Browsing by Subject "TOXICITY"

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  • Tuohinen, Suvi Sirkku; Skyttä, Tanja; Huhtala, Heini; Poutanen, Tuija; Virtanen, Vesa; Kellokumpu-Lehtinen, Pirkko-Liisa; Raatikainen, Pekka (2021)
    BACKGROUND Radiation therapy (RT) results in myocardial changes consisting of diffuse fibrosis, which may result in changes in diastolic function. OBJECTIVES The aim of this study was to explore RT-associated changes in left ventricular (LV) diastolic function. METHODS Sixty chemotherapy-naive patients with left-sided, early-stage breast cancer were studied with speckle tracking echocardiography at 3 time points: prior to, immediately after, and 3 years after RT. Global and regional early diastolic strain rate (SRe) were quantified, as were parameters of systolic function. RESULTS Regional changes in SRe, particularly the apical and anteroseptat segments, were observed over time and were more evident than global changes. The apical SRe declined from a median of 1.24 (interquartile range: 1.01 to 1.39) s(-1) at baseline to 1.02 (interquartile range: 0.79 to 1.15) s(-1) at 3 years of follow-up (p < 0.001). This decline was associated with the left ventricular maximal radiation dose (beta = 0.36, p = 0.007). The global SRe was CONCLUSIONS RT resulted in changes in the SRe in the apical and anteroseptat segments over 3 years of follow-up. Changes in SRe apical segments were present even in patients with preserved systolic function and were independently associated with RT dose and cardiovascular comorbidities. (C) 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier on behalf of the American College of Cardiology Foundation.
  • Kohonen, Pekka; Parkkinen, Juuso A.; Willighagen, Egon L.; Ceder, Rebecca; Wennerberg, Krister; Kaski, Samuel; Grafstrom, Roland C. (2017)
    Predicting unanticipated harmful effects of chemicals and drug molecules is a difficult and costly task. Here we utilize a 'big data compacting and data fusion'-concept to capture diverse adverse outcomes on cellular and organismal levels. The approach generates from transcriptomics data set a 'predictive toxicogenomics space' (PTGS) tool composed of 1,331 genes distributed over 14 overlapping cytotoxicity-related gene space components. Involving similar to 2.5 x 10(8) data points and 1,300 compounds to construct and validate the PTGS, the tool serves to: explain dose-dependent cytotoxicity effects, provide a virtual cytotoxicity probability estimate intrinsic to omics data, predict chemically-induced pathological states in liver resulting from repeated dosing of rats, and furthermore, predict human drug-induced liver injury (DILI) from hepatocyte experiments. Analysing 68 DILI-annotated drugs, the PTGS tool outperforms and complements existing tests, leading to a hereto-unseen level of DILI prediction accuracy.
  • Kilpi-Koski, Johanna; Penttinen, Olli-Pekka; Väisänen, Ari O.; van Gestel, Cornelis A. M. (2019)
    The aim of this study was to determine the bioavailability of metals in field soils contaminated with chromated copper arsenate (CCA) mixtures. The uptake and elimination kinetics of chromium, copper, and arsenic were assessed in the earthworm Eisenia andrei exposed to soils from a gradient of CCA wood preservative contamination near Hartola, Finland. In soils contaminated with 1480–1590 mg Cr/kg dry soil, 642–791 mg Cu/kg dry soil, and 850–2810 mg Ag/kg dry soil, uptake and elimination kinetics patterns were similar for Cr and Cu. Both metals were rapidly taken up and rapidly excreted by Eisenia andrei with equilibrium reached within 1 day. The metalloid As, however, showed very slow uptake and elimination in the earthworms and body concentrations did not reach equilibrium within 21 days. Bioaccumulation factors (BAF) were low for Cu and Cr (
  • Liu, Miao; Liu, Xingxing; Kang, Jieyu; Korpelainen, Helena; Li, Chunyang (2020)
    This study clarifies the mechanisms of Cd uptake, translocation and detoxification in Populus cathayana Rehder females and males, and reveals a novel strategy for dioecious plants to cope with Cd contamination. Females exhibited a high degree of Cd uptake and root-to-shoot translocation, while males showed extensive Cd accumulation in roots, elevated antioxidative capacity, and effective cellular and bark Cd sequestration. Our study also found that Cd is largely located in epidermal and cortical tissues of male roots and leaves, while in females, more Cd was present in vascular tissues of roots and leaves, as well as in leaf mesophyll. In addition, the distributions of sulphur (S) and phosphorus (P) were very similar as that of Cd in males, but the associations were weak in females. Scanning electron microscopy and energy spectroscopy analyses suggested that the amounts of tissue Cd were positively correlated with P and S amounts in males, but not in females (a weak correlation between S and Cd). Transcriptional data suggested that Cd stress promoted the upregulation of genes related to Cd uptake and translocation in females, and that of genes related to cell wall biosynthesis, metal tolerance and secondary metabolism in males. Our results indicated that coordinated physiological, microstructural and transcriptional responses to Cd stress endowed superior Cd tolerance in males compared with females, and provided new insights into mechanisms underlying sexually differential responses to Cd stress.
