Browsing by Subject "TOPICAL IMIQUIMOD"

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  • Salmivuori, M.; Grönroos, M.; Tani, T.; Pölönen, I.; Räsänen, J.; Annala, L.; Snellman, E.; Neittaanmäki, N. (2020)
    Abstract Background In the photodynamic therapy (PDT) of non-aggressive basal cell carcinomas (BCCs), 5-aminolevulinic acid nanoemulsion (BF-200ALA) has shown non-inferior efficacy when compared with methyl aminolevulinate (MAL), a widely used photosensitizer. Hexyl aminolevulinate (HAL) is an interesting alternative photosensitizer. To our knowledge, this is the first study using HAL-PDT in the treatment of BCCs. Objectives To compare the histological clearance, tolerability (pain and post-treatment reaction), and cosmetic outcome of MAL, BF-200 ALA, and low-concentration HAL in the PDT of non-aggressive BCCs. Methods Ninety-eight histologically verified non-aggressive BCCs met the inclusion criteria, and 54 patients with 95 lesions completed the study. The lesions were randomized to receive LED-PDT in two repeated treatments with MAL, BF-200 ALA, or HAL. Efficacy was assessed both clinically and confirmed histologically at three months by blinded observers. Furthermore, cosmetic outcome, pain, post-treatment reactions fluorescence, and photobleaching were evaluated. Results According to intention-to-treat analyses, the histologically confirmed lesion clearance was 93.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 79.9?98.3) for MAL, 90.9% (95% CI = 76.4?96.9) for BF-200 ALA, and 87.9% (95% CI = 72.7?95.2) for HAL, with no differences between the arms (p=0.84). There were no differences between the arms as regards pain, post-treatment reactions, or cosmetic outcome. Conclusions PDT with low-concentration HAL and BF-200 ALA have a similar efficacy, tolerability, and cosmetic outcome compared to MAL. HAL is an interesting new option in dermatological PDT, since good efficacy is achieved with a low concentration.
  • Ylösmäki, Erkko; Fusciello, Manlio; Martins, Beatriz; Feola, Sara; Hamdan, Firas; Chiaro, Jacopo; Ylösmäki, Leena; Vaughan, Matthew J.; Viitala, Tapani; Kulkarni, Prasad S.; Cerullo, Vincenzo (2021)
    Background Intratumoral BCG therapy, one of the earliest immunotherapies, can lead to infiltration of immune cells into a treated tumor. However, an increase in the number of BCG-induced tumor-specific T cells in the tumor microenvironment could lead to enhanced therapeutic effects. Methods Here, we have developed a novel cancer vaccine platform based on BCG that can broaden BCG-induced immune responses to include tumor antigens. By physically attaching tumor-specific peptides onto the mycobacterial outer membrane, we were able to induce strong systemic and intratumoral T cell-specific immune responses toward the attached tumor antigens. These therapeutic peptides can be efficiently attached to the mycobacterial outer membrane using a poly-lysine sequence N-terminally fused to the tumor-specific peptides. Results Using two mouse models of melanoma and a mouse model of colorectal cancer, we observed that the antitumor immune responses of BCG could be improved by coating the BCG with tumor-specific peptides. In addition, by combining this novel cancer vaccine platform with anti-programmed death 1 (anti-PD-1) immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) therapy, the number of responders to anti-PD-1 immunotherapy was markedly increased. Conclusions This study shows that intratumoral BCG immunotherapy can be improved by coating the bacteria with modified tumor-specific peptides. In addition, this improved BCG immunotherapy can be combined with ICI therapy to obtain enhanced tumor growth control. These results warrant clinical testing of this novel cancer vaccine platform.