Browsing by Subject "TOLL-LIKE RECEPTORS"

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  • Kylmä, Anna Kaisa; Tolvanen, Tuomas Aleksi; Carpén, Timo; Haglund, Caj; Mäkitie, Antti; Mattila, Petri S.; Grenman, Reidar; Jouhi, Lauri; Sorsa, Timo; Lehtonen, Sanna; Hagström, Jaana (2020)
    In oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC), the expression pattern of toll-like receptors (TLRs), in comparison between human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive and -negative tumors differs. TLRs control innate immune responses by activating, among others, the nuclear factor-κΒ (NF-κΒ) signaling pathway. Elevated NF-κΒ activity is detectable in several cancers and regulates cancer development and progression. We studied TLR5 expression in 143 unselected consecutive OPSCC tumors, and its relation to HPV-DNA and p16 status, clinicopathological parameters, and patient outcome, and studied TLR5 stimulation and consecutive NF-κB cascade activation in vitro in two human OPSCC cell lines and immortalized human keratinocytes (HaCat). Clinicopathological data came from hospital registries, and TLR5 immunoexpression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Flagellin served to stimulate TLR5 in cultured cells, followed by analysis of the activity of the NF-κB signaling cascade with In-Cell Western for IκΒ and p-IκΒ. High TLR5 expression was associated with poor disease-specific survival in HPV-positive OPSCC, which typically shows low TLR5 immunoexpression. High TLR5 immunoexpression was more common in HPV-negative OPSCC, known for its less-favorable prognosis. In vitro, we detected NF-κΒ cascade activation in the HPV-positive OPSCC cell line and in HaCat cells, but not in the HPV-negative OPSCC cell line. Our results suggest that elevated TLR5 immunoexpression may be related to reduced NF-κΒ activity in HPV-negative OPSCC. The possible prognosis-worsening mechanisms among these high-risk OPSCC patients however, require further evaluation.
  • Mobarak, Edouard; Håversen, Liliana; Manna, Moutusi; Rutberg, Mikael; Levin, Malin; Perkins, Rosie; Rog, Tomasz; Vattulainen, Ilpo; Boren, Jan (2018)
    Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is activated by bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which drives the production of proinflammatory cytokines. Earlier studies have indicated that cholesterol-and glycosphingolipid-rich subregions of the plasma membrane (lipid domains) are important for TLR4-mediated signaling. We report that inhibition of glucosylceramide (GluCer) synthase, which resulted in decreased concentrations of the glycosphingolipid GluCer in lipid domains, reduced the LPS-induced inflammatory response in both mouse and human macrophages. Atomistic molecular dynamics simulations of the TLR4 dimer complex (with and without LPS in its MD-2 binding pockets) in membranes (in the presence and absence of GluCer) showed that: (1) LPS induced a tilted orientation of TLR4 and increased dimer integrity; (2) GluCer did not affect the integrity of the LPS/TLR4 dimer but reduced the LPS-induced tilt; and (3) GluCer increased electrostatic interactions between the membrane and the TLR4 extracellular domain, which could potentially modulate the tilt. We also showed that GCS inhibition reduced the interaction between TLR4 and the intracellular adaptor protein Mal. We conclude that the GluCer-induced effects on LPS/TLR4 orientation may influence the signaling capabilities of the LPS/TLR4 complex by affecting its interaction with downstream signaling proteins.
  • Kelhala, Hanna-Leena; Palatsi, Riitta; Fyhrquist, Nanna; Lehtimaki, Sari; Vayrynen, Juha P.; Kallioinen, Matti; Kubin, Minna E.; Greco, Dario; Tasanen, Kaisa; Alenius, Harri; Bertino, Beatrice; Carlavan, Isabelle; Mehul, Bruno; Deret, Sophie; Reiniche, Pascale; Martel, Philippe; Marty, Carine; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike; Voegel, Johannes J.; Lauerma, Antti (2014)
  • Jain, Shweta; Park, Giljun; Sproule, Thomas J.; Christianson, Gregory J.; Leeth, Caroline M.; Wang, Hongsheng; Roopenian, Derry C.; Morse, Herbert C. (2016)
    IL6 is a multifunctional cytokine that drives terminal B cell differentiation and secretion of immunoglobulins. IL6 also cooperates with IL21 to promote differentiation of CD4(+) T follicular helper cells (TFH). Elevated serum levels of IL6 correlate with disease flares in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We previously reported that IL21 produced by T-FH plays a critical role in the development of the SLE-like disease of BXSB. Yaa mice. To examine the possible contributions of IL6 to disease, we compared disease parameters in IL6-deficient and IL6-competent BXSB. Yaa mice. We report that survival of IL6-deficient BXSB. Yaa mice was significantly prolonged in association with significant reductions in a variety of autoimmune manifestations. Moreover, B cells stimulated by co-engagement of TLR7 and B cell receptor (BCR) produced high levels of IL6 that was further augmented by stimulation with Type I interferon (IFN1). Importantly, the frequencies of T-FH and serum levels of IL21 were significantly reduced in IL6-deficient mice. These findings suggest that high-level production of IL6 by B cells induced by integrated signaling from the IFN1 receptor, TLR7 and BCR promotes the differentiation of IL21-secreting T-FH in a signaling sequence that drives the lethal autoimmune disease of BXSB. Yaa mice.