  • Pohjanvirta, Raimo; Mahiout, Selma (2019)
    Previous studies have shown that several aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) agonists, including β-naphthoflavone (BNF), elicit avoidance of novel food items in rodents, with this behavioral response displaying a similar doseresponse to hepatic induction of CYP1A1. The avoidance has been found to bear substantial similarity to conditioned taste avoidance/aversion (CTA). The present study set out to confirm the indispensability of AHR in the avoidance response, to verify whether vagal afferent fibers are involved in it, and to see if AHR signaling might interfere with the effect of the classic trigger of CTA, LiCl. To this end, globally AHR deficient (AHRKO) or vagotomized wildtype rats were treated by gavage with 60 mg/kg BNF or ip with 0.15M LiCl (4 ml/kg), and presented with chocolate which was either novel or familiar to them. Both the avoidance response and Cyp1a1 induction were missing in AHRKO rats. In contrast, Ahr+/− rats exhibited them in full, save for a single outlier. Total subdiaphragmatic vagotomy failed to interfere with the avoidance of novel or familiar chocolate or induction of Cyp1a1. After LiCl administration, male AHRKO rats showed a significantly mitigated suppression of chocolate consumption compared with wildtype animals (~60% vs. ~10% of control chocolate intake, respectively). A similar tendency was seen in females, but they were less responsive to LiCl. These findings corroborate AHR as a prerequisite of the BNF-induced novel food avoidance, prove vagal afferents unlikely mediators of this response, and imply an unforeseen involvement of AHR signaling in the thoroughly-characterized CTA instigated by LiCl.
  • Rehman, Sidra; Mansoora, Nida; Al-Dhumri, Sami A.; Amjad, Syeda F.; Al-Shammari, Wasimah B.; Almutari, Mohammad M.; Alhusayni, Fatimah S.; Al Bakre, Dhafer A.; Lalarukh, Irfana; Alshahri, Abdullah H.; Poczai, Peter; Galal, Tarek M.; Abdelhafez, Ahmed A. (2022)
    Heavy metal stress and less nutrient availability are some of the major concerns in agriculture. Both abiotic stresses have potential to decrease the crops productivity. On the other hand, organic fertilizers i.e., activated carbon biochar (ACB) and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) increase nutritional and heavy metal like Nickel (Ni) stress tolerance and provide immunity to plants for their survival in unfavorable environments. Previous studies have only looked at single applications of either ACB or AMF thus far. There is limited evidence of their synergistic effects, especially in plants growing in soil contaminated with nickel (Ni). To cover the knowledge gap of combined use of AMF inoculation (Glomus intraradices) and/or wheat straw biochar amendments on wheat growth, antioxidant activities and osmolytes concentration, present study is conducted. The use of either the AMF inoculant or the ACB alone resulted in improved wheat growth and decreased Ni uptake. Furthermore, sole AMF or ACB also reduced Ni stress effectively, allowing wheat to grow faster and reducing soil Ni transfer into plant tissue. In comparison to a control, adding ACB with AMF inoculant considerably increased fungal populations. The most significant increase in wheat growth and decrease in tissue Ni contents came from amending soil with AMF inoculant and biochar. Inducing soil alkalinization and causing Ni immobilization, as well as decreasing Ni phyto-availability, the combination treatment had a synergistic impact. These findings imply that AMF inoculation in ACB treatment could be used not only for wheat production but also for Ni-contaminated soil phyto-stabilization. (C) 2022 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V.
