Browsing by Subject "TRACKING"

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  • Rodiger, Manika; Moreno-Esteva, Enrique Garcia; Janssen, Meike; Hamm, Ulrich (2019)
    It is of significant importance in food marketing to know which pieces of information available during shopping are most relevant to consumers. The visual search behaviour of consumers allows inference on the relevance of information based on what information is acquired and when. It is assumed that price is a major barrier to the purchase of organic food. However, little is known about consumers' actual acquisition of information on organic food prices. To examine the information acquisition behaviour of consumers buying organic and consumers buying conventional food, a shopping simulation study was run in which participants (n=189) were invited to choose between different unfamiliar organic and conventional product alternatives while wearing eye-tracking glasses. The data were divided into three visual attention phases: orientation phase, comparison phase, and evaluation phase.The information intake in the phases was investigated comparing organic and conventional consumers. Organic consumers acquired less information on conventional prices in the orientation and evaluation phases. It is concluded that for organic consumers, price information is less relevant to making a purchase decision compared to consumers of conventional food.
  • Puolakka, Elina; Pahkala, Katja; Laitinen, Tomi T.; Magnussen, Costan G.; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Männistö, Satu; Palve, Kristiina S.; Tammelin, Tuija; Tossavainen, Päivi; Jokinen, Eero; Smith, Kylie J.; Laitinen, Tomi; Elovainio, Marko; Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Viikari, Jorma S. A.; Raitakari, Ollii T.; Juonala, Markus (2018)
    Background: Differences in health behaviors partly explain the socioeconomic gap in cardiovascular health. We prospectively examined the association between childhood socioeconomic status (SES) and lifestyle factors in adulthood, and the difference of lifestyle factors according to childhood SES in multiple time points from childhood to adulthood. Methods and results: The sample comprised 3453 participants aged 3-18 years at baseline (1980) from the longitudinal Young Finns Study. The participants were followed up for 31 years (N = 1675-1930). SES in childhood was characterized as reported annual family income and classified on an 8-point scale. Diet, smoking, alcohol intake and physical activity were used as adult and life course lifestyle factors. Higher childhood SES predicted a healthier diet in adulthood in terms of lower consumption of meat (beta +/- SE -3.6 +/- 0.99, p <0.001), higher consumption of fish (1.1 +/- 0.5, p = 0.04) and higher diet score (0.14 +/- 0.044, p = 0.01). Childhood SES was also directly associated with physical activity index (0.059 +/- 0.023, p = 0.009) and inversely with the risk of being a smoker (RR 0.90 95%CI 0.85-0.95, p <0.001) and the amount of pack years (-0.47 +/- 0.18, p = 0.01). Life course level of smoking was significantly higher and physical activity index lower among those below the median childhood SES when compared with those above the median SES. Conclusions: These results show that childhood SES associates with several lifestyle factors 31 years later in adulthood. Therefore, attention could be paid to lifestyle behaviors of children of low SES families to promote cardiovascular health. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Barnes, D.; Davies, J. A.; Harrison, R. A.; Byrne, J. P.; Perry, C. H.; Bothmer, V.; Eastwood, J. P.; Gallagher, P. T.; Kilpua, E. K. J.; Möstl, C.; Rodriguez, L.; Rouillard, A. P.; Odstrcil, D. (2019)
    Recent observations with the Heliospheric Imagers (HIs) onboard the twin NASA Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) spacecraft have provided unprecedented observations of a large number of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) in the inner heliosphere. In this article we discuss the generation of the HIGeoCAT CME catalogue and perform a statistical analysis of its events. The catalogue was generated as part of the EU FP7 HELCATS (Heliospheric Cataloguing, Analysis and Techniques Service) project (www.helcats-fp7.eu/). It is created by generating time/elongation maps for CMEs using observations from the inner (HI-1) and outer (HI-2) cameras along a position angle close to the CME apex. Next, we apply single-spacecraft geometric-fitting techniques to determine the kinematic properties of these CMEs, including their speeds, propagation directions, and launch times. The catalogue contains a total of 1455 events (801 from STEREO-A and 654 from STEREO-B) from April 2007 to the end of August 2017. We perform a statistical analysis of the properties of CMEs in HIGeoCAT and compare the results with those from the Large Angle Spectrometric Coronagraph (LASCO) CDAW catalogues (Yashiro etal.J.Geophys. Res. Space Phys.109, A07105, 2004) and the COR-2 catalogue of Vourlidas etal. (Astrophys. J.838, 141, 2004) during the same period. We find that the distributions of both speeds and latitudes for the HIGeoCAT CMEs correlate with the sunspot number over the solar cycle. We also find that the HI-derived CME speed distributions are generally consistent with coronagraph catalogues over the solar cycle, albeit with greater absolute speeds due to the differing methods with which each is derived.