  • Kringel, Dario; Kaunisto, Mari A.; Kalso, Eija; Lötsch, Jörn (2019)
    Background Glial cells in the central nervous system play a key role in neuroinflammation and subsequent central sensitization to pain. They are therefore involved in the development of persistent pain. One of the main sites of interaction of the immune system with persistent pain has been identified as neuro-immune crosstalk at the glial-opioid interface. The present study examined a potential association between the DNA methylation of two key players of glial/opioid intersection and persistent postoperative pain. Methods In a cohort of 140 women who had undergone breast cancer surgery, and were assigned based on a 3-year follow-up to either a persistent or non-persistent pain phenotype, the role of epigenetic regulation of key players in the glial-opioid interface was assessed. The methylation of genes coding for the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) as a major mediator of glial contributions to persistent pain or for the mu-opioid receptor (OPRM1) was analyzed and its association with the pain phenotype was compared with that conferred by global genome-wide DNA methylation assessed via quantification of the methylation in the retrotransposon LINE1. Results Training of machine learning algorithms indicated that the global DNA methylation provided a similar diagnostic accuracy for persistent pain as previously established non-genetic predictors. However, the diagnosis can be based on a single DNA based marker. By contrast, the methylation of TLR4 or OPRM1 genes could not contribute further to the allocation of the patients to the pain-related phenotype groups. Conclusions While clearly supporting a predictive utility of epigenetic testing, the present analysis cannot provide support for specific epigenetic modulation of persistent postoperative pain via methylation of two key genes of the glial-opioid interface.
  • Dubois, Adelaide; Galan, Maxime; Cosson, Jean-Francois; Gauffre, Bertrand; Henttonen, Heikki; Niemimaa, Jukka; Razzauti, Maria; Voutilainen, Liina; Vitalis, Renaud; Guivier, Emmanuel; Charbonnel, Nathalie (2017)
    Understanding howhost dynamics, including variations of population size and dispersal, may affect the epidemiology of infectious diseases through ecological and evolutionary processes is an active research area. Here we focus on a bank vole (Myodes glareolus) metapopulation surveyed in Finland between 2005 and 2009. Bank vole is the reservoir of Puumala hantavirus (PUUV), the agent of nephropathia epidemica (NE, a mild form of hemorrhagic fever with renal symptom) in humans. M. glareolus populations experience multiannual density fluctuations that may influence the level of genetic diversity maintained in bank voles, PUUV prevalence and NE occurrence. We examine bank vole metapopulation genetics at presumably neutral markers and immunerelated genes involved in susceptibility to PUUV (Tnf-promoter, Tlr4, Tlr7 and Mx2 gene) to investigate the links between population dynamics, microevolutionary processes and PUUV epidemiology. We show that genetic drift slightly and transiently affects neutral and adaptive genetic variability within the metapopulation. Gene flow seems to counterbalance its effects during the multiannual density fluctuations. The low abundance phase may therefore be too short to impact genetic variation in the host, and consequently viral genetic diversity. Environmental heterogeneity does not seem to affect vole gene flow, which might explain the absence of spatial structure previously detected in PUUV in this area. Besides, our results suggest the role of vole dispersal on PUUV circulation through sex-specific and density-dependent movements. We find little evidence of selection acting on immune-related genes within this metapopulation. Footprint of positive selection is detected at Tlr-4 gene in 2008 only. We observe marginally significant associations between Mx2 genotype and PUUV genogroups. These results show that neutral processes seem to be the main factors affecting the evolution of these immune-related genes at a contemporary scale, although the relative effects of neutral and adaptive forces could vary temporally with density fluctuations. Immune related gene polymorphism may in turn partly influence PUUV epidemiology in this metapopulation. (C) 2016 Published by Elsevier B.V.
