Browsing by Subject "TOP-DOWN"

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  • Terraube, Julien (2019)
    This Forum article synthesizes the current evidence on the links between predator-prey interactions, protected areas and spatial variations in Lyme disease risk in Fennoscandia. I suggest key research directions to better understand the role of protected areas in promoting the persistence of diverse predator guilds. Conserving predators could help reducing host populations and Lyme disease risk in northern Europe. There is an urgent need to find possible win-win solutions for biodiversity conservation and human health in ecosystems facing rapid global environmental change.
  • Nora, Anni; Renvall, Hanna; Kim, Jeong-Young; Salmelin, Riitta; Elisabet Serv (2015)
    Temporal and frontal activations have been implicated in learning of novel word forms, but their specific roles remain poorly understood. The present magnetoencephalography (MEG) study examines the roles of these areas in processing newly-established word form representations. The cortical effects related to acquiring new phonological word forms during incidental learning were localized. Participants listened to and repeated back new word form stimuli that adhered to native phonology (Finnish pseudowords) or were foreign (Korean words), with a subset of the stimuli recurring four times. Subsequently, a modified 1-back task and a recognition task addressed whether the activations modulated by learning were related to planning for overt articulation, while parametrically added noise probed reliance on developing memory representations during effortful perception. Learning resulted in decreased left superior temporal and increased bilateral frontal premotor activation for familiar compared to new items. The left temporal learning effect persisted in all tasks and was strongest when stimuli were embedded in intermediate noise. In the noisy conditions, native phonotactics evoked overall enhanced left temporal activation. In contrast, the frontal learning effects were present only in conditions requiring overt repetition and were more pronounced for the foreign language. The results indicate a functional dissociation between temporal and frontal activations in learning new phonological word forms: the left superior temporal responses reflect activation of newlyestablished word-form representations, also during degraded sensory input, whereas the frontal premotor effects are related to planning for articulation and are not preserved in noise.
  • Palva, J. Matias; Palva, Satu (2018)
    Neuronal oscillations and their inter-areal synchronization may be instrumental in regulating neuronal communication in distributed networks. Several lines of research have, however, shown that cognitive tasks engage neuronal oscillations simultaneously in multiple frequency bands that have distinct functional roles in cognitive processing. Gamma oscillations (30-120Hz) are associated with bottom-up processing, while slower oscillations in delta (1-4Hz), theta (4-7Hz), alpha (8-14Hz) and beta (14-30Hz) frequency bands may have roles in executive or top-down controlling functions, although also other distinctions have been made. Identification of the mechanisms that integrate such spectrally distributed processing and govern neuronal communication among these networks is crucial for understanding how cognitive functions are achieved in neuronal circuits. Cross-frequency interactions among oscillations have been recognized as a likely candidate mechanism for such integration. We advance here the hypothesis that phase-phase synchronization of neuronal oscillations in two different frequency bands, cross-frequency phase synchrony (CFS), could serve to integrate, coordinate and regulate neuronal processing distributed into neuronal assemblies concurrently in multiple frequency bands. A trail of studies over the past decade has revealed the presence of CFS among cortical oscillations and linked CFS with roles in cognitive integration. We propose that CFS could connect fast and slow oscillatory networks and thereby integrate distributed cognitive functions such as representation of sensory information with attentional and executive functions.