  • Agour, Abdelkrim; Mssillou, Ibrahim; Mechchate, Hamza; Es-safi, Imane; Allali, Aimad; El Barnossi, Azeddin; Al Kamaly, Omkulthom; Alshawwa, Samar Zuhair; El Moussaoui, Abdelfattah; Bari, Amina; Lyoussi, Badiaa; Derwich, Elhoussine (2022)
    Antibiotics and synthetic pesticides are now playing a role in the spread of resistant pathogens. They continue to have negative consequences for animal and plant health. The goal of this work is to identify the chemical composition of Brocchia cinerea (Delile) Vis. essential oil (EO) using GC-MS(Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometer), evaluate its antimicrobial properties, and investigate its insecticidal and repellent effectiveness against Callosobruchus maculatus (C. maculatus). The GC-MS indicated the presence of 21 chemicals, with thujone (24.9%), lyratyl acetate (24.32%), camphor (13.55%), and 1,8-cineole (10.81%) being the most prominent. For the antimicrobial assay, the yeast Candida albicans was very sensitive to the E0 with a growth inhibition diameter of (42.33 mm), followed by Staphylococcus aureus (31.33 mm). Fusarium oxysporum is the mycelia strain that appeared to be extremely sensitive to the utilized EO (88.44%) compared to the two species of Aspergillus (A. flavus (48.44%); A. niger (36.55%)). The results obtained in the microdilution method show that Pseudomonas aeruginosa was very sensitive to the EO, inhibited by a very low dose (0.0018 mg/mL). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) results were between 0.0149 and 0.06 mg/mL. B. cinerea E0 also demonstrated a potent insecticidal effect and a medium repulsive effect against C. maculatus. Thus, the LC50 value in the contact test was 0.61 mu L/L of air, lower than that observed in the inhalation test (0.72 mu L/L of air). The present study reveals that B. cinerea EO has the potential to be an antimicrobial and insecticidal agent with a better performance against several pathogenic microorganisms.
  • Nielsen, Rikke L.; Wolthers, Benjamin O.; Helenius, Marianne; Albertsen, Birgitte K.; Clemmensen, Line; Nielsen, Kasper; Kanerva, Jukka; Niinimäki, Riitta; Frandsen, Thomas L.; Attarbaschi, Andishe; Barzilai, Shlomit; Colombini, Antonella; Escherich, Gabriele; Aytan-Aktug, Derya; Liu, Hsi Che; Möricke, Anja; Samarasinghe, Sujith; Van Der Sluis, Inge M.; Stanulla, Martin; Tulstrup, Morten; Yadav, Rachita; Zapotocka, Ester; Schmiegelow, Kjeld; Gupta, Ramneek (2022)
    Asparaginase-associated pancreatitis (AAP) frequently affects children treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) causing severe acute and persisting complications. Known risk factors such as asparaginase dosing, older age and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have insufficient odds ratios to allow personalized asparaginase therapy. In this study, we explored machine learning strategies for prediction of individual AAP risk. We integrated information on age, sex, and SNPs based on Illumina Omni2.5exome-8 arrays of patients with childhood ALL (N=1564, 244 with AAP aged 1.0 to 17.9 y) from 10 international ALL consortia into machine learning models including regression, random forest, AdaBoost and artificial neural networks. A model with only age and sex had area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC-AUC) of 0.62. Inclusion of 6 pancreatitis candidate gene SNPs or 4 validated pancreatitis SNPs boosted ROC-AUC somewhat (0.67) while 30 SNPs, identified through our AAP genome-wide association study cohort, boosted performance (0.80). Most predictive features included rs10273639 (PRSS1-PRSS2), rs10436957 (CTRC), rs13228878 (PRSS1/PRSS2), rs1505495 (GALNTL6), rs4655107 (EPHB2) and age (1 to 7 y). Second AAP following asparaginase re-exposure was predicted with ROC-AUC: 0.65. The machine learning models assist individual-level risk assessment of AAP for future prevention trials, and may legitimize asparaginase re-exposure when AAP risk is predicted to be low.