  • Aho, Vilma; Ollila, Hanna M.; Rantanen, Ville; Kronholm, Erkki; Surakka, Ida; van Leeuwen, Wessel M. A.; Lehto, Maili; Matikainen, Sampsa; Ripatti, Samuli; Harma, Mikko; Sallinen, Mikael; Salomaa, Veikko; Jauhiainen, Matti; Alenius, Harri; Paunio, Tiina; Porkka-Heiskanen, Tarja (2013)
  • Chaudhry, Shafqat Rasul; Hafez, Ahmad; Rezai Jahromi, Behnam; Kinfe, Thomas Mehari; Lamprecht, Alf; Niemelä, Mika; Muhammad, Sajjad (2018)
    Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) represents only a small portion of all strokes, but accounts for almost half of the deaths caused by stroke worldwide. Neurosurgical clipping and endovascular coiling can successfully obliterate the bleeding aneurysms, but ensuing complications such as cerebral vasospasm, acute and chronic hydrocephalus, seizures, cortical spreading depression, delayed ischemic neurological deficits, and delayed cerebral ischemia lead to poor clinical outcomes. The mechanisms leading to these complications are complex and poorly understood. Early brain injury resulting from transient global ischemia can release molecules that may be critical to initiate and sustain inflammatory response. Hence, the events during early brain injury can influence the occurrence of delayed brain injury. Since the damage associated molecular pattern molecules (DAMPs) might be the initiators of inflammation in the pathophysiology of aSAH, so the aim of this review is to highlight their role in the context of aSAH from diagnostic, prognostic, therapeutic, and drug therapy monitoring perspectives. DAMPs represent a diverse and a heterogenous group of molecules derived from different compartments of cells upon injury. Here, we have reviewed the most important DAMPs molecules including high mobility group box-1 (HMGB1), S100B, hemoglobin and its derivatives, extracellular matrix components, IL-1α, IL-33, and mitochondrial DNA in the context of aSAH and their role in post-aSAH complications and clinical outcome after aSAH.
  • Kainulainen, Veera; Tang, Yurui; Spillmann, Thomas; Kilpinen, Susanne; Reunanen, Justus; Saris, Per E. J.; Satokari, Reetta (2015)
  • Beilmann-Lehtonen, Ines; Böckelman, Camilla; Mustonen, Harri K; Hagström, Jaana; Koskensalo, Selja; Haglund, Caj (2020)
    Colorectal cancer (CRC), the second most common cancer globally, resulted in 881,000 deaths in 2018. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are crucial to detecting pathogen invasion and inducing the host's immune response. This study aimed to explore the prognostic value of TLR2 and TLR4 tumor expressions in colorectal cancer patients. We studied the immunohistochemical expressions of TLR2 and TLR4 using tissue microarray specimens from 825 patients undergoing surgery in the Department of Surgery, Helsinki University Hospital, between 1982 and 2002. We assessed the relationships between TLR2 and TLR4 expressions and clinicopathological variables and patient survival. We generated survival curves using the Kaplan-Meier method, determining significance with the log-rank test. Among patients with lymph node-positive disease and no distant metastases (Dukes C), a strong TLR2 immunoactivity associated with a better prognosis (p <0.001). Among patients with local Dukes B disease, a strong TLR4 immunoactivity associated with a worse disease-specific survival (DSS; p = 0.017). In the multivariate survival analysis, moderate TLR4 immunoactivity compared with strong TLR4 immunoactivity (hazard ratio (HR) 0.66, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.49-0.89, p = 0.007) served as an independent prognostic factor. In the multivariate analysis for the Dukes subgroups, moderate TLR2 immunoactivity (HR 2.63, 95% CI 1.56-4.44, p <0.001) compared with strong TLR2 immunoactivity served as an independent negative prognostic factor in the Dukes C subgroup. TLR2 and TLR4 might be new prognostic factors to indicate which CRC patients require adjuvant therapy and which could spare from an unnecessary follow-up, but further investigations are needed.