  • Valdes-Correcher, Elena; Popova, Anna; Galman, Andrea; Prinzing, Andreas; Selikhovkin, Andrey; Howe, Andy G.; Mrazova, Anna; Dulaurent, Anne-Maimiti; Hampe, Arndt; Tack, Ayco Jerome Michel; Bouget, Christophe; Lupastean, Daniela; Harvey, Deborah; Musolin, Dmitry L.; Lovei, Gabor L.; Centenaro, Giada; Van Halder, Inge; Hagge, Jonas; Dobrosavljevic, Jovan; Pitkänen, Juha-Matti; Koricheva, Julia; Sam, Katerina; Barbaro, Luc; Branco, Manuela; Ferrante, Marco; Faticov, Maria; Tahadlova, Marketa; Gossner, Martin; Cauchoix, Maxime; Bogdziewicz, Michal; Duduman, Mihai-Leonard; Kozlov, Mikhail; Bjoern, Mona C.; Mamaev, Nikita A.; Fernandez-Conradi, Pilar; Thomas, Rebecca L.; Wetherbee, Ross; Green, Samantha; Milanovic, Slobodan; Moreira, Xoaquin; Mellerin, Yannick; Kadiri, Yasmine; Castagneyrol, Bastien (2022)
    Urbanization is an important driver of the diversity and abundance of tree-associated insect herbivores, but its consequences for insect herbivory are poorly understood. A likely source of variability among studies is the insufficient consideration of intra-urban variability in forest cover. With the help of citizen scientists, we investigated the independent and interactive effects of local canopy cover and percentage of impervious surface on insect herbivory in the pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L.) throughout most of its geographic range in Europe. We found that the damage caused by chewing insect herbivores as well as the incidence of leaf-mining and gall-inducing herbivores consistently decreased with increasing impervious surface around focal oaks. Herbivory by chewing herbivores increased with increasing forest cover, regardless of impervious surface. In contrast, an increase in local canopy cover buffered the negative effect of impervious surface on leaf miners and strengthened its effect on gall inducers. These results show that-just like in non-urban areas-plant-herbivore interactions in cities are structured by a complex set of interacting factors. This highlights that local habitat characteristics within cities have the potential to attenuate or modify the effect of impervious surfaces on biotic interactions.
  • Lobier, Muriel; Palva, J. Matias; Palva, Satu (2018)
    Visuospatial attention prioritizes processing of attended visual stimuli. It is characterized by lateralized alpha-band (8-14 Hz) amplitude suppression in visual cortex and increased neuronal activity in a network of frontal and parietal areas. It has remained unknown what mechanisms coordinate neuronal processing among frontoparietal network and visual cortices and implement the attention-related modulations of alpha-band amplitudes and behavior. We investigated whether large-scale network synchronization could be such a mechanism. We recorded human cortical activity with magnetoencephalography (MEG) during a visuospatial attention task. We then identified the frequencies and anatomical networks of inter-areal phase synchronization from source localized MEG data. We found that visuospatial attention is associated with robust and sustained long-range synchronization of cortical oscillations exclusively in the high-alpha (10-14 Hz) frequency band. This synchronization connected frontal, parietal and visual regions and was observed concurrently with amplitude suppression of low-alpha (6-9 Hz) band oscillations in visual cortex. Furthermore, stronger high-alpha phase synchronization was associated with decreased reaction times to attended stimuli and larger suppression of alpha-band amplitudes. These results thus show that high-alpha band phase synchronization is functionally significant and could coordinate the neuronal communication underlying the implementation of visuospatial attention.
  • Bjorklund, Heidi; Santangeli, Andrea; Blanchet, F. Guillaume; Huitu, Otso; Lehtoranta, Hannu; Linden, Harto; Valkama, Jari; Laaksonen, Toni (2016)
    Intraguild (IG) predation and interspecific competition may affect the settlement and success of species in their habitats. Using data on forest-dwelling hawks from Finland, we addressed the impact of an IG predator, the northern goshawk Accipiter gentilis (goshawk), on the breeding of an IG prey, the common buzzard Buteo buteo. We hypothesized that the subordinate common buzzard avoids breeding in the proximity of goshawks and that interspecific competitors, mainly Strix owls, may also disturb common buzzards by competing for nests and food. Our results show that common buzzards more frequently occupied territories with a low IG predation threat and with no interspecific competitors. We also observed that common buzzards avoided territories with high levels of grouse, the main food of goshawks, possibly due to a risk of IG predation since abundant grouse can attract goshawks. High levels of small rodents attracted interspecific competitors to common buzzard territories and created a situation where there was not only an abundance of food but also an abundance of competitors for the food. These results suggest interplay between top-down and bottom-up processes which influence the interactions between avian predator species. We conclude that the common buzzard needs to balance the risks of IG predation and interference competition with the availability of its own resources. The presence of other predators associated with high food levels may impede a subordinate predator taking full advantage of the available food. Based on our results, it appears that interspecific interactions with dominant predators have the potential to influence the distribution pattern of subordinate predators.