  • Silventoinen, Karri; Jelenkovic, Aline; Sund, Reijo; Yokoyama, Yoshie; Hur, Yoon-Mi; Cozen, Wendy; Hwang, Amie E.; Mack, Thomas M.; Honda, Chika; Inui, Fujio; Iwatani, Yoshinori; Watanabe, Mikio; Tomizawa, Rie; Pietilainen, Kirsi H.; Rissanen, Aila; Siribaddana, Sisira H.; Hotopf, Matthew; Sumathipala, Athula; Rijsdijk, Fruhling; Tan, Qihua; Zhang, Dongfeng; Pang, Zengchang; Piirtola, Maarit; Aaltonen, Sari; Oncel, Sevgi Y.; Aliev, Fazil; Rebato, Esther; Hjelmborg, Jacob B.; Christensen, Kaare; Skytthe, Axel; Kyvik, Kirsten O.; Silberg, Judy L.; Eaves, Lindon J.; Cutler, Tessa L.; Ordonana, Juan R.; Sanchez-Romera, Juan F.; Colodro-Conde, Lucia; Song, Yun-Mi; Yang, Sarah; Lee, Kayoung; Franz, Carol E.; Kremen, William S.; Lyons, Michael J.; Busjahn, Andreas; Nelson, Tracy L.; Whitfield, Keith E.; Kandler, Christian; Jang, Kerry L.; Gatz, Margaret; Butler, David A.; Stazi, Maria A.; Fagnani, Corrado; D'Ippolito, Cristina; Duncan, Glen E.; Buchwald, Dedra; Martin, Nicholas G.; Medland, Sarah E.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Jeong, Hoe-Uk; Swan, Gary E.; Krasnow, Ruth; Magnusson, Patrik Ke; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Aslan, Anna K. Dahl; McAdams, Tom A.; Eley, Thalia C.; Gregory, Alice M.; Tynelius, Per; Baker, Laura A.; Tuvblad, Catherine; Bayasgalan, Gombojav; Narandalai, Danshiitsoodol; Spector, Timothy D.; Mangino, Massimo; Lachance, Genevieve; Burt, S. Alexandra; Klump, Kelly L.; Harris, Jennifer R.; Brandt, Ingunn; Nilsen, Thomas S.; Krueger, Robert F.; Mcgue, Matt; Pahlen, Shandell; Corley, Robin P.; Huibregtse, Brooke M.; Bartels, Meike; van Beijsterveldt, Catharina E. M.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Goldberg, Jack H.; Rasmussen, Finn; Tarnoki, Adam D.; Tarnoki, David L.; Derom, Catherine A.; Vlietinck, Robert F.; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Hopper, John L.; Sung, Joohon; Maes, Hermine H.; Turkheimer, Eric; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Sorensen, Thorkild I. A.; Kaprio, Jaakko (2017)
    Background: Genes and the environment contribute to variation in adult body mass index [BMI (in kg/m(2))], but factors modifying these variance components are poorly understood. Objective: We analyzed genetic and environmental variation in BMI between men and women from young adulthood to old age from the 1940s to the 2000s and between cultural-geographic regions representing high (North America and Australia), moderate (Europe), and low (East Asia) prevalence of obesity. Design: We used genetic structural equation modeling to analyze BMI in twins >= 20 y of age from 40 cohorts representing 20 countries (140,379 complete twin pairs). Results: The heritability of BMI decreased from 0.77 (95% CI: 0.77, 0.78) and 0.75 (95% CI: 0.74, 0.75) in men and women 2029 y of age to 0.57 (95% CI: 0.54, 0.60) and 0.59 (95% CI: 0.53, 0.65) in men 70-79 y of age and women 80 y of age, respectively. The relative influence of unique environmental factors correspondingly increased. Differences in the sets of genes affecting BMI in men and women increased from 20-29 to 60-69 y of age. Mean BMI and variances in BMI increased from the 1940s to the 2000s and were greatest in North America and Australia, followed by Europe and East Asia. However, heritability estimates were largely similar over measurement years and between regions. There was no evidence of environmental factors shared by co-twins affecting BMI. Conclusions: The heritability of BMI decreased and differences in the sets of genes affecting BMI in men and women increased from young adulthood to old age. The heritability of BMI was largely similar between cultural-geographic regions and measurement years, despite large differences in mean BMI and variances in BMI. Our results show a strong influence of genetic factors on BMI, especially in early adulthood, regardless of the obesity level in the population.