  • Beilmann-Lehtonen, Ines; Hagström, Jaana; Kaprio, Tuomas; Stenman, Ulf-Hakan; Strigård, Karin; Palmqvist, Richard; Gunnarsson, Ulf; Böckelman, Camilla; Haglund, Caj (2021)
    Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most commonly diagnosed malignancy globally. CRC patients with elevated plasma C-reactive protein (CRP) levels exhibit compromised prognoses. Toll-like receptors (TLRs), activating the innate and adaptive immune systems, may contribute to pro- and antitumorigenic inflammatory responses. We aimed to identify a possible link between local and systemic inflammatory responses in CRC patients by investigating the association between tissue TLRs and plasma CRP. Methods: Tissue expressions of TLR2, TLR4, TLR5, and TLR7 were assessed using immunohistochemistry of tissue microarray slides from 549 CRC patients surgically treated between 1998 and 2005. Blood samples were drawn preoperatively, centrifuged, aliquoted, and stored at -80 degrees C until analysis. Plasma CRP was determined through high-sensitivity time-resolved immunofluorometric assay. We investigated the association of TLRs to clinicopathologic variables, plasma CRP, and survival. Results: High TLR2 expression (hazard ratio [HR] 0.59; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.41-0.85; p = 0.005), high TLR5 expression (HR 0.60; 95% CI 0.45-0.83; p = 0.002), positive TLR7 expression (HR 0.49; 95% CI 0.33-0.72; p < 0.001), and low CRP (HR 1.48; 95% CI 1.08-2.11; p = 0.017) were associated with a better prognosis. A high TLR2 immunoexpression was associated with a better prognosis among low-CRP patients (HR 0.53; 95% CI 0.35-0.80; p = 0.002), high TLR4 expression among high-CRP patients (HR 2.04; 95% CI 1.04-4.00; p = 0.038), high TLR5 expression among low-CRP patients (HR 0.059; 95% CI 0.37-0.92; p = 0.021), and positive TLR7 expression among low-CRP patients (HR 0.53; 95% CI 0.28-1.00; p = 0.049). In multivariate analyses, no biomarkers emerged as significant independent variables. Conclusions: High tissue TLR2, TLR5, and TLR7 levels were associated with a better prognosis. Among low-CRP patients, those with high TLR2, TLR5, and TLR7 immunoexpressions exhibited a better prognosis. Among high CRP patients, a high TLR4 immunoexpression was associated with a better prognosis.
  • Rusanen, Peter; Marttila, Emilia; Uittamo, Johanna; Hagström, Jaana; Salo, Tuula; Rautemaa-Richardson, Riina (2017)
    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappa B) in keratinocytes play an important role in dermatological autoimmune diseases. Tumour suppressor protein p53 regulates TLR expression. The aim of this study was to compare the expression of TLR1-TLR10, p53 and NF-kappa B in patients with oral lichenoid disease (OLD) with healthy mucosa. Oral mucosal biopsies from 24 patients with OLD and 26 healthy controls (HC) were analysed for the expression of TLR1-TLR10, NF-kappa B and p53 by immunohistochemistry. The expression of all TLRs was increased in OLD epithelia compared to HC samples and the difference was significant in TLR1, TLR3, TLR4, TLR5, TLR6 and TLR7. In the basement membrane zone, the immunoreactivity of TLR5 was significantly more intense in OLD compared to HC. In the intermediate layer, the immunoreactivity of NF-kappa B was significantly stronger in OLD, whereas the staining for p53 was more intense in all layers of OLD compared to HC samples. In OLD, a positive correlation between TLR2 and NF-kappa B in the basal layer and between TLR5, p53 and NF-kappa B in the intermediate layers was discovered. The expression of TLRs, p53 and NF-kappa B is increased in OLD, which may play a role in the pathogenesis of this chronic immune-mediated mucosal disease.
