fatty liver disease, quality of life, cognitive function, depressive symptoms and endothelial function. Results One thousand three hundred ninety one individuals with hyperglycaemia were assessed for eligibility, 424 excluded after screening, 967 allocated to placebo, metformin, linagliptin or to fixed-dose combination of metformin + linagliptin. A total of 809 people (91.1%) accepted and initiated the assigned treatment. Study sample after randomization was well balanced among the four groups. No statistical differences for the main risk factors analysed were observed between those accepting or rejecting treatment initiation. At baseline prevalence of diabetic retinopathy was 4.2%, severe neuropathy 5.3% and nephropathy 5.7%. Conclusions ePREDICE is the first -randomized clinical trial with the aim to assess effects of different interventions (lifestyle and pharmacological) on microvascular function in people with pre-diabetes. The trial will provide novel data on lifestyle modification combined with glucose lowering drugs for the prevention of early microvascular complications and diabetes. Registration - ClinicalTrials.Gov Identifier: NCT03222765 - EUDRACT Registry Number: 2013-000418-39
  • Pacwa-Plociniczak, Magdalena; Plociniczak, Tomasz; Yu, Dan; Kurola, Jukka Mikael; Sinkkonen, Aki Tapio; Piotrowska-Seget, Zofia; Romantschuk, Martin L. (2018)
    In this study, we analysed the impact of heavy metals and plant rhizodeposition on the structure of indigenous microbial communities in rhizosphere and bulk soil that had been exposed to heavy metals for more than 150 years. Samples of the rhizosphere of Silene vulgaris and non-rhizosphere soils 250 and 450 m from the source of emission that had different metal concentrations were collected for analyses. The results showed that soils were collected 250 m from the smelter had a higher number of Cd-resistant CFU compared with the samples that were collected from 450 m, but no significant differences were observed in the number of total and oligotrophic CFU or the equivalent cell numbers between rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soils that were taken 250 and 450 m from the emitter. Unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) cluster analysis of the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profiles, as well as a cluster analysis that was generated on the phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) profiles, showed that the bacterial community structure of rhizosphere soils depended more on the plant than on the distance and metal concentrations. The sequencing of the 16S rDNA fragments that were excised from the DGGE gel revealed representatives of the phyla Bacteroidetes, Acidobacteria, Gemmatimonadetes, Actinobacteria and Betaproteobacteria in the analysed soil with a predominance of the first three groups. The obtained results demonstrated that the presence of S. vulgaris did not affect the number of CFUs, except for those of Cd-resistant bacteria. However, the presence of S. vulgaris altered the soil bacterial community structure, regardless of the sampling site, which supported the thesis that plants have a higher impact on soil microbial community than metal contamination.
  • Trotta, Luca; Hautala, Timo; Hamalainen, Sari; Syrjanen, Jaana; Viskari, Hanna; Almusa, Henrikki; Lepisto, Maija; Kaustio, Meri; Porkka, Kimmo; Palotie, Aarno; Seppanen, Mikko; Saarela, Janna (2016)
    Antibody class-switch recombination and somatic hypermutation critically depend on the function of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID). Rare variants in its gene AICDA have been reported to cause autosomal recessive AID deficiency (autosomal recessive hyper-IgM syndrome type 2 (HIGM2)). Exome sequencing of a multicase Finnish family with an HIGM2 phenotype identified a rare, homozygous, variant (c.416T > C, p.(Met139Thr)) in the AICDA gene, found to be significantly enriched in the Finnish population compared with other populations of European origin (38.56-fold, P <0.001). The population history of Finland, characterized by a restricted number of founders, isolation and several population bottlenecks, has caused enrichment of certain rare disease-causing variants and losses of others, as part of a phenomenon called the Finnish Disease Heritage. Accordingly, rare founder mutations cause the majority of observed Finnish cases in these mostly autosomal recessive disorders that consequently are more frequent in Finland than elsewhere. Screening of all currently known Finnish patients with an HIGM2 phenotype showed them to be homozygous for p.(Met139Thr). All the Finnish p.(Met139Thr) carriers with available data on their geographic descent originated from the eastern and northeastern parts of Finland. They were observed to share more of their genome identity by descent (IBD) than Finns in general (P <0.001), and they all carried a 207.5-kb ancestral haplotype containing the variant. In conclusion, the identified p.(Met139Thr) variant is significantly enriched in Finns and explains all thus far found AID deficiencies in Finland.