  • Kinaret, Pia Anneli Sofia; Scala, Giovanni; Federico, Antonio; Sund, Jukka; Greco, Dario (2020)
    Toxic effects of certain carbon nanomaterials (CNM) have been observed in several exposure scenarios both in vivo and in vitro. However, most of the data currently available has been generated in a high-dose/acute exposure setup, limiting the understanding of their immunomodulatory mechanisms. Here, macrophage-like THP-1 cells, exposed to ten different CNM for 48 h in low-cytotoxic concentration of 10 mu g mL(-1), are characterized by secretion of different cytokines and global transcriptional changes. Subsequently, the relationships between cytokine secretion and transcriptional patterns are modeled, highlighting specific pathways related to alternative macrophage activation. Finally, time- and dose-dependent activation of transcription and secretion of M1 marker genes IL-1 beta and tumor necrosis factor, and M2 marker genes IL-10 and CSF1 is confirmed among the three most responsive CNM, with concentrations of 5, 10, and 20 mu g mL(-1) at 24, 48, and 72 h of exposure. These results underline CNM effects on the formation of cell microenvironment and gene expression leading to specific patterns of macrophage polarization. Taken together, these findings imply that, instead of a high and toxic CNM dose, a sub-lethal dose in controlled exposure setup can be utilized to alter the cell microenvironment and program antigen presenting cells, with fascinating implications for novel therapeutic strategies.
  • Albert, Katrina; Raymundo, Diana P.; Panhelainen, Anne; Eesmaa, Ave; Shvachiy, Liana; Araujo, Gabriela R.; Chmielarz, Piotr; Yan, Xu; Singh, Aastha; Cordeiro, Yraima; Palhano, Fernando L.; Foguel, Debora; Luk, Kelvin C.; Domanskyi, Andrii; Voutilainen, Merja H.; Huttunen, Henri J.; Outeiro, Tiago F.; Saarma, Mart; Almeida, Marcius S.; Airavaara, Mikko (2021)
    A molecular hallmark in Parkinson's disease (PD) pathogenesis are a-synuclein aggregates. Cerebral dopamine neurotrophic factor (CDNF) is an atypical growth factor that is mostly resident in the endoplasmic reticulum but exerts its effects both intracellularly and extracellularly. One of the beneficial effects of CDNF can be protecting neurons from the toxic effects of alpha-synuclein. Here, we investigated the effects of CDNF on alpha-synuclein aggregation in vitro and in vivo. We found that CDNF directly interacts with alpha-synuclein with a KD = 23 +/- 6 nM and reduces its auto-association. Using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, we identified interaction sites on the CDNF protein. Remarkably, CDNF reduces the neuronal internalization of alpha-synuclein fibrils and induces the formation of insoluble phosphorylated alpha-synuclein inclusions. Intra-striatal CDNF administration alleviates motor deficits in rodents challenged with a-synuclein fibrils, though it did not reduce the number of phosphorylated alpha-synuclein inclusions in the substantia nigra. CDNF's beneficial effects on rodent behavior appear not to be related to the number of inclusions formed in the current context, and further study of its effects on the aggregation mechanism in vivo are needed. Nonetheless, the interaction of CDNF with a-synuclein, modifying its aggregation, spreading, and associated behavioral alterations, provides novel insights into the potential of CDNF as a therapeutic strategy in PD and other synucleinopathies.
  • Gupta, Govind; Gliga, Anda; Hedberg, Jonas; Serra, Angela; Greco, Dario; Odnevall Wallinder, Inger; Fadeel, Bengt (2020)
    Abstract The neurotoxicity of hard metal-based nanoparticles (NPs) remains poorly understood. Here, we deployed the human neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y differentiated or not into dopaminergic- and cholinergic-like neurons to study the impact of tungsten carbide (WC) NPs, WC NPs sintered with cobalt (Co), or Co NPs versus soluble CoCl2. Co NPs and Co salt triggered a dose-dependent cytotoxicity with an increase in cytosolic calcium, lipid peroxidation, and depletion of glutathione (GSH). Co NPs and Co salt also suppressed glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4) mRNA and protein expression. Co-exposed cells were rescued by N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a precursor of GSH, and partially by liproxstatin-1, an inhibitor of lipid peroxidation. Furthermore, in silico analyses predicted a significant correlation, based on similarities in gene expression profiles, between Co-containing NPs and Parkinson's disease, and changes in the expression of selected genes were validated by RT-PCR. Finally, experiments using primary human dopaminergic neurons demonstrated cytotoxicity and GSH depletion in response to Co NPs and CoCl2 with loss of axonal integrity. Overall, these data point to a marked neurotoxic potential of Co-based but not WC NPs and show that neuronal cell death may occur through a ferroptosis-like mechanism.