  • Vorkapic, Emina; Lundberg, Anna M.; Mayranpaa, Mikko I.; Eriksson, Per; Wagsater, Dick (2015)
    Objective: Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is characterized by inflammation, loss of smooth muscle cells (SMCs), and degradation of the extracellular matrix in the vessel wall. Innate immune receptors such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs) were recently shown to regulate immunological processes leading to the formation and progression of atherosclerotic plaques as well as to other cardiovascular pathologies. Our aim was to investigate whether blockage of TLR signaling, under the control of TIR domain-containing adaptor protein including IFN-beta (TRIF), could inhibit the inflammatory response and AAA development in mice. Results: In human AAA, an increased TLR3 and TLR4 expression in association with macrophages and T lymphocytes was demonstrated with immunohistochemical analysis. Angiotensin (Ang) II-induced aneurysm formation was significantly reduced by 30% in ApoE(-/-)Trif(-/-) mice compared to ApoE(-/-) mice. Morphologically, AngII-infused ApoE(-/-)Trif(-/-) mice had a more intact cellular and extracellular matrix while ApoE(-/-) mice infused with AngII displayed an increased medial thickness associated with aortic dissection, thrombus formation, and a more disorganized vessel wall. Gene expression analysis of the abdominal aorta revealed a profound decrease of the inflammatory genes CD68 (P <0.05), CD11b (P <0.05), and TNF-alpha (P <0.05) and the protease gene MMP-12 (P <0.01) in ApoE(-/-)Trif(-/-) mice compared to ApoE(-/-) mice infused with AngII. Conclusion: Our results suggest that signaling through TRIF is important for the inflammatory response of AngII-induced AAA and that blockage of the TRIF pathway reduces vascular inflammation and protects against AAA formation. (C) 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
  • Jämsen, Eemeli; Pajarinen, Jukka; Kouri, Vesa-Petteri; Rahikkala, Antti; Goodman, Stuart B.; Manninen, Mikko; Nordström, Dan C.; Eklund, Kari K.; Nurmi, Katariina (2020)
    Aseptic loosening of total joint replacements is driven by a macrophage-mediated inflammatory reaction to implant-derived wear particles. Phagocytosis of implant debris has been suggested to activate the NLRP3 inflammasome leading to secretion of interleukin (IL)-1β. However, factors and molecular mechanisms driving the particle-induced inflammasome activation are yet to be fully elucidated. In this study, we investigated the inflammasome response of human primary macrophages to titanium, chromium, and molybdenum particles in vitro. We observed that particles alone were not sufficient to induce IL-1β secretion, but an additional priming signal—such as bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS)—was required to license the inflammasome activation. By using specific inhibitors against the inflammasome signaling pathway, we demonstrate that the particle-induced IL-1β secretion depended upon activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome. We further hypothesized that tumor necrosis factor (TNF) could substitute for LPS as a priming signal, and found that particle stimulation together with preceding TNF treatment resulted in inflammasome-dependent IL-1β production as well. Our results show that the NLRP3 inflammasome mediates wear particle responses in human primary macrophages, and its activation does not necessarily require the presence of bacterial components, but can be induced under aseptic conditions by TNF priming. Statement of Significance This study was conducted to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of metal particle-induced IL-1β secretion in human primary macrophages. Production of this pro-inflammatory mediator from wear particle-activated macrophages has been associated with increased bone loss around total joint replacements—a condition eventually requiring revision surgery. Our results confirm that together with a co-stimulatory priming signal, particles of common implant metals elicit macrophage-mediated IL-1β secretion through activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome pathway. We also present a concept of TNF priming in this context, demonstrating that the particle-related IL-1β secretion can take place in a truly sterile environment. Thus, inhibition of inflammasome signaling appears a means to prevent wear particle-induced inflammation and development of peri-prosthetic osteolysis.
  • French COVID Cohort Study Group; CoV-Contact Cohort; Amsterdam UMC Covid-19 Biobank; NIAID-USUHS COVID Study Group; COVID Human Genetic Effort; COVID-STORM Clinicians; COVID Clinicians; Imagine COVID Group; Asano, Takaki; Boisson, Bertrand; Onodi, Fanny; Seppänen, Mikko (2021)
    Autosomal inborn errors of type I IFN immunity and autoantibodies against these cytokines underlie at least 10% of critical COVID-19 pneumonia cases. We report very rare, biochemically deleterious X-linked TLR7 variants in 16 unrelated male individuals aged 7 to 71 years (mean, 36.7 years) from a cohort of 1202 male patients aged 0.5 to 99 years (mean, 52.9 years) with unexplained critical COVID-19 pneumonia. None of the 331 asymptomatically or mildly infected male individuals aged 1.3 to 102 years (mean, 38.7 years) tested carry such TLR7 variants (P = 3.5 × 10−5). The phenotypes of five hemizygous relatives of index cases infected with SARS-CoV-2 include asymptomatic or mild infection (n = 2) or moderate (n = 1), severe (n = 1), or critical (n = 1) pneumonia. Two patients from a cohort of 262 male patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia (mean, 51.0 years) are hemizygous for a deleterious TLR7 variant. The cumulative allele frequency for deleterious TLR7 variants in the male general population is <6.5 × 10−4. We show that blood B cell lines and myeloid cell subsets from the patients do not respond to TLR7 stimulation, a phenotype rescued by wild-type TLR7. The patients’ blood plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) produce low levels of type I IFNs in response to SARS-CoV-2. Overall, X-linked recessive TLR7 deficiency is a highly penetrant genetic etiology of critical COVID-19 pneumonia, in about 1.8% of male patients below the age of 60 years. Human TLR7 and pDCs are essential for protective type I IFN immunity against SARS-CoV-2 in the respiratory tract.