  • Morozov, Sergey; McCairns, R. J. Scott; Merila, Juha (2019)
    FishResp is a user-friendly tool for calculating oxygen uptake of aquatic organisms. The aim of the software is to improve the quality of metabolic rate estimates based on a straightforward pipeline: background respiration correction, detection of mechanical problems, conduction of QC tests, and filtration based on user-defined criteria. Abstract Intermittent-flow respirometry is widely used to measure oxygen uptake rates and subsequently estimate aerobic metabolic rates of aquatic animals. However, the lack of a standard quality-control software to detect technical problems represents a potential impediment to comparisons across studies in the field of evolutionary and conservation physiology. Here, we introduce FishResp', a versatile R package and its graphical implementation for quality-control and filtering of raw respirometry data. Our goal is to provide a straightforward, cross-platform and free software to help improve the quality and comparability of metabolic rate estimates for reducing methodological fragmentation in the field of aquatic respirometry. FishResp accepts data from various respirometry systems, allows users to detect potential mechanical problems which can occur during oxygen uptake measurements (e.g. chamber leaking, poor water circulation), and offers six options to correct raw data for microbial oxygen consumption. The software performs filtering of raw data based on user criteria, and produces accurate and unbiased estimates of absolute and mass-specific metabolic rates. Using data from three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) and Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata), we demonstrate the virtues of FishResp, highlighting the importance of detecting mechanical problems and correcting measurements for background respiration.
  • Deshmukh, Harshal A.; Madsen, Anne Lundager; Vinuela, Ana; Have, Christian Theil; Grarup, Niels; Tura, Andrea; Mahajan, Anubha; Heggie, Alison J.; Koivula, Robert W.; De Masi, Federico; Tsirigos, Konstantinos K.; Linneberg, Allan; Drivsholm, Thomas; Pedersen, Oluf; Sorensen, Thorkild I. A.; Astrup, Arne; Gjesing, Anette A. P.; Pavo, Imre; Wood, Andrew R.; Ruetten, Hartmut; Jones, Angus G.; Koopman, Anitra D. M.; Cederberg, Henna; Rutters, Femke; Ridderstrale, Martin; Laakso, Markku; McCarthy, Mark; Frayling, Tim M.; Ferrannini, Ele; Franks, Paul W.; Pearson, Ewan R.; Mari, Andrea; Hansen, Torben; Walker, Mark (2021)
    Context: Pancreatic beta-cell glucose sensitivity is the slope of the plasma glucose-insulin secretion relationship and is a key predictor of deteriorating glucose tolerance and development of type 2 diabetes. However, there are no large-scale studies looking at the genetic determinants of beta-cell glucose sensitivity. Objective: To understand the genetic determinants of pancreatic beta-cell glucose sensitivity using genome-wide meta-analysis and candidate gene studies. Design: We performed a genome-wide meta-analysis for beta-cell glucose sensitivity in subjects with type 2 diabetes and nondiabetic subjects from 6 independent cohorts (n = 5706). Beta-cell glucose sensitivity was calculated from mixed meal and oral glucose tolerance tests, and its associations between known glycemia-related single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and genome-wide association study (GWAS) SNPs were estimated using linear regression models. Results: Beta-cell glucose sensitivity was moderately heritable (h2 ranged from 34% to 55%) using SNP and family-based analyses. GWAS meta-analysis identified multiple correlated SNPs in the CDKAL1 gene and GIPR-QPCTL gene loci that reached genome-wide significance, with SNP rs2238691 in GIPR-QPCTL (P value = 2.64 x 10(-9)) and rs9368219 in the CDKAL1 (P value = 3.15 x 10(-9)) showing the strongest association with beta-cell glucose sensitivity. These loci surpassed genome-wide significance when the GWAS meta-analysis was repeated after exclusion of the diabetic subjects. After correction for multiple testing, glycemia-associated SNPs in or near the HHEX and IGF2B2 loci were also associated with beta-cell glucose sensitivity. Conclusion: We show that, variation at the GIPR-QPCTL and CDKAL1 loci are key determinants of pancreatic beta-cell glucose sensitivity.