  • Yang, Xiaolin; Kaseva, Kaisa; Keltikangas-Jarvinen, Liisa; Pulkki-Raback, Laura; Hirvensalo, Mirja; Jokela, Markus; Hintsanen, Mirka; Hintsa, Taina; Kankaanpää, Anna; Telama, Risto; Hutri-Kahonen, Nina; Viikari, Jorma S. A.; Raitakari, Olli T.; Tammelin, Tuija (2017)
    We examined associations between childhood temperamental activity, physical activity (PA), and television (TV) viewing over a 30-year period. The participants (1220 boys and 1237 girls) were aged 3, 6, 9, and 12 years in 1980 and were followed until 2011. Temperamental activity was evaluated by participants' mothers at baseline. The PA was assessed based on maternal ratings of the child from ages 3 to 6 and via self-report age from the age of 9 across all measurements. TV viewing was assessed using self-reports taken from 2001 to 2011. The associations between temperamental activity and the level and change of PA and TV viewing were determined using linear growth modeling stratified by gender and age group. High temperamental activity assessed from ages 9 to 12 was associated with high levels of childhood PA in both genders, but with a steeper decline in PA levels during the first 9 years of follow-up in boys. High temperamental activity assessed from ages 3 to 6 was associated with the decline of PA from childhood to youth in girls. High childhood temperamental activity was associated with decreased levels of PA in adulthood in men, but not in women. The associations between childhood temperamental activity and TV viewing during adulthood seemed to be positive but not consistently significant in all age and gender groups. High temperamental activity may contribute to the development of a physically inactive lifestyle. More evidence is needed with regard to gender differences among participants in similar study settings.
  • Seppala, Jan; Suilamo, Sami; Tenhunen, Mikko; Sailas, Liisa; Virsunen, Heli; Kaleva, Erna; Keyrilainen, Jani (2017)
    Purpose:The aim of this study was to compare dosimetric characteristics, monitor unit, and delivery efficiency of 4 different stereotactic body radiotherapy techniques for the treatment of prostate cancer.Methods:This study included 8 patients with localized prostate cancer. Dosimetric assets of 4 delivery techniques for stereotactic body radiotherapy were evaluated: robotic CyberKnife, noncoplanar intensity-modulated radiotherapy, and 2 intensity-modulated arc therapy techniques (RapidArc and Elekta volumetric-modulated arc therapy). All the plans had equal treatment margins and a prescription dose of 35 Gy in 5 fractions.Results:Statistically significant differences were observed in homogeneity index and mean doses of bladder wall and penile bulb, all of which were highest with CyberKnife. No significant differences were observed in the mean doses of rectum, with values of 15.2 2.6, 13.3 +/- 2.6, 13.1 +/- 2.8, and 13.8 +/- 1.6 Gy with CyberKnife, RapidArc, volumetric-modulated arc therapy, and noncoplanar intensity-modulated radiotherapy, respectively. The highest dose conformity was realized with RapidArc. The dose coverage of the planning target volume was lowest with noncoplanar intensity-modulated radiotherapy. Treatment times and number of monitor units were largest with CyberKnife (on average 34.0 +/- 5.0 minutes and 8704 +/- 1449 monitor units) and least with intensity-modulated arc therapy techniques (on average 5.1 +/- 1.1 minutes and 2270 +/- 497 monitor units).Conclusion:Compared to CyberKnife, the RapidArc, volumetric-modulated arc therapy, and noncoplanar intensity-modulated radiotherapy produced treatment plans with similar dosimetric quality, with RapidArc achieving the highest dose conformity. Overall, the dosimetric differences between the studied techniques were marginal, and thus, the choice of the technique should rather focus on the delivery accuracies and dose delivery times.