  • Ruokonen, Suvi-Katriina; Sanwald, Corinna; Robciuc, Alexandra; Hietala, Sami; Rantamäki, Antti H.; Witos, Joanna; King, Alistair W. T.; Lämmerhofer, Michael; Wiedmer, Susanne K. (2018)
    This study aims at extending the understanding of the toxicity mechanism of ionic liquids (ILs) using various analytical methods and cytotoxicity assays. The cytotoxicity of eight ILs and one zwitterionic compound was determined using mammalian and bacterial cells. The time dependency of the IL toxicity was assessed using human corneal epithelial cells. Hemolysis was performed using human red blood cells and the results were compared with destabilization data of synthetic liposomes upon addition of ILs. The effect of the ILs on the size and zeta potential of liposomes revealed information on changes in the lipid bilayer. Differential scanning calorimetry was used to study the penetration of the ILs into the lipid bilayer. Pulsed field gradient nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to determine whether the ILs occurred as unimers, micelles, or if they were bound to liposomes. The results show that the investigated ILs can be divided into three groups based on the cytotoxicity mechanism: cell wall disrupting ILs, ILs exerting toxicity through both cell wall penetration and metabolic alteration, and ILs affecting solely on cell metabolism.
  • Iesce, Maria Rosaria; Lavorgna, Margherita; Russo, Chiara; Piscitelli, Concetta; Passananti, Monica; Temussi, Fabio; DellaGreca, Marina; Cermola, Flavio; Isidori, Marina (2019)
    Loratadine and desloratadine are second-generation antihistaminic drugs. Because of human administration, they are continuously released via excreta into wastewater treatment plants and occur in surface waters as residues and transformation products (TPs). Loratadine and desloratadine residues have been found at very low concentrations (ng/L) in the aquatic environment but their toxic effects are still not well known. Both drugs are light-sensitive even under environmentally simulated conditions and some of the photoproducts have been isolated and characterized. The aim of the present study was to investigate the acute and chronic ecotoxicity of loratadine, desloratadine and their light-induced transformation products in organisms of the aquatic trophic chain. Bioassays were performed in the alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, the rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus and in two crustaceans, Thamnocephalus platyurus and Ceriodaphnia dubia. Loratadine exerted its acute and chronic toxicity especially on Ceriodaphnia dubia (LC50: 600 mu g/L, EC50: 28.14 mu g/L) while desloratadine showed similar acute toxicity among the organisms tested and it was the most chronically effective compound in Ceriodaphnia dubia and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata. Generally, transformation products were less active in both acute and chronic assays.
  • Pflugmacher, Stephan; Huttunen, Johanna; van Wollf, Marya-Anne; Penttinen, Olli-Pekka; Kim, Yongjun; Kim, Sanghun; Mitrovic, Simon; Esterhuizen, Maranda (2020)
    Microplastics (MPs) of varying sizes are widespread pollutants in our environment. The general opinion is that the smaller the size, the more dangerous the MPs are due to enhanced uptake possibilities. It would be of considerable ecological significance to understand the response of biota to microplastic contamination both physically and physiologically. Here, we report on an area choice experiment (avoidance test) using Enchytraeus crypticus, in which we mixed different amounts of high-density polyethylene microplastic particles into the soil. In all experimental scenarios, more Enchytraeids moved to the unspiked sections or chose a lower MP-concentration. Worms in contact with MP exhibited an enhanced oxidative stress status, measured as the induced activity of the antioxidative enzymes catalase and glutathione S-transferase. As plastic polymers per se are nontoxic, the exposure time employed was too short for chemicals to leach from the microplastic, and as the microplastic particles used in these experiments were too large (4 mm) to be consumed by the Enchytraeids, the likely cause for the avoidance and oxidative stress could be linked to altered soil properties.
