Browsing by Subject "TONGUE"

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  • Almangush, Alhadi; Youssef, Omar; Pirinen, Matti; Sundström, Jari; Leivo, Ilmo; Mäkitie, Antti A. (2019)
    Tumour budding has emerged as a promising prognostic marker in many cancers. We systematically reviewed all studies that evaluated tumour budding in diagnostic biopsies. We conducted a systematic review of PubMed, MEDLINE, Scopus, Web of Science and Cochrane library for all articles that have assessed tumour budding in diagnostic (i.e. pretreatment or pre-operative) biopsies of any tumour type. Two independent researchers screened the retrieved studies, removed duplicates, excluded irrelevant studies and extracted data from the eligible studies. A total of 13 reports comprising 11 cohorts were found to have studied tumour budding in diagnostic biopsies. All these reports showed that evaluation of tumour budding in diagnostic biopsies was easily applicable. A strong association was observed between tumour budding score in diagnostic biopsies and corresponding surgical samples. Evaluation of tumour budding in diagnostic biopsies had a significant prognostic value for lymph node metastasis and patient survival. In all studies, tumour budding was a valuable marker of tumour aggressiveness and can be evaluated in technically satisfactory diagnostic biopsies. Thus, the assessment of tumour budding seems to identify the behaviour of cancer, and therefore to facilitate treatment planning.
  • Domingueti, Catherine Bueno; Queiroz Castilho, Dayana Aparecida; de Oliveira, Carine Ervolino; Macuco Janini, joao Baptista; Gonzalez-Arriagada, Wilfredo Alejandro; Salo, Tuula; Coletta, Ricardo D.; Ribeiro Paranaiba, Livia Maris (2020)
    Objective. Identifying markers that influence oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) prognosis is a fundamental strategy to improve the overall survival of patients. Markers such as eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 delta (EEF1D), fascin, N-terminal propeptide of type I collagen (PINP), and cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) have been noticed in OSCCs and their levels are closely related to the prognosis of tumors. Our aim was to confirm the role of those markers in OSCC prognosis. Study Design. Immunohistochemistry was performed in 90 OSCC specimens. The associations between clinicopathologic features and expression of markers were assessed by chi(2) test. Kaplan-Meier curves and univariate and multivariate Cox regression models were used for survival analysis. Markers were analyzed individually and in combination. Results. High expression of EEF1D (P =.017) and PINP (P =.02) and abundant density of CAFs in tumor stroma (P =.005) predicted significantly poor survival in OSCC patients. Multivariate analysis revealed that all 3 parameters are individually independent prognostic factors of OSCC patients, and their combination improved the discrimination of patients at high risk for poor survival. Conclusions. Our results suggested that the expression of EEF1D and PINP and the density of CAFs might influence the survival of patients with OSCC.
  • Dickinson, Amy; Saraswat, Mayank; Mäkitie, Antti; Silen, Robert; Hagström, Jaana; Haglund, Caj; Joenväärä, Sakari; Silen, Suvi (2018)
    Objectives: No prognostic or predictive biomarkers for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) exist. We aimed to discover novel proteins, altered in OSCC, to be further investigated as potential biomarkers, and to improve understanding about pathways involved in OSCC. Materials and Methods: Proteomic signatures of seven paired healthy and OSCC tissue samples were identified using ultra-definition quantitative mass spectrometry, then analysed and compared using Anova, principal component analysis, hierarchical clustering and OPLS-DA modelling. A selection of significant proteins that were also altered in the serum from a previous study (PMID: 28632724) were validated immunohistochemically on an independent cohort (n = 66) to confirm immunopositivity and location within tumour tissue. Ingenuity Pathways Analysis was employed to identify altered pathways. Results: Of 829 proteins quantified, 257 were significant and 72 were able to classify healthy vs OSCC using OPLS-DA modelling. We identified 19 proteins not previously known to be upregulated in OSCC, including prosaposin and alpha-taxilin. KIAA1217 and NDRG1 were upregulated in stage IVa compared with stage I tumours. Altered pathways included calcium signalling, cellular movement, haematological system development and function, and immune cell trafficking, and involved NF-kappa B and MAPK networks. Conclusions: We found a set of proteins reliably separating OSCC tumour from healthy tissue, and multiple proteins differing between stage I and stage IVa OSCC. These potential biomarkers can be studied and validated in larger cohorts.
