Browsing by Subject "TOOLBOX"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-4 of 4
  • Tervaniemi, Mari; Pousi, Saara; Seppälä, Maaria; Tommi, Makkonen (2022)
    There are only a few previous EEG studies that were conducted while the audience is listening to live music. However, in laboratory settings using music recordings, EEG frequency bands theta and alpha are connected to music improvisation and creativity. Here, we measured EEG of the audience in a concert-like setting outside the laboratory and compared the theta and alpha power evoked by partly improvised versus regularly performed familiar versus unfamiliar live classical music. To this end, partly improvised and regular versions of pieces by Bach (familiar) and Melartin (unfamiliar) were performed live by a chamber trio. EEG data from left and right frontal and central regions of interest were analysed to define theta and alpha power during each performance. After the performances, the participants rated how improvised and attractive each of the performances were. They also gave their affective ratings before and after each performance. We found that theta power was enhanced during the familiar improvised Bach piece and the unfamiliar improvised Melartin piece when compared with the performance of the same piece performed in a regular manner. Alpha power was not modulated by manner of performance or by familiarity of the piece. Listeners rated partly improvised performances of a familiar Bach and unfamiliar Melartin piece as more improvisatory and innovative than the regular performances. They also indicated more joy and less sadness after listening to the unfamiliar improvised piece of Melartin and less fearful and more enthusiastic after listening to the regular version of Melartin than before listening. Thus, according to our results, it is possible to study listeners' brain functions with EEG during live music performances outside the laboratory, with theta activity reflecting the presence of improvisation in the performances.
  • Zhu, Yongjie; Zhang, Chi; Poikonen, Hanna; Toiviainen, Petri; Huotilainen, Minna; Mathiak, Klaus; Ristaniemi, Tapani; Cong, Fengyu (2020)
    Recently, exploring brain activity based on functional networks during naturalistic stimuli especially music and video represents an attractive challenge because of the low signal-to-noise ratio in collected brain data. Although most efforts focusing on exploring the listening brain have been made through functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), sensor-level electro- or magnetoencephalography (EEG/MEG) technique, little is known about how neural rhythms are involved in the brain network activity under naturalistic stimuli. This study exploited cortical oscillations through analysis of ongoing EEG and musical feature during freely listening to music. We used a data-driven method that combined music information retrieval with spatial Fourier Independent Components Analysis (spatial Fourier-ICA) to probe the interplay between the spatial profiles and the spectral patterns of the brain network emerging from music listening. Correlation analysis was performed between time courses of brain networks extracted from EEG data and musical feature time series extracted from music stimuli to derive the musical feature related oscillatory patterns in the listening brain. We found brain networks of musical feature processing were frequency-dependent. Musical feature time series, especially fluctuation centroid and key feature, were associated with an increased beta activation in the bilateral superior temporal gyrus. An increased alpha oscillation in the bilateral occipital cortex emerged during music listening, which was consistent with alpha functional suppression hypothesis in task-irrelevant regions. We also observed an increased delta-beta oscillatory activity in the prefrontal cortex associated with musical feature processing. In addition to these findings, the proposed method seems valuable for characterizing the large-scale frequency-dependent brain activity engaged in musical feature processing.
  • Alanne, Tommi; Benincasa, Nico; Heikinheimo, Matti; Kannike, Kristjan; Keus, Venus; Koivunen, Niko; Tuominen, Kimmo (2020)
    Pseudo-Goldstone dark matter is a thermal relic with momentum-suppressed direct-detection cross section. We study the most general model of pseudo-Goldstone dark matter arising from the complex-singlet extension of the Standard Model. The new U(1) symmetry of the model is explicitly broken down to a CP-like symmetry stabilising dark matter. We study the interplay of direct-detection constraints with the strength of cosmic phase transitions and possible gravitational-wave signals. While large U(1)-breaking interactions can generate a large direct-detection cross section, there are blind spots where the cross section is suppressed. We find that sizeable cubic couplings can give rise to a first-order phase transition in the early universe. We show that there exist regions of the parameter space where the resulting gravitational-wave signal can be detected in future by the proposed Big Bang Observer detector.
  • Halonen, Risto; Kuula, Liisa; Antila, Minea; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina (2021)
    Accumulating evidence emphasizes the relevance of oscillatory synchrony in memory consolidation during sleep. Sleep spindles promote memory retention, especially when occurring in the depolarized upstate of slow oscillation (SO). A less studied topic is the inter-spindle synchrony, i.e. the temporal overlap and phasic coherence between spindles perceived in different electroencephalography channels. In this study, we examined how synchrony between SOs and spindles, as well as between simultaneous spindles, is associated with the retention of novel verbal metaphors. Moreover, we combined the encoding of the metaphors with respiratory phase (inhalation/exhalation) with the aim of modulating the strength of memorized items, as previous studies have shown that inhalation entrains neural activity, thereby benefiting memory in a waking condition. In the current study, 27 young adults underwent a two-night mixed-design study with a 12-h delayed memory task during both sleep and waking conditions. As expected, we found better retention over the delay containing sleep, and this outcome was strongly associated with the timing of SO–spindle coupling. However, no associations were observed regarding inter-spindle synchrony or respiratory phase. These findings contribute to a better understanding of the importance of SO–spindle coupling for memory. In contrast, the observed lack of association with inter-spindle synchrony may emphasize the local nature of spindle-related plasticity.