  • Skledar, Darja Gramec; Carino, Adriana; Trontelj, Jurij; Troberg, Johanna; Distrutti, Eleonora; Marchiano, Silvia; Tornasic, Tihomir; Zega, Anamarija; Finel, Moshe; Fiorucci, Stefano; Maisic, Lucija Peterlin (2019)
    Bisphenol AF (BPAF) is a fluorinated analog of bisphenol A (BPA), and it is a more potent estrogen receptor (ER) agonist. BPAF is mainly metabolized to BPAF-glucuronide (BPAF-G), which has been reported to lack ER agonist activity and is believed to be biologically inactive. The main goal of the current study was to examine the influence of the metabolism of BPAF via glucuronidation on its ER activity and adipogenesis. Also, as metabolites can have different biological activities, the effects of BPAF-G on other nuclear receptors were evaluated. First, in-vitro BPAF glucuronidation was investigated using recombinant human enzymes. Specific reporter-gene assays were used to determine BPAF and BPAF-G effects on estrogen, androgen, glucocorticoid, and thyroid receptor pathways, and on PXR, FXR, and PPAR gamma pathways. Their effects on lipid accumulation and differentiation were determined in murine 3T3L1 preadipocytes using Nile Red, with mRNA expression analysis of the adipogenic markers adiponectin, Fabp4, Cebp alpha, and PPAR gamma. BPAF showed strong agonistic activity for hER alpha and moderate antagonistic activities for androgen and thyroid receptors, and for PXR. BPAF-G was antagonistic for PXR and PPAR gamma. BPAF (0.1 mu M) and BPAF-G (1.0 mu M) induced lipid accumulation and increased expression of key adipogenic markers in murine preadipocytes. BPAF-G is therefore not an inactive metabolite of BPAF. Further toxicological and epidemiological investigations of BPAF effects on human health are warranted, to provide better understanding of the metabolic end-elimination of BPAF. (C) 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Yan, Yali; Jiang, Ning; Liu, Xin; Pan, Jie; Li, Mai; Wang, Chunrui; Camargo, Pedro H. C.; Wang, Jiale (2022)
    Recently, the widespread use of antibiotics is becoming a serious worldwide public health challenge, which causes antimicrobial resistance and the occurrence of superbugs. In this context, MnO2 has been proposed as an alternative approach to achieve target antibacterial properties on Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans). This requires a further understanding on how to control and optimize antibacterial properties in these systems. We address this challenge by synthesizing delta-MnO2 nanoflowers doped by magnesium (Mg), sodium (Na), and potassium (K) ions, thus displaying different bandgaps, to evaluate the effect of doping on the bacterial viability of S. mutans. All these samples demonstrated antibacterial activity from the spontaneous generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) without external illumination, where doped MnO2 can provide free electrons to induce the production of ROS, resulting in the antibacterial activity. Furthermore, it was observed that delta-MnO2 with narrower bandgap displayed a superior ability to inhibit bacteria. The enhancement is mainly attributed to the higher doping levels, which provided more free electrons to generate ROS for antibacterial effects. Moreover, we found that delta-MnO2 was attractive for in vivo applications, because it could nearly be degraded into Mn ions completely following the gradual addition of vitamin C. We believe that our results may provide meaningful insights for the design of inorganic antibacterial nanomaterials.
