Browsing by Subject "TRAFFICKING"

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  • Dillard, Kati J.; Hytönen, Marjo K.; Fischer, Daniel; Tanhuanpää, Kimmo; Lehti, Mari S.; Vainio-Siukola, Katri; Sironen, Anu; Anttila, Marjukka (2018)
    Ciliopathies presenting as inherited hepatorenal fibrocystic disorders are rare in humans and in dogs. We describe here a novel lethal ciliopathy in Norwich Terrier puppies that was diagnosed at necropsy and characterized as diffuse cystic renal disease and hepatic fibrosis. The histopathological findings were typical for cystic renal dysplasia in which the cysts were located in the straight portion of the proximal tubule, and thin descending and ascending limbs of Henle's loop. The pedigree of the affected puppies was suggestive of an autosomal recessive inheritance and therefore, whole exome sequencing and homozygosity mapping were used for identification of the causative variant. The analyses revealed a case-specific homozygous splice donor site variant in a cilia related gene, INPP5E: c.1572+5G>A. Association of the variant with the defect was validated in a large cohort of Norwich Terriers with 3 cases and 480 controls, the carrier frequency being 6%. We observed that the identified variant introduces a novel splice site in INPP5E causing a frameshift and formation of a premature stop codon. In conclusion, our results suggest that the INPP5E: c.1572+5G>A variant is causal for the ciliopathy in Norwich Terriers. Therefore, genetic testing can be carried out in the future for the eradication of the disease from the breed.
  • Balistreri, Giuseppe; Yamauchi, Yohei; Teesalu, Tambet (2021)
    Many phylogenetically distant animal viruses, including the new coronavirus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, have surface proteins with polybasic sites that are cleaved by host furin and furin-like proteases. Other than priming certain viral surface proteins for fusion, cleavage generates a carboxy-terminal RXXR sequence. This C-end Rule (CendR) motif is known to bind to neuropilin (NRP) receptors on the cell surface. NRPs are ubiquitously expressed, pleiotropic cell surface receptors with important roles in growth factor signaling, vascular biology, and neurobiology, as well as immune homeostasis and activation. The CendR-NRP receptor interaction promotes endocytic internalization and tissue spreading of different cargo, including viral particles. We propose that the interaction between viral surface proteins and NRPs plays an underappreciated and prevalent role in the transmission and pathogenesis of diverse viruses and represents a promising broad-spectrum antiviral target.
  • Colecchia, D; Stasi, M; Leonardi, M; Manganelli, F; Nolano, M; Veneziani, BM; Santoro, L; Eskelinen, Eeva-Liisa; Chiariello, M; Bucci, Cecilia (2018)
    Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 2B (CMT2B) disease is a dominant axonal peripheral neuropathy caused by 5 mutations in the RAB7A gene, a ubiquitously expressed GTPase controlling late endocytic trafficking. In neurons, RAB7A also controls neuronal-specific processes such as NTF (neurotrophin) trafficking and signaling, neurite outgrowth and neuronal migration. Given the involvement of macroautophagy/autophagy in several neurodegenerative diseases and considering that RAB7A is fundamental for autophagosome maturation, we investigated whether CMT2B-causing mutants affect the ability of this gene to regulate autophagy. In HeLa cells, we observed a reduced localization of all CMT2B-causing RAB7A mutants on autophagic compartments. Furthermore, compared to expression of RAB7AWT, expression of these mutants caused a reduced autophagic flux, similar to what happens in cells expressing the dominant negative RAB7AT22N mutant. Consistently, both basal and starvation-induced autophagy were strongly inhibited in skin fibroblasts from a CMT2B patient carrying the RAB7AV162M mutation, suggesting that alteration of the autophagic flux could be responsible for neurodegeneration.