  • Huang, Bin; Huang, Zhinuo; Ma, Ruifang; Chen, Jialu; Zhang, Zhijun; Yrjälä, Kim (2021)
    Heat shock transcription factors (HSFs) are central elements in the regulatory network that controls plant heat stress response. They are involved in multiple transcriptional regulatory pathways and play important roles in heat stress signaling and responses to a variety of other stresses. We identified 41 members of the HSF gene family in moso bamboo, which were distributed non-uniformly across its 19 chromosomes. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the moso bamboo HSF genes could be divided into three major subfamilies; HSFs from the same subfamily shared relatively conserved gene structures and sequences and encoded similar amino acids. All HSF genes contained HSF signature domains. Subcellular localization prediction indicated that about 80% of the HSF proteins were located in the nucleus, consistent with the results of GO enrichment analysis. A large number of stress response-associated cis-regulatory elements were identified in the HSF upstream promoter sequences. Synteny analysis indicated that the HSFs in the moso bamboo genome had greater collinearity with those of rice and maize than with those of Arabidopsis and pepper. Numerous segmental duplicates were found in the moso bamboo HSF gene family. Transcriptome data indicated that the expression of a number of PeHsfs differed in response to exogenous gibberellin (GA) and naphthalene acetic acid (NAA). A number of HSF genes were highly expressed in the panicles and in young shoots, suggesting that they may have functions in reproductive growth and the early development of rapidly-growing shoots. This study provides fundamental information on members of the bamboo HSF gene family and lays a foundation for further study of their biological functions in the regulation of plant responses to adversity.
  • Huang, Bin; Huang, Zhinuo; Ma, Ruifang; Ramakrishnan, Muthusamy; Chen, Jialu; Zhang, Zhijun; Yrjälä, Kim (2021)
    Background Moso bamboo, the fastest growing plant on earth, is an important source for income in large areas of Asia, mainly cultivated in China. Lateral organ boundaries domain (LBD) proteins, a family of transcription factors unique to plants, are involved in multiple transcriptional regulatory pathways and play important roles in lateral organ development, pathogen response, secondary growth, and hormone response. The LBD gene family has not previously been characterized in moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis). Results In this study, we identified 55 members of the LBD gene family from moso bamboo and found that they were distributed non-uniformly across its 18 chromosomes. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the moso bamboo LBD genes could be divided into two classes. LBDs from the same class share relatively conserved gene structures and sequences encoding similar amino acids. A large number of hormone response-associated cis-regulatory elements were identified in the LBD upstream promoter sequences. Synteny analysis indicated that LBDs in the moso bamboo genome showed greater collinearity with those of O. sativa (rice) and Zea mays (maize) than with those of Arabidopsis and Capsicum annuum (pepper). Numerous segmental duplicates were found in the moso bamboo LBD gene family. Gene expression profiles in four tissues showed that the LBD genes had different spatial expression patterns. qRT-PCR assays with the Short Time-series Expression Miner (STEM) temporal expression analysis demonstrated that six genes (PeLBD20, PeLBD29, PeLBD46, PeLBD10, PeLBD38, and PeLBD06) were consistently up-regulated during the rapid growth and development of bamboo shoots. In addition, 248 candidate target genes that function in a variety of pathways were identified based on consensus LBD binding motifs. Conclusions In the current study, we identified 55 members of the moso bamboo transcription factor LBD and characterized for the first time. Based on the short-time sequence expression software and RNA-seq data, the PeLBD gene expression was analyzed. We also investigated the functional annotation of all PeLBDs, including PPI network, GO, and KEGG enrichment based on String database. These results provide a theoretical basis and candidate genes for studying the molecular breeding mechanism of rapid growth of moso bamboo.