  • Joki, Anu Maarit Hannele; Mäkelä, Johanna; Konttinen, Hanna; Fogelholm, Mikael (2020)
    BackgroundDespite the current obesogenic environment creating challenges weight management, some people succeed in maintaining a normal weight. This study explored lifelong weight management from the life course perspective. We aimed to gain an insight into the issues related to the pathways of individuals of normal weight from childhood to adulthood, and how their experiences and social connections influence their weight management.MethodsWe approached the research topic using qualitative methods. Two age groups (30-45; 55-70years, men and women), forming a total of 39 individuals, participated in theme interviews. Thematic analysis resulted in two main categories, namely (1) adoption of lifestyle and (2) maintenance of lifestyle.ResultsChildhood family played a central role in the formation of lifestyle: food-upbringing created the basis for the interviewees' current diet, and their lives had always been characterized by an active lifestyle. High perceived self-efficacy was vital in weight management. The interviewees were confident about their routines and trusted their abilities to recognize and handle situations that threatened their lifestyles. They possessed skills for adjusting their lifestyle to altered environments, and showed a high level of coping self-efficacy. The interviewees also highlighted the importance of habits for weight management. They had improved their adopted lifestyle through constant learning. New routines had become more internalized through active repetition, finally turning into habitual practices, which simplified weight management.ConclusionsBased on our interviews, we conclude that childhood was important in the development of the health-promoting lifestyle of our interviewees. However, weight management was described as a journey over the life course, and success also encouraged skills of identifying risks and adjusting actions to cope with challenging situations.
  • Karkman, Antti; Parnanen, Katariina; Larsson, D. G. Joakim (2019)
    Discharge of treated sewage leads to release of antibiotic resistant bacteria, resistance genes and antibiotic residues to the environment. However, it is unclear whether increased abundance of antibiotic resistance genes in sewage and sewage-impacted environments is due to on-site selection pressure by residual antibiotics, or is simply a result of fecal contamination with resistant bacteria. Here we analyze relative resistance gene abundance and accompanying extent of fecal pollution in publicly available metagenomic data, using crAssphage sequences as a marker of human fecal contamination (crAssphage is a bacteriophage that is exceptionally abundant in, and specific to, human feces). We find that the presence of resistance genes can largely be explained by fecal pollution, with no clear signs of selection in the environment, with the exception of environments polluted by very high levels of anti-biotics from manufacturing, where selection is evident. Our results demonstrate the necessity to take into account fecal pollution levels to avoid making erroneous assumptions regarding environmental selection of antibiotic resistance.
  • Pei, Ling; Guinness, Robert; Chen, Ruizhi; Liu, Jingbin; Kuusniemi, Heidi; Chen, Yuwei; Chen, Liang; Kaistinen, Jyrki (2013)
  • Maatta, Suvi; Lehto, Reetta; Nislin, Mari; Ray, Carola; Erkkola, Maijaliisa; Sajaniemi, Nina; Roos, Eva; DAGIS Res Grp (2015)
    Background: Effective interventions that target socioeconomic status (SES) differences to avoid the potential widening of inequalities in health are needed. Children at preschool age is a valuable intervention target since sedentary behaviors, physical activity (PA), dietary behaviors, and sleep habits, jointly called the energy balance-related behaviors (EBRBs), are established in early childhood and tend to persist later in life. The interventions are most effective, when they focus on evidence-based factors. One potential factor associated with EBRBs and SES is children's stress regulation, which receives special attention in this study. Based on the socioecological approach, the combinations of multiple levels (e.g. individual, environmental, societal) of analysis and diverse methodologies (e.g. surveys, observations, biological measurements) are used to assess the healthfulness of environments (e.g. social, physical, learning, policy) in preschool and family settings. The intervention aimed to diminish SES differences in EBRBs is then conducted in the preschool setting. Methods/design: The DAGIS study is divided into two phases. The first phase comprises focus group interviews and a cross-sectional survey. Parents and preschool personnel in low SES neighborhoods participated in interviews about children's sedentary behaviors, dietary behaviors, and PA in 2014. In the cross-sectional survey beginning in autumn 2015, preschools will be recruited from a random sample of preschools in 3-5 municipalities in Southern Finland. A total of 800 children will wear an accelerometer for seven days. Children's hair and saliva samples will be taken. Parents and preschool personnel will complete questionnaires on EBRBs, social and physical environments and SES factors. The quality of preschool environment is also observed. In the second phase, an intervention targeting to narrowing SES differences in EBRBs is conducted. The effects of the intervention will be evaluated in randomised controlled trial. The implementation of the intervention will also be evaluated. Conclusion: If effective, this unique preschool-based study will be able to narrow the SES differences in preschool children's EBRBs. This study is anticipated to identify the most important modifiable factors in preschool and family environmental settings associated with children's EBRBs, especially in children from low SES backgrounds.