  • Meneses-Salas, Elsa; García-Melero, Ana; Kanerva, Kristiina; Blanco-Muñoz, Patricia; Morales-Paytuvi, Frederic; Bonjoch, Júlia; Heeren, Joerg; Lu, Albert; Pol, Albert; Tebar, Francesc; Ikonen, Elina; Grewal, Thomas; Enrich, Carlos; Rentero, Carles (2020)
    Cholesterol accumulation in late endosomes is a prevailing phenotype of Niemann-Pick type C1 (NPC1) mutant cells. Likewise, annexin A6 (AnxA6) overexpression induces a phenotype reminiscent of NPC1 mutant cells. Here, we demonstrate that this cellular cholesterol imbalance is due to AnxA6 promoting Rab7 inactivation via TBC1D15, a Rab7-GAP. In NPC1 mutant cells, AnxA6 depletion and eventual Rab7 activation was associated with peripheral distribution and increased mobility of late endosomes. This was accompanied by an enhanced lipid accumulation in lipid droplets in an acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT)-dependent manner. Moreover, in AnxA6-deficient NPC1 mutant cells, Rab7-mediated rescue of late endosome-cholesterol export required the StAR-related lipid transfer domain-3 (StARD3) protein. Electron microscopy revealed a significant increase of membrane contact sites (MCS) between late endosomes and ER in NPC1 mutant cells lacking AnxA6, suggesting late endosome-cholesterol transfer to the ER via Rab7 and StARD3-dependent MCS formation. This study identifies AnxA6 as a novel gatekeeper that controls cellular distribution of late endosome-cholesterol via regulation of a Rab7-GAP and MCS formation.
  • Hernandez-Perez, Sara; Vainio, Marika; Kuokkanen, Elina; Sustar, Vid; Petrov, Petar; Forsten, Sofia; Paavola, Vilma; Rajala, Johanna; Awoniyi, Luqman O.; Sarapulov, Alexey; Vihinen, Helena; Jokitalo, Eija; Bruckbauer, Andreas; Mattila, Pieta K. (2020)
    In order to mount high-affinity antibody responses, B cells internalise specific antigens and process them into peptides loaded onto MHCII for presentation to T helper cells (T H cells). While the biochemical principles of antigen processing and MHCII loading have been well dissected, how the endosomal vesicle system is wired to enable these specific functions remains much less studied. Here, we performed a systematic microscopy-based analysis of antigen trafficking in B cells to reveal its route to the MHCII peptide-loading compartment (MIIC). Surprisingly, we detected fast targeting of internalised antigen into peripheral acidic compartments that possessed the hallmarks of the MIIC and also showed degradative capacity. In these vesicles, intemalised antigen converged rapidly with membrane-derived MHCII and partially overlapped with cathepsin-S and H2-M, both required for peptide loading. These early compartments appeared heterogenous and atypical as they contained a mixture of both early and late endosomal markers, indicating a specialized endosomal route. Together, our data suggest that, in addition to in the previously reported perinuclear late endosomal MIICs, antigen processing and peptide loading could have already started in these specialized early peripheral acidic vesicles (eMlIC) to support fast peptide-MHCII presentation. This article has an associated First Person interview with the first author of the paper.
  • Luchkina, Natalia V.; Huupponen, Johanna; Clarke, Vernon R. J.; Coleman, Sarah K.; Keinanen, Kari; Taira, Tomi; Lauri, Sari E. (2014)
  • Neuvonen, Maarit; Manna, Moutusi; Mokkila, Sini; Javanainen, Matti; Rog, Tomasz; Liu, Zheng; Bittman, Robert; Vattulainen, Ilpo; Ikonen, Elina (2014)
  • Pfisterer, Simon G.; Peranen, Johan; Ikonen, Elina (2016)
    Purpose of review In this article, we summarize the present information related to the export of LDL-derived cholesterol from late endosomes, with a focus on Nieman-Pick disease, type C1 (NPC1) cholesterol delivery toward the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). We review data suggesting that several pathways may operate in parallel, including membrane transport routes and membrane contact sites (MCSs). Recent findings There is increasing appreciation that MCSs provide an important mechanism for intermembrane lipid transfer. In late endosome-ER contacts, three protein bridges involving oxysterol binding protein related protein (ORP) 1L-vesicle associated membrane protein-associated protein (VAP), steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) D3-VAP and ORP5-NPC1 proteins have been reported. How much they contribute to the flux of LDL-cholesterol to the ER is currently open. Studies for lipid transfer via MCSs have been most advanced in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Recently, a new sterol-binding protein family conserved between yeast and man was identified. Its members localize at MCSs and were named lipid transfer protein anchored at membrane contact sites (Lam) proteins. In yeast, sterol transfer between the ER and the yeast lysosome may be facilitated by a Lam protein. Summary Increasing insights into the role of MCSs in directional sterol delivery between membranes propose that they might provide routes for LDL-cholesterol transfer to the ER. Future work should reveal which specific contacts may operate for this, and how they are controlled by cholesterol homeostatic machineries.