  • Dirihan, Serdar; Helander, Marjo; Väre, Henry; Gundel, Pedro E.; Garibaldi, Lucas A.; Irisarri, J. Gonzalo N.; Saloniemi, Irma; Saikkonen, Kari (2016)
    Polyploidy and symbiotic Epichloe fungal endophytes are common and heritable characteristics that can facilitate environmental range expansion in grasses. Here we examined geographic patterns of polyploidy and the frequency of fungal endophyte colonized plants in 29 Festuca rubra L. populations from eight geographic sites across latitudes from Spain to northernmost Finland and Greenland. Ploidy seemed to be positively and negatively correlated with latitude and productivity, respectively. However, the correlations were nonlinear; 84% of the plants were hexaploids (2n = 6x = 42), and the positive correlation between ploidy level and latitude is the result of only four populations skewing the data. In the southern-most end of the gradient 86% of the plants were tetraploids (2n = 4x = 28), whereas in the northernmost end of the gradient one population had only octoploid plants (2n = 8x = 56). Endophytes were detected in 22 out of the 29 populations. Endophyte frequencies varied among geographic sites, and populations and habitats within geographic sites irrespective of ploidy, latitude or productivity. The highest overall endophyte frequencies were found in the southernmost end of the gradient, Spain, where 69% of plants harbored endophytes. In northern Finland, endophytes were detected in 30% of grasses but endophyte frequencies varied among populations from 0% to 75%, being higher in meadows compared to riverbanks. The endophytes were detected in 36%, 30% and 27% of the plants in Faroe Islands, Iceland and Switzerland, respectively. Practically all examined plants collected from southern Finland and Greenland were endophyte-free, whereas in other geographic sites endophyte frequencies were highly variable among populations. Common to all populations with high endophyte frequencies is heavy vertebrate grazing. We propose that the detected endophyte frequencies and ploidy levels mirror past distribution history of F. rubra after the last glaciation period, and local adaptations to past or prevailing selection forces such as vertebrate grazing.
  • Åström, Max J.; von Bonsdorff, Mikaela B.; Haanpää, Maija; Salonen, Minna K.; Kautiainen, Hannu; Eriksson, Johan G. (2021)
    Aims: To assess if individuals with diabetes or prediabetes report more pain or have increased use of pain medication compared to normoglycaemic individuals. Methods: Using cross-sectional data, we studied 928 men and 1075 women from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study in 2001-2004 at a mean age of 61.5 years. Glucose regulation was assessed with a 2-h 75 g oral glucose tolerance test, and applying World Health Organization criteria, participants were defined as having normoglycaemia, prediabetes (impaired fasting glucose or impaired glucose tolerance), newly diagnosed diabetes or previously diagnosed diabetes. Self-reported pain intensity and interference during the previous 4 weeks was estimated using the RAND 36-Item Health Survey 1.0. Information on use of pain medication during the past 12 months was obtained from the Social Insurance Institution of Finland. Results: There was no difference in pain intensity or interference between glucose regulation groups for neither men nor women after adjusting for covariates (age, body mass index, education years, Beck Depression Inventory and physical activity). In addition, use of pain medication was similar between glucose regulation groups. Conclusions: Although pain is a common symptom in the general population, impairments in glucose regulation alone does not seem to increase pain among older individuals. (c) 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of Primary Care Diabetes Europe. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).