  • Törnqvist, Heini; Somppi, Sanni; Kujala, Miiamaaria; Vainio, Outi (2020)
    Background. This study examines how dogs observe images of natural scenes containing living creatures (wild animals, dogs and humans) recorded with eye gaze tracking. Because dogs have had limited exposure to wild animals in their lives, we also consider the natural novelty of the wild animal images for the dogs. Methods. The eye gaze of dogs was recorded while they viewed natural images containing dogs, humans, and wild animals. Three categories of images were used: naturalistic landscape images containing single humans or animals, full body images containing a single human or an animal, and full body images containing a pair of humans or animals. The gazing behavior of two dog populations, family and kennel dogs, were compared. Results. As a main effect, dogs gazed at living creatures (object areas) longer than the background areas of the images; heads longer than bodies; heads longer than background areas; and bodies longer than background areas. Dogs gazed less at the object areas vs. the background in landscape images than in the other image categories. Both dog groups also gazed wild animal heads longer than human or dog heads in the images. When viewing single animal and human images, family dogs focused their gaze very prominently on the head areas, but in images containing a pair of animals or humans, they gazed more at the body than the head areas. In kennel dogs, the difference in gazing times of the head and body areas within single or paired images failed to reach significance. Discussion. Dogs focused their gaze on living creatures in all image categories, also detecting them in the natural landscape images. Generally, they also gazed at the biologically informative areas of the images, such as the head, which supports the importance of the head/face area for dogs in obtaining social information. The natural novelty of the species represented in the images as well as the image category affected the gazing behavior of dogs. Furthermore, differences in the gazing strategy between family and kennel dogs was obtained, suggesting an influence of different social living environments and life experiences.
  • Woodcock, D. J.; Riabchenko, E.; Taavitsainen, S.; Kankainen, M.; Gundem, G.; Brewer, D. S.; Ellonen, P.; Lepistö, M.; Golubeva, Y. A.; Warner, A. C.; Tolonen, T.; Jasu, J.; Isaacs, W. B.; Emmert-Buck, M. R.; Nykter, M.; Visakorpi, T.; Bova, G. S.; Wedge, D. C. (2020)
    The evolutionary progression from primary to metastatic prostate cancer is largely uncharted, and the implications for liquid biopsy are unexplored. We infer detailed reconstructions of tumor phylogenies in ten prostate cancer patients with fatal disease, and investigate them in conjunction with histopathology and tumor DNA extracted from blood and cerebrospinal fluid. Substantial evolution occurs within the prostate, resulting in branching into multiple spatially intermixed lineages. One dominant lineage emerges that initiates and drives systemic metastasis, where polyclonal seeding between sites is common. Routes to metastasis differ between patients, and likely genetic drivers of metastasis distinguish the metastatic lineage from the lineage that remains confined to the prostate within each patient. Body fluids capture features of the dominant lineage, and subclonal expansions that occur in the metastatic phase are non-uniformly represented. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis reveals lineages not detected in blood-borne DNA, suggesting possible clinical utility. The evolutionary progression from primary to metastatic prostate cancer is largely uncharted, and the implications for liquid biopsy are unexplored. Here, the authors use deep genomic sequencing and histopathological information to trace tumor evolution both within the prostate and during metastasis in ten men.