  • Heybrock, Saskia; Kanerva, Kristiina; Meng, Ying; Ing, Chris; Liang, Anna; Xiong, Zi-Jian; Weng, Xialian; Kim, Young Ah; Collins, Richard; Trimble, William; Pomes, Regis; Prive, Gilbert G.; Annaert, Wim; Schwake, Michael; Heeren, Joerg; Lullmann-Rauch, Renate; Grinstein, Sergio; Ikonen, Elina; Saftig, Paul; Neculai, Dante (2019)
    The intracellular transport of cholesterol is subject to tight regulation. The structure of the lysosomal integral membrane protein type 2 (LIMP-2, also known as SCARB2) reveals a large cavity that traverses the molecule and resembles the cavity in SR-B1 that mediates lipid transfer. The detection of cholesterol within the LIMP-2 structure and the formation of cholesterol - like inclusions in LIMP-2 knockout mice suggested the possibility that LIMP2 transports cholesterol in lysosomes. We present results of molecular modeling, crosslinking studies, microscale thermophoresis and cell-based assays that support a role of LIMP-2 in cholesterol transport. We show that the cavity in the luminal domain of LIMP-2 can bind and deliver exogenous cholesterol to the lysosomal membrane and later to lipid droplets. Depletion of LIMP-2 alters SREBP-2-mediated cholesterol regulation, as well as LDL-receptor levels. Our data indicate that LIMP-2 operates in parallel with Niemann Pick (NPC)-proteins, mediating a slower mode of lysosomal cholesterol export.
  • Venditti, Rossella; Rega, Laura Rita; Masone, Maria Chiara; Santoro, Michele; Polishchuk, Elena; Sarnataro, Daniela; Paladino, Simona; D'Auria, Sabato; Varriale, Antonio; Olkkonen, Vesa M.; Di Tullio, Giuseppe; Polishchuk, Roman; De Matteis, Maria Antonietta (2019)
    ER-TGN contact sites (ERTGoCS) have been visualized by electron microscopy, but their location in the crowded perinuclear area has hampered their analysis via optical microscopy as well as their mechanistic study. To overcome these limits we developed a FRET-based approach and screened several candidates to search for molecular determinants of the ERTGoCS. These included the ER membrane proteins VAPA and VAPB and lipid transfer proteins possessing dual (ER and TGN) targeting motifs that have been hypothesized to contribute to the maintenance of ERTGoCS, such as the ceramide transfer protein CERT and several members of the oxysterol binding proteins. We found that VAP proteins, OSBP1, ORP9, and ORP10 are required, with OSBP1 playing a redundant role with ORP9, which does not involve its lipid transfer activity, and ORP10 being required due to its ability to transfer phosphatidylserine to the TGN. Our results indicate that both structural tethers and a proper lipid composition are needed for ERTGoCS integrity.
  • Takahashi, Kohta; Kanerva, Kristiina; Vanharanta, Lauri; Almeida-Souza, Leonardo; Lietha, Daniel; Olkkonen, Vesa M.; Ikonen, Elina (2021)
    Low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol delivery from late endosomes to the plasma membrane regulates focal adhesion dynamics and cell migration, but the mechanisms controlling it are poorly characterized. Here, we employed auxin-inducible rapid degradation of oxysterol-binding protein-related protein 2 (ORP2/OSBPL2) to show that endogenous ORP2 mediates the transfer of LDL-derived cholesterol from late endosomes to focal adhesion kinase (FAK)-/integrin-positive recycling endosomes in human cells. In vitro, cholesterol enhances membrane association of FAK to PI(4,5)P-2-containing lipid bilayers. In cells, ORP2 stimulates FAK activation and PI(4,5)P-2 generation in endomembranes, enhancing cell adhesion. Moreover, ORP2 increases PI(4,5)P-2 in NPC1-containing late endosomes in a FAK-dependent manner, controlling their tubulovesicular trafficking. Together, these results provide evidence that ORP2 controls FAK activation and LDL-cholesterol plasma membrane delivery by promoting bidirectional cholesterol/PI(4,5)P-2 exchange between late and recycling endosomes.