  • de Clercq, Nicolien C.; van den Ende, Tom; Prodan, Andrei; Hemke, Robert; Davids, Mark; Pedersen, Helle K.; Nielsen, Henrik B.; Groen, A. K.; de Vos, Willem M.; van Laarhoven, Hanneke W. M.; Nieuwdorp, Max (2021)
    Purpose Cachexia is a multifactorial syndrome, associated with poor survival in patients with cancer, and is influenced by the gut microbiota. We investigated the effects of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) on cachexia and treatment response in patients with advanced gastroesophageal cancer. Experimental Design: In a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial performed in the Amsterdam University Medical Center, we assigned 24 cachectic patients with metastatic HER2-negative gastroesophageal cancer to either allogenic FMT (healthy obese donor) or autologous FMT, prior to palliative chemotherapy (capecitabine and oxaliplatin). Primary objective was to assess the effect of allogenic FMT on satiety. Secondary outcomes were other features of cachexia, along with disease control rate (DCR), overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and toxicity. Finally, exploratory analyses were performed on the effect of FMT on gut microbiota composition (metagenomic sequencing) and metabolites (untargeted metabolomics). Results: Allogenic FMT did not improve any of the cachexia outcomes. Patients in the allogenic group (n = 12) had a higher DCR at 12 weeks (P = 0.035) compared with the autologous group (n = 12), longer median OS of 365 versus 227 days [ HR = 0.38; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.14-1.05; P = 0.057] and PFS of 204 versus 93 days (HR = 0.50; 95% CI, 0.21-1.20; P = 0.092). Patients in the allogenic group showed a significant shift in fecal microbiota composition after FMT (P = 0.010) indicating proper engraftment of the donor microbiota. Conclusions: FMT from a healthy obese donor prior to first-line chemotherapy did not affect cachexia, but may have improved response and survival in patients with metastatic gastroesophageal cancer. These results provide a rational for larger FMT trials.
  • Muurinen, Johanna; Pasupulate, Avinash; Lappalainen, Juha; Virta, Marko (2019)
    Whole-cell bioreporters are living organisms and thus using them for detecting environmental contaminants would reflect biological effects of these pollutants. However, bioreporters are not widely used in field studies. Many of the bioreporter field protocols are suitable for liquid samples or include pipetting steps, which is a demanding task outside the laboratory. We present a bioreporter protocol without pipetting or sample type requirements. The protocol utilizes polyester swabs, commonly used in cleanroom technology. As an example contaminant, we used tetracycline and generated test samples with known concentrations up to the maximum tetracycline residue limit of milk set by the European Union (EU) regulation. The matrices of the test samples were Milli-Q water, milk and soil. The swabs were first dipped in the bioreporter cell cultures and then to test samples and luminescence was measured after incubation. The standard deviation of measurements from ten replicate swabs was in the same range as commonly in pipetting protocols (4-19%). The test samples with lowest tetracycline concentration (5 ng mL(-1)) were distinguished from the control samples (0 ng mL(-1) tetracycline). Our results show that swabs can be used together with luminescent whole cell bioreporters, making it possible to conduct the measurements in field conditions.
  • Byholm, Patrik; Mäkeläinen, Sanna; Santangeli, Andrea; Goulson, Dave (2018)
    The evidence of negative impacts of agricultural pesticides on non-target organisms is constantly growing. One of the most widely used group of pesticides are neonicotinoids, used in treatments of various plants, e.g. oilseed crops, corn and apples, to prevent crop damage by agricultural insect pests. Treatment effects have been found to spill over to non-target insects, such as bees, and more recently also to other animal groups, among them passerine birds. Very little is known, however, on the presence of neonicotinoids in other wild species at higher trophic levels. We present results on the presence of neonicotinoid residues in blood samples of a long-distant migratory food-specialist raptor, the European honey buzzard. Further, we investigate the spatial relationship between neonicotinoid residue prevalence in honey buzzards with that of crop fields where neonicotinoids are typically used. A majority of all blood samples contained neonicotinoids, thiacloprid accounting for most of the prevalence. While neonicotinoid residues were detected in both adults and nestlings, the methodological limit of quantification was exceeded only in nestlings. Neonicotinoids were present in all sampled nests. Neonicotinoid presence in honey buzzard nestlings' blood matched spatially with the presence of oilseed plant fields. These are the first observations of neonicotinoids in a diurnal raptor. For better understanding the potential negative sublethal of neonicotinoids in wild vertebrates, new (experimental) studies are needed. (c) 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.
  • Keinanen, Outi; Dayts, Eric J.; Rodriguez, Cindy; Sarrett, Samantha M.; Brennan, James M.; Sarparanta, Mirkka; Zeglis, Brian M (2021)
    The proliferation of plastics in the environment continues at an alarming rate. Plastic particles have been found to be persistent and ubiquitous pollutants in a variety of environments, including sea water, fresh water, soil, and air. In light of this phenomenon, the scientific and medical communities have become increasingly wary of the dangers posed to human health by chronic exposure to microplastics (