  • Dickinson, Amy; Saraswat, Mayank; Joenväärä, Sakari; Agarwal, Rahul; Jyllikoski, Daniel; Wilkman, Tommy; Mäkitie, Antti; Silen, Suvi (2020)
    Lipid metabolic reprogramming is one hallmark of cancer. Lipid metabolism is regulated by numerous enzymes, many of which are targeted by several drugs on the market. We aimed to characterize the lipid alterations in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) as a basis for understanding its lipid metabolism, thus identifying potential therapeutic targets. We compared lipid species, classes, and glycerophospholipid (GPL) fatty acid species between paired tumor tissue and healthy oral tongue mucosa samples from 10 OSCC patients using a QExactive mass spectrometer. After filtering the 1370 lipid species identified, we analyzed 349 species: 71 were significantly increased in OSCC. The GPL metabolism pathway was most represented by the lipids differing in OSCC (P = .005). Cholesterol and the GPLs phosphatidylcholines, phosphatidylethanolamines, and phosphatidylinositols were most significantly increased in OSCC tissue (FC 1.8, 2.0, 2.1, and 2.3 and, P = .003, P = .005, P = .002, P = .007). In conclusion, we have demonstrated a shift in the lipid metabolism in these OSCC samples by characterizing the detailed landscape. Predominantly, cholesterol and GPL metabolism were altered, suggesting that interactions with sterol regulatory binding proteins may be involved. The FA composition changes of the GPLs suggest increased de novo lipogenesis.
  • Makkonen, Tanja; Korpijaakko-Huuhka, Anna-Maija; Ruottinen, Hanna; Puhto, Riitta; Hollo, Kirsi; Ylinen, Aarne; Palmio, Johanna (2016)
    The aim of this study was to explore the cranial nerve symptoms, speech disorders and communicative effectiveness of Finnish patients with diagnosed or possible amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) at their first assessment by a speech-language pathologist. The group studied consisted of 30 participants who had clinical signs of bulbar deterioration at the beginning of the study. They underwent a thorough clinical speech and communication examination. The cranial nerve symptoms and ability to communicate were compared in 14 participants with probable or definitive ALS and in 16 participants with suspected or possible ALS. The initial type of ALS was also assessed. More deterioration in soft palate function was found in participants with possible ALS than with diagnosed ALS. Likewise, a slower speech rate combined with more severe dysarthria was observed in possible ALS. In both groups, there was some deterioration in communicative effectiveness. In the possible ALS group the diagnostic delay was longer and speech therapy intervention actualized later. The participants with ALS showed multidimensional decline in communication at their first visit to the speech-language pathologist, but impairments and activity limitations were more severe in suspected or possible ALS. The majority of persons with bulbar-onset ALS in this study were in the latter diagnostic group. This suggests that they are more susceptible to delayed diagnosis and delayed speech therapy assessment. It is important to start speech therapy intervention during the diagnostic processes particularly if the person already shows bulbar symptoms. (C) 2016 Published by Elsevier Inc.
  • Almangush, Alhadi; Pirinen, Matti; Youssef, Omar; Mäkitie, Antti A.; Leivo, Ilmo (2020)
    The eighth edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC8) staging manual has major changes in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). We searched PubMed, OvidMedline, Scopus, and Web of Science for studies that examined the performance of AJCC8 in OSCC. A total of 40 808 patients were included in the studies of our meta-analysis. A hazard ratio (HR) of 1.87 (95%CI 1.78-1.96) was seen for stage II, 2.65 (95%CI 2.51-2.80) for stage III, 3.46 (95%CI 3.31-3.61) for stage IVa, and 7.09 (95%CI 4.85-10.36) for stage IVb. A similar gradual increase in risk was noted for the N classification. For the T classification, however, there was a less clear variation in risk between T3 and T4. AJCC8 provides a good risk stratification for OSCC. Future research should examine the proposals introduced in the published studies to further improve the performance of AJCC8.
  • Marttila, E.; Keski-Säntti, H.; Hagström, J.; Snäll, J.; Wilkman, T. (2020)
    The aim of this retrospective study was to analyse a consecutive series of patients with oral and oropharyngeal carcinoma who had had sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) at our hospital during 2008-2017. A total of 70 patients with clinically and radiologically confirmed primary oral (n = 67) or oropharyngeal (n = 3) carcinoma, with no signs of metastatic lymph nodes preoperatively (clinically N0) were included. Patients' clinical and personal data, characteristics of the tumours, sentinel lymph node (SLN) status and outcomes were recorded. Eight patients had invaded SLN. Two patients with clear sentinel lymph node biopsies had recurrences in the cervical lymph nodes with no new primary tumour as origin. The negative predictive value (NPV) and sensitivity for SLNB were 97% and 80%, respectively. The depth of invasion was an individual predictor for cervical lymph node metastasis (p = 0.043). Single photo emission computed tomography (SPECT) detected fewer SLN in patients with invaded lymph nodes than in patients with clear lymph nodes (p = 0.018). Our data support the use of SLNB as a minimally invasive method for staging the cervical lymph nodes among patients with cN0 oral and oropharyngeal carcinoma. Our results further confirm that greater depth of invasion is associated with cervical lymph node metastases. (c) 2020 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Marttila, E.; Keski-Säntti, H.; Hagström, J.; Snäll, J.; Wilkman, T. (2020)