  • Koponen, Annika; Pan, Guoping; Kivelä, Annukka M.; Ralko, Arthur; Taskinen, Juuso H.; Arora, Amita; Kosonen, Riikka; Kari, Otto K.; Ndika, Joseph; Ikonen, Elina; Cho, Wonhwa; Yan, Daoguang; Olkkonen, Vesa M. (2020)
    Oxysterol-binding protein-related protein 2 (ORP2), a cholesterol-PI(4,5)P(2)countercurrent transporter, was recently identified as a novel regulator of plasma membrane (PM) cholesterol and PI(4,5)P(2)content in HeLa cells. Here, we investigate the role of ORP2 in endothelial cell (EC) cholesterol and PI(4,5)P(2)distribution, angiogenic signaling, and angiogenesis. We show that ORP2 knock-down modifies the distribution of cholesterol accessible to a D4H probe, between late endosomes and the PM. Depletion of ORP2 from ECs inhibits their angiogenic tube formation capacity, alters the gene expression of angiogenic signaling pathways such as VEGFR2, Akt, mTOR, eNOS, and Notch, and reduces EC migration, proliferation, and cell viability. We show that ORP2 regulates the integrity of VEGFR2 at the PM in a cholesterol-dependent manner, the depletion of ORP2 resulting in proteolytic cleavage by matrix metalloproteinases, and reduced activity of VEGFR2 and its downstream signaling. We demonstrate that ORP2 depletion increases the PM PI(4,5)P(2)coincident with altered F-actin morphology, and reduces both VEGFR2 and cholesterol in buoyant raft membranes. Moreover, ORP2 knock-down suppresses the expression of the lipid raft-associated proteins VE-cadherin and caveolin-1. Analysis of the retinal microvasculature in ORP2 knock-out mice generated during this study demonstrates the subtle alterations of morphology characterized by reduced vessel length and increased density of tip cells and perpendicular sprouts. Gene expression changes in the retina suggest disturbance of sterol homeostasis, downregulation of VE-cadherin, and a putative disturbance of Notch signaling. Our data identifies ORP2 as a novel regulator of EC cholesterol and PI(4,5)P(2)homeostasis and cholesterol-dependent angiogenic signaling.
  • Fred, Senem Merve; Laukkanen, Liina; Brunello, Cecilia A.; Vesa, Liisa; Göös, Helka; Cardon, Iseline; Moliner, Rafael; Maritzen, Tanja; Varjosalo, Markku; Casarotto, Plinio C.; Castren, Eero (2019)
    Several antidepressant drugs activate tropomyosin-related kinase B (TRKB) receptor, but it remains unclear whether these compounds employ a common mechanism for TRKB activation. Here, using MS, we found that a single intraperitoneal injection of fluoxetine disrupts the interaction of several proteins with TRKB in the hippocampus of mice. These proteins included members of adaptor protein complex-2 (AP-2) involved in vesicular endocytosis. The interaction of TRKB with the cargo-docking ? subunit of the AP-2 complex (AP2M) was confirmed to be disrupted by both acute and repeated fluoxetine treatments. Of note, fluoxetine disrupted the coupling between full-length TRKB and AP2M, but not the interaction between AP2M and the TRKB C-terminal region, indicating that the fluoxetine-binding site in TRKB lies outside the TRKB:AP2M interface. ELISA experiments revealed that in addition to fluoxetine, other chemically diverse antidepressants, such as imipramine, rolipram, phenelzine, ketamine, and its metabolite 2R,6R-hydroxynorketamine, also decreased the interaction between TRKB and AP2M in vitro. Silencing the expression of AP2M in a TRKB-expressing mouse fibroblast cell line (MG87.TRKB) increased cell-surface expression of TRKB and facilitated its activation by brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), observed as levels of phosphorylated TRKB. Moreover, animals haploinsufficient for the Ap2m1 gene displayed increased levels of active TRKB, along with enhanced cell-surface expression of the receptor in cultured hippocampal neurons. Taken together, our results suggest that disruption of the TRKB:AP2M interaction is a common mechanism underlying TRKB activation by several chemically diverse antidepressants.