  • Selonen, Olavi; Brommer, Jon E.; Holopainen, Sini; Kauhala, Kaarina; Krüger, Heidi; Poutanen, Johanna; Väänänen, Veli-Matti; Laaksonen, T. (2022)
    The role of an alien predator in the community depends on its interaction with native predators. The absence of apex predators may facilitate outbreaks of invasive mesopredators, but the effect of apex predators may vary between species and environments. We analysed the occurrence of a common invasive mesopredator in Europe, the raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides), and native mesopredators, the red fox and the Eurasian badger, in camera-trap data from Finland. The observations in cameras were analysed in relation to the presence of apex predators in the landscape (grey wolf and Eurasian lynx), human density, and habitat. We observed negative effect of increasing presence of wolves and lynxes on the occurrence of raccoon dogs. This effect appeared clear compared to the effects of habitat and human density. The effect of lynxes on raccoon dogs was clearer in areas with short growth season. For the occurrence of badgers, the presence of wolves had a weak negative effect and the presence of lynxes had a positive effect. For the occurrence of red foxes, wolves had a positive effect when agricultural fields were sparse in the landscape and lynxes had no effect. We also observed that the invasive raccoon dog currently appears to be the most common mesopredator within the study area. We conclude that the effect of apex predators on mesopredators depends on the environment and, in our case, was more suppressive on the alien mesopredator than on the native mesopredators. Thus, apex predators can play an important role in controlling invasive mesopredators.
  • Salmi, Juha; Salmela, Viljami; Salo, Emma; Mikkola, Katri; Leppämäki, Sami; Tani, Pekka; Hokkanen, Laura; Laasonen, Marja; Numminen, Jussi; Alho, Kimmo (2018)
    Modern environments are full of information, and place high demands on the attention control mechanisms that allow the selection of information from one (focused attention) or multiple (divided attention) sources, react to changes in a given situation (stimulus-driven attention), and allocate effort according to demands (task-positive and task-negative activity). We aimed to reveal how attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affects the brain functions associated with these attention control processes in constantly demanding tasks. Sixteen adults with ADHD and 17 controls performed adaptive visual and auditory discrimination tasks during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Overlapping brain activity in frontoparietal saliency and default-mode networks, as well as in the somato-motor, cerebellar, and striatal areas were observed in all participants. In the ADHD participants, we observed exclusive activity enhancement in the brain areas typically considered to be primarily involved in other attention control functions: During auditory-focused attention, we observed higher activation in the sensory cortical areas of irrelevant modality and the default-mode network (DMN). DMN activity also increased during divided attention in the ADHD group, in turn decreasing during a simple button-press task. Adding irrelevant stimulation resulted in enhanced activity in the salience network. Finally, the irrelevant distractors that capture attention in a stimulus-driven manner activated dorsal attention networks and the cerebellum. Our findings suggest that attention control deficits involve the activation of irrelevant sensory modality, problems in regulating the level of attention on demand, and may encumber top-down processing in cases of irrelevant information. (C) 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Candolin, Ulrika; Voigt, Heinz-Rudolf (2020)
    Human activity is altering the dynamics of populations through effects on fecundity, mortality and migration. An increased abundance of three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) in the Baltic Sea has been attributed to a human-caused decline of top predators. However, recent research indicates that a top-down effect cannot fully explain the population growth, but the contribution of a bottom-up effect has not been investigated. Yet, anthropogenic eutrophication has increased algae biomass at the spawning sites of the stickleback and, thus, the abundance of benthic prey. We investigated if increased fecundity could have contributed to the population growth of the stickleback by analysing a two decade time series of stickleback abundance, fecundity, and body size at three spawning sites. The results show an increase in the proportion of gravid females in the populations, which correlates with the population growth. In particular, the proportion of gravid females late in the spawning season has increased, which indicates enhanced food intake at the sites during the spawning season. Thus, a bottom-up effect could have contributed to the growth of the populations by increasing the number of egg clutches females produce. These results stress the importance of considering both bottom-up and top-down processes when investigating the mechanisms behind human impact on population dynamics.
  • Palva, Satu; Palva, J. Matias (2018)
    Sensorimotor predictions are essential for adaptive behavior. In natural environments, events that demand sensorimotor predictions unfold across many timescales, and corresponding temporal predictions (either explicit or implicit) should therefore emerge in brain dynamics. Neuronal oscillations are scale-specific processes found in several frequency bands. They underlie periodicity in sensorimotor processing and can represent temporal predictions via their phase dynamics. These processes build upon endogenous neural rhythmicity and adapt in response to exogenous timing demands. While much of the research on periodicity in neural processing has focused on subsecond oscillations, these fast-scale rhythms are in fact paralleled by critical-like, scale-free dynamics and fluctuations of brain activity at various timescales, ranging from seconds to hundreds of seconds. In this review, we put forth a framework positing that critical brain dynamics are essential for the role of neuronal oscillations in timing and that cross-frequency coupling flexibly organizes neuronal processing across multiple frequencies.