  • Yli-Kauhaluoma, Sari Susanna; Pantzar, Mika (2018)
    Objective Self-tracking technologies have created high hopes, even hype, for aiding people to govern their own health risks and promote optimal wellness. High expectations do not, however, necessarily materialize due to connective gaps between personal experiences and self-tracking data. This study examines situations when self-trackers face difficulties in engaging with, and reflecting on, their data with the aim of identifying the specificities and consequences of such connective gaps in self-tracking contexts. Methods The study is based on empirical analyses of interviews of inexperienced, experienced and extreme self-trackers (in total 27), who participated in a pilot study aiming at promoting health and wellness. Results The study shows that people using self-tracking devices actively search for constant connectivity to their everyday experiences and particularly health and wellness through personal data but often become disappointed. The results suggest that in connective gaps the personal data remains invisible or inaccurate, generating feelings of confusion and doubt in the users of the self-tracking devices. These are alarming symptoms that may lead to indifference when disconnectivity becomes solidified and data ends up becoming dead, providing nothing useful for the users of self-tracking technologies. Conclusions High expectations which are put on wearables to advance health and wellness may remain unmaterialised due to connective gaps. This is problematic if individuals are increasingly expected to be active in personal data collection and interpretation regarding their own health and wellness.
  • Komulainen, Kaisla; Mittleman, Murray A.; Jokela, Markus; Laitinen, Tomi T.; Pahkala, Katja; Elovainio, Marko; Juonala, Markus; Tammelin, Tuija; Kähönen, Mika; Raitakari, Olli; Keltikangas-Jarvinent, Liisa; Pulkid-Raback, Laura (2019)
    Background Promoting ideal cardiovascular health behaviors is an objective of the American Heart Association 2020 goals. We hypothesized that ideal health behaviors of parents are associated with health behaviors of their adult offspring, and that higher socioeconomic position in either generation enhances intergenerational associations of ideal health behaviors. Design Prospective cohort study. Methods We included 1856 Young Finns Study participants who had repeated measurements of socioeconomic position (education, income, occupation), smoking status, body mass index, physical activity and diet from 2001, 2007 and 2011, and data on parental socioeconomic position and health behaviors from 1980. We calculated the total number of ideal behaviors in both generations using American Heart Association definitions. Intergenerational associations were examined using ordinal and linear multilevel regression with random intercepts, in which each participant contributed one, two or three measurements of adult health behaviors (2001, 2007, 2011). All analyses were adjusted for offspring sex, birth year, age, parental education and single parenthood. Results Overall, parental ideal health behaviors were associated with ideal behaviors among offspring (odds ratio (OR) 1.28, 95% confidence interval 1.17, 1.39). Furthermore, ORs for these intergenerational associations were greater among offspring whose parents or who themselves had higher educational attainment (OR 1.56 for high vs. OR 1.19 for low parental education; P = 0.01 for interaction, OR 1.32 for high vs. OR 1.04 for low offspring education; P = 0.02 for interaction). Similar trends were seen with parental income and offspring occupation. Results from linear regression analyses were similar. Conclusions These prospective data suggest higher socioeconomic position in parents or in their adult offspring strengthens the intergenerational continuum of ideal cardiovascular health behaviors.
  • Piccinini, Filippo; Balassa, Tamas; Carbonaro, Antonella; Diosdi, Akos; Toth, Timea; Moshkov, Nikita; Tasnadi, Ervin A.; Horvath, Peter (2020)
    Today, we are fully immersed into the era of 3D biology. It has been extensively demonstrated that 3D models: (a) better mimic the physiology of human tissues; (b) can effectively replace animal models; (c) often provide more reliable results than 2D ones. Accordingly, anti-cancer drug screenings and toxicology studies based on multicellular 3D biological models, the so-called "-oids" (e.g. spheroids, tumoroids, organoids), are blooming in the literature. However, the complex nature of these systems limit the manual quantitative analyses of single cells' behaviour in the culture. Accordingly, the demand for advanced software tools that are able to perform phenotypic analysis is fundamental. In this work, we describe the freely accessible tools that are currently available for biologists and researchers interested in analysing the effects of drugs/treatments on 3D multicellular-oids at a single-cell resolution level. In addition, using publicly available nuclear stained datasets we quantitatively compare the segmentation performance of 9 specific tools. (C) 2020 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of Research Network of Computational and Structural Biotechnology.
  • Bao, Jie; Walliander, Margarita; Kovacs, Ferenc; Nagaraj, Ashwini S.; Hemmes, Annabrita; Sarhadi, Virinder Kaur; Knuutila, Sakari; Lundin, Johan; Horvath, Peter; Verschuren, Emmy W. (2019)
    To facilitate analysis of spatial tissue phenotypes, we created an open-source tool package named 'Spa-RQ' for 'Spatial tissue analysis: image Registration & Quantification'. Spa-RQ contains software for image registration (Spa-R) and quantitative analysis of DAB staining overlap (Spa-Q). It provides an easy-to-implement workflow for serial sectioning and staining as an alternative to multiplexed techniques. To demonstrate Spa-RQ's applicability, we analysed the spatial aspects of oncogenic KRAS-related signalling activities in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Using Spa-R in conjunction with ImageJ/Fiji, we first performed annotation-guided tumour-by-tumour phenotyping using multiple signalling markers. This analysis showed histopathology-selective activation of PI3K/AKT and MAPK signalling in Kras mutant murine tumours, as well as high p38MAPK stress signalling in p53 null murine NSCLC. Subsequently, Spa-RQ was applied to measure the co-activation of MAPK, AKT, and their mutual effector mTOR pathway in individual tumours. Both murine and clinical NSCLC samples could be stratified into 'MAPK/mTOR', 'AKT/mTOR', and 'Null' signature subclasses, suggesting mutually exclusive MAPK and AKT signalling activities. Spa-RQ thus provides a robust and easy to use tool that can be employed to identify spatially-distributed tissue phenotypes.
  • Rouhinen, Santeri; Siebenhühner, Felix; Palva, J. Matias; Palva, Satu (2020)
    The capacity of visual attention determines how many visual objects may be perceived at any moment. This capacity can be investigated with multiple object tracking (MOT) tasks, which have shown that it varies greatly between individuals. The neuronal mechanisms underlying capacity limits have remained poorly understood. Phase synchronization of cortical oscillations coordinates neuronal communication within the fronto-parietal attention network and between the visual regions during endogenous visual attention. We tested a hypothesis that attentional capacity is predicted by the strength of pretarget synchronization within attention-related cortical regions. We recorded cortical activity with magneto- and electroencephalography (M/EEG) while measuring attentional capacity with MOT tasks and identified large-scale synchronized networks from source-reconstructed M/EEG data. Individual attentional capacity was correlated with load-dependent strengthening of theta (3-8 Hz), alpha (8-10 Hz), and gamma-band (30-120 Hz) synchronization that connected the visual cortex with posterior parietal and prefrontal cortices. Individual memory capacity was also preceded by crossfrequency phase-phase and phase-amplitude coupling of alpha oscillation phase with beta and gamma oscillations. Our results show that good attentional capacity is preceded by efficient dynamic functional coupling and decoupling within brain regions and across frequencies, which may enable efficient communication and routing of information between sensory and attentional systems.
  • Koskinen, Juha; Juonala, Markus; Dwyer, Terence; Venn, Alison; Petkeviciene, Janina; Ceponiene, Indre; Bazzano, Lydia; Chen, Wei; Sabin, Matthew A.; Burns, Trudy L.; Viikari, Jorma S. A.; Woo, Jessica G.; Urbina, Elaine M.; Prineas, Ronald; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Sinaiko, Alan; Jacobs, David R.; Steinberger, Julia; Daniels, Stephen; Raitakari, Olli; Magnussen, Costan G. (2019)
    Childhood blood pressure (BP) levels predict adult subclinical atherosclerosis. However, the best childhood BP component for prediction has not been determined. This study comprised 5925 participants aged 3 to 18 years from 6 cohorts who were followed into adulthood (mean follow-up 25.8 +/- 6.2 years). Childhood BP was measured by using a standard mercury sphygmomanometer in all cohorts. Study-specific carotid intima-media thickness 90th percentile was used to define subclinical atherosclerosis. Per SD change in the predictor, childhood systolic BP (SBP; age- and sex-adjusted odds ratio [95% CI], 1.24 [1.13-1.37]), mean arterial pressure (1.10 [1.07-1.13]), and pulse pressure (1.15 [1.05-1.27]) were associated with increased adulthood intima-media thickness. In age- and sex-adjusted analyses, area under the receiver operating characteristic curves for SBP (C value [95% CI], 0.677 [0.657-0.704]) showed significantly improved prediction compared with diastolic BP (0.669 [0.646-0.693], P=0.006) or mean arterial pressure (0.674 [0.653-0.699], P=0.01). Pulse pressure provided a C value that was not different from SBP (0.676 [0.653-0.699], P=0.16). Combining different BP components did not improve prediction over SBP measurement alone. Based on the associations with adult carotid intima-media thickness, cut points for elevated SBP were 105 mmHg for 3- to 6-year-old boys, 108 mmHg for 3- to 6-year-old girls, 108 mmHg for 7- to 12-year-old boys, 106 mmHg for 7- to 12-year-old girls, 123 mmHg for 13- to 18-year-old boys, and 115 mmHg for 13- to 18-year-old girls. Our analyses suggest that several childhood BP measurement components are related to adulthood carotid intima-media thickness. Of these, SBP provided the best predictive ability.