  • Venditti, Rossella; Masone, Maria Chiara; Rega, Laura Rita; Di Tullio, Giuseppe; Santoro, Michele; Polishchuk, Elena; Serrano, Ivan Castello; Olkkonen, Vesa M.; Harada, Akihiro; Medina, Diego L.; La Montagna, Raffaele; De Matteis, Maria Antonietta (2019)
    Phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate (PI4P), a phosphoinositide with key roles in the Golgi complex, is made by Golgi-associated phosphatidylinositol-4 kinases and consumed by the 4-phosphatase Sac1 that, instead, is an ER membrane protein. Here, we show that the contact sites between the ER and the TGN (ERTGoCS) provide a spatial setting suitable for Sac1 to dephosphorylate PI4P at the TGN. The ERTGoCS, though necessary, are not sufficient for the phosphatase activity of Sac1 on TGN PI4P, since this needs the phosphatidyl-four-phosphate-adaptor-protein-1 (FAPP1). FAPP1 localizes at ERTGoCS, interacts with Sac1, and promotes its in-trans phosphatase activity in vitro. We envision that FAPP1, acting as a PI4P detector and adaptor, positions Sac1 close to TGN domains with elevated PI4P concentrations allowing PI4P consumption. Indeed, FAPP1 depletion induces an increase in TGN PI4P that leads to increased secretion of selected cargoes (e.g., ApoB100), indicating that FAPP1, by controlling PI4P levels, acts as a gatekeeper of Golgi exit.
  • Toth, Andrea E.; Siupka, Piotr; Augustine, Thomas J. P.; Veno, Susanne T.; Thomsen, Louiza B.; Moos, Torben; Lohi, Hannes T.; Madsen, Peder; Lykke-Hartmann, Karin; Nielsen, Morten S. (2018)
    Receptor- and adsorptive-mediated transport through brain endothelial cells (BEC) of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) involves a complex array of subcellular vesicular structures, the endo-lysosomal system. It consists of several types of vesicles, such as early, recycling, and late endosomes, retromer-positive structures, and lysosomes. Since this system is important for receptor-mediated transcytosis of drugs across brain capillaries, our aim was to characterise the endo-lysosomal system in BEC with emphasis on their interactions with astrocytes. We used primary porcine BEC in monoculture and in co-culture with primary rat astrocytes. The presence of astrocytes changed the intraendothelial vesicular network and significantly impacted vesicular number, morphology, and distribution. Additionally, gene set enrichment analysis revealedthat 60 genes associated with vesicular trafficking showed altered expression in co-cultured BEC. Cytosolic proteins involved in subcellular trafficking were investigated to mark transport routes, such as RAB25 for transcytosis. Strikingly, the adaptor protein called AP1-1B, important for basolateral sorting in epithelial cells, was not expressed in BEC. Altogether, our data pin-point unique features of BEC trafficking network, essentially mapping the endo-lysosomal system of in vitro BBB models. Consequently, our findings constitute a valuable basis for planning the optimal route across the BBB when advancing drug delivery to the brain.
  • Back, Nils; Kanerva, Kristiina; Kurutihallib, Vishwanatha; Yanik, Andrew; Ikonen, Elina; Mains, Richard E.; Eipper, Betty A. (2017)
    Peptidylglycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase (PAM) is highly expressed in neurons and endocrine cells, where it catalyzes one of the final steps in the biosynthesis of bioactive peptides. PAM is also expressed in unicellular organisms such as Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, which do not store peptides in secretory granules. As for other granule membrane proteins, PAM is retrieved from the cell surface and returned to the trans-Golgi network. This pathway involves regulated entry of PAM into multivesicular body intralumenal vesicles (ILVs). The aim of this study was defining the endocytic pathways utilized by PAM in cells that do not store secretory products in granules. Using stably transfected HEK293 cells, endocytic trafficking of PAM was compared to that of the mannose 6-phosphate (MPR) and EGF (EGFR) receptors, established markers for the endosome to trans-Golgi network and degradative pathways, respectively. As in neuroendocrine cells, PAM internalized by HEK293 cells accumulated in the trans-Golgi network. Based on surface biotinylation, >70% of the PAM on the cell surface was recovered intact after a 4 h chase and soluble, bifunctional PAM was produced. Endosomes containing PAM generally contained both EGFR and MPR and