    The aim of this retrospective study was to analyse a consecutive series of patients with oral and oropharyngeal carcinoma who had had sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) at our hospital during 2008-2017. A total of 70 patients with clinically and radiologically confirmed primary oral (n = 67) or oropharyngeal (n = 3) carcinoma, with no signs of metastatic lymph nodes preoperatively (clinically N0) were included. Patients' clinical and personal data, characteristics of the tumours, sentinel lymph node (SLN) status and outcomes were recorded. Eight patients had invaded SLN. Two patients with clear sentinel lymph node biopsies had recurrences in the cervical lymph nodes with no new primary tumour as origin. The negative predictive value (NPV) and sensitivity for SLNB were 97% and 80%, respectively. The depth of invasion was an individual predictor for cervical lymph node metastasis (p = 0.043). Single photo emission computed tomography (SPECT) detected fewer SLN in patients with invaded lymph nodes than in patients with clear lymph nodes (p = 0.018). Our data support the use of SLNB as a minimally invasive method for staging the cervical lymph nodes among patients with cN0 oral and oropharyngeal carcinoma. Our results further confirm that greater depth of invasion is associated with cervical lymph node metastases. (c) 2020 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Vainio, Lari; Tiainen, Mikko; Tiippana, Kaisa; Rantala, Aleksi; Vainio, Martti (2017)
    The shape and size-related sound symbolism phenomena assume that, for example, the vowel [i] and the consonant [t] are associated with sharp-shaped and small-sized objects, whereas [E] and [m] are associated with round and large objects. It has been proposed that these phenomena are mostly based on the involvement of articulatory processes in representing shape and size properties of objects. For example, [i] might be associated with sharp and small objects, because it is produced by a specific front-close shape of articulators. Nevertheless, very little work has examined whether these object properties indeed have impact on speech sound vocalization. In the present study, the participants were presented with a sharp- or round-shaped object in a small or large size. They were required to pronounce one out of two meaningless speech units (e.g., [i] or [E]) according to the size or shape of the object. We investigated how a task-irrelevant object property (e.g., the shape when responses are made according to size) influences reaction times, accuracy, intensity, fundamental frequency, and formant 1 and formant 2 of vocalizations. The size did not influence vocal responses but shape did. Specifically, the vowel [i] and consonant [t] were vocalized relatively rapidly when the object was sharp-shaped, whereas [u] and [m] were vocalized relatively rapidly when the object was round-shaped. The study supports the view that the shape-related sound symbolism phenomena might reflect mapping of the perceived shape with the corresponding articulatory gestures.
  • Rusanen, Peter; Marttila, Emilia; Uittamo, Johanna; Hagström, Jaana; Salo, Tuula; Rautemaa-Richardson, Riina (2017)
    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappa B) in keratinocytes play an important role in dermatological autoimmune diseases. Tumour suppressor protein p53 regulates TLR expression. The aim of this study was to compare the expression of TLR1-TLR10, p53 and NF-kappa B in patients with oral lichenoid disease (OLD) with healthy mucosa. Oral mucosal biopsies from 24 patients with OLD and 26 healthy controls (HC) were analysed for the expression of TLR1-TLR10, NF-kappa B and p53 by immunohistochemistry. The expression of all TLRs was increased in OLD epithelia compared to HC samples and the difference was significant in TLR1, TLR3, TLR4, TLR5, TLR6 and TLR7. In the basement membrane zone, the immunoreactivity of TLR5 was significantly more intense in OLD compared to HC. In the intermediate layer, the immunoreactivity of NF-kappa B was significantly stronger in OLD, whereas the staining for p53 was more intense in all layers of OLD compared to HC samples. In OLD, a positive correlation between TLR2 and NF-kappa B in the basal layer and between TLR5, p53 and NF-kappa B in the intermediate layers was discovered. The expression of TLRs, p53 and NF-kappa B is increased in OLD, which may play a role in the pathogenesis of this chronic immune-mediated mucosal disease.
  • Jouhi, Lauri; Mohamed, Hesham; Makitie, Antti; Remes, Satu Maria; Haglund, Caj; Atula, Timo; Hagstrom, Jaana (2017)
    A large subset of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (OPSCCs) is associated with HPV infection and has better outcome than non-viral-related tumors. Various malignancies also carry a role for TLRs, key activators of inflammation and innate immunity. We examined the expression of TLRs in OPSCC, and their association with HPV status and treatment outcome. TLR 5, 7, 9, and p16 were studied by immunohistochemistry and HPV status was detected with in situ hybridization in 202 tumors of consecutively treated OPSCC patients using tissue microarray method. The relations between TLR expression and HPV status, p16 expression, clinicopathological factors, and survival were analyzed. TLR 5, 7, and 9 expression patterns differed between HPV-positive and -negative tumors, and they were statistically significantly associated with history of smoking, heavy drinking, tumor site, grade, size (T), metastasis (N), and stage. Moreover, in HPV-positive tumors the expression of TLR 5 and 7 correlated with tumor recurrence. After adjustment, among HPV-positive OPSCC patients, high TLR 5 and low TLR 7 expression were associated with poor disease-specific survival. Our results indicate that TLR 5 and 7 may have a role in the prognostication of HPV-positive OPSCC, however, further studies are needed to clarify the comprehensive role of these TLRs in OPSCC.