  • Brlík, Vojtěch; Koleček, Jaroslav; Burgess, Malcolm; Hahn, Steffen; Humple, Diana; Krist, Miloš; Ouwehand, Janne; Weiser, Emily L.; Adamík, Peter; Alves, José A.; Arlt, Debora; Barišić, Sanja; Becker, Detlef; Belda, Eduardo J.; Beran, Václav; Both, Christiaan; Bravo, Susana P.; Briedis, Martins; Chutný, Bohumír; Ćiković, Davor; Cooper, Nathan W.; Costa, Joana S.; Cueto, Víctor R.; Emmenegger, Tamara; Fraser, Kevin; Gilg, Olivier; Guerrero, Marina; Hallworth, Michael T.; Hewson, Chris; Jiguet, Frédéric; Johnson, James A.; Kelly, Tosha; Kishkinev, Dmitry; Leconte, Michel; Lislevand, Terje; Lisovski, Simeon; López, Cosme; McFarland, Kent P.; Marra, Peter P.; Matsuoka, Steven M.; Matyjasiak, Piotr; Metzger, Benjamin; Monrós, Juan S.; Neumann, Roland; Newman, Amy; Norris, Ryan; Pärt, Tomas; Pavel, Václav; Perlut, Noah; Piha, Markus; Reneerkens, Jeroen; Rimmer, Christopher C.; Roberto-Charron, Amélie; Scandolara, Chiara; Sokolova, Natalia; Takenaka, Makiko; Tolkmitt, Dirk; van Oosten, Herman; Wellbrock, Arndt H. J.; Wheeler, Hazel; van der Winden, Jan; Witte, Klaudia; Woodworth, Brad; Procházka, Petr (2020)
    Currently, the deployment of tracking devices is one of the most frequently used approaches to study movement ecology of birds. Recent miniaturization of light-level geolocators enabled studying small bird species whose migratory patterns were widely unknown. However, geolocators may reduce vital rates in tagged birds and may bias obtained movement data. There is a need for a thorough assessment of the potential tag effects on small birds, as previous meta-analyses did not evaluate unpublished data and impact of multiple life-history traits, focused mainly on large species and the number of published studies tagging small birds has increased substantially. We quantitatively reviewed 549 records extracted from 74 published and 48 unpublished studies on over 7,800 tagged and 17,800 control individuals to examine the effects of geolocator tagging on small bird species (body mass
  • Sinclair, V. A.; Dacre, H. F. (2019)
    Predicted changes in Southern Hemisphere (SH) precipitation and Antarctic ice mass correspond to variations in the meridional moisture flux (MMF). Thirty-five years of ERA-Interim reanalysis data are combined with an extratropical cyclone (ETC) identification and tracking algorithm to investigate factors controlling SH MMF variability in the midlatitudes and near Antarctica. ETC characteristics which exert the strongest control on ETC MMF are determined thus identifying which ETCs contribute most to SH moisture transport. ETC poleward propagation speed exerts the strongest control on the ETC MMF across the Antarctic coastline. In SH winter, ETCs with the largest poleward propagation speeds transport 2.5 times more moisture than an average ETC. In the midlatitudes, ETC genesis latitude and poleward propagation speed have a similar influence on ETC MMF. Surprisingly, ETC maximum vorticity has little control on ETC MMF. Cyclone compositing is used to determine the reasons for these statistical relationships. ETCs generally exhibit a dipole of poleward and equatorward MMF downstream and upstream of the cyclone center, respectively. However, ETCs with the largest poleward propagation speeds resemble open frontal waves with strong poleward moisture transport downstream of the cyclone center only and thus result in the largest MMF. These results suggest that inhomogeneous trends and predicted changes in precipitation over Antarctica may be due to changes in cyclone track orientation, associated with changes to the large-scale background flow, in addition to changes in cyclone number or intensity.