  • Llewelyn, John; Strona, Giovanni; McDowell, Matthew C.; Johnson, Christopher N.; Peters, Katharina J.; Stouffer, Daniel B.; de Visser, Sara N.; Saltre, Frederik; Bradshaw, Corey J. A. (2022)
    Extinctions stemming from environmental change often trigger trophic cascades and coextinctions. Bottom-up cascades occur when changes in the primary producers in a network elicit flow-on effects to higher trophic levels. However, it remains unclear what determines a species' vulnerability to bottom-up cascades and whether such cascades were a large contributor to the megafauna extinctions that swept across several continents in the Late Pleistocene. The pathways to megafauna extinctions are particularly unclear for Sahul (landmass comprising Australia and New Guinea), where extinctions happened earlier than on other continents. We investigated the potential role of bottom-up trophic cascades in the megafauna extinctions in Late Pleistocene Sahul by first developing synthetic networks that varied in topology to identify how network position (trophic level, diet breadth, basal connections) influences vulnerability to bottom-up cascades. We then constructed pre-extinction (-80 ka) network models of the ecological community of Naracoorte, south-eastern Sahul, to assess whether the observed megafauna extinctions could be explained by bottom-up cascades. Synthetic networks showed that node vulnerability to bottom-up cascades decreased with increasing trophic level, diet breadth and basal connections. Extinct species in the Naracoorte community were more vulnerable overall to these cascades than were species that survived. The position of extinct species in the network - tending to be of low trophic level and therefore having relatively narrow diet breadths and fewer connections to plants - made them vulnerable. However, these species also tended to have few or no predators, a network-position attribute that suggests they might have been particularly vulnerable to new predators. Together, these results suggest that trophic cascades and naivety to predators could have contributed to the megafauna extinction event in Sahul.
  • Renvall, Hanna; Seol, Jaeho; Tuominen, Riku; Sorger, Bettina; Riecke, Lars; Salmelin, Riitta (2021)
    Rapid recognition and categorization of sounds are essential for humans and animals alike, both for understanding and reacting to our surroundings and for daily communication and social interaction. For humans, perception of speech sounds is of crucial importance. In real life, this task is complicated by the presence of a multitude of meaningful non-speech sounds. The present behavioural, magnetoencephalography (MEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study was set out to address how attention to speech versus attention to natural non-speech sounds within complex auditory scenes influences cortical processing. The stimuli were superimpositions of spoken words and environmental sounds, with parametric variation of the speech-to-environmental sound intensity ratio. The participants' task was to detect a repetition in either the speech or the environmental sound. We found that specifically when participants attended to speech within the superimposed stimuli, higher speech-to-environmental sound ratios resulted in shorter sustained MEG responses and stronger BOLD fMRI signals especially in the left supratemporal auditory cortex and in improved behavioural performance. No such effects of speech-to-environmental sound ratio were observed when participants attended to the environmental sound part within the exact same stimuli. These findings suggest stronger saliency of speech compared with other meaningful sounds during processing of natural auditory scenes, likely linked to speech-specific top-down and bottom-up mechanisms activated during speech perception that are needed for tracking speech in real-life-like auditory environments.
  • Ján , Labuda; Richard P. , Bowater; Miroslav , Fojta; Günter , Gauglitz; Zdeněk, Glatz; Ivan , Hapala; Jan, Havliš; Ferenc , Kilar; Aniko , Kilar; Lenka, Malinovská; Siren, Heli Marja Marita; Petr , Skládal; Federico , Torta; Martin , Valachovič; Michaela , Wimmerová; Zbyněk , Zdráhal; David Brynn, Hibbert (2018)
    Recommendations are given concerning the terminology of methods of bioanalytical chemistry. With respect to dynamic development particularly in the analysis and investigation of biomacromolecules, terms related to bioanalytical samples, enzymatic methods, immunoanalytical methods, methods used in genomics and nucleic acid analysis, proteomics, metabolomics, glycomics, lipidomics, and biomolecules interaction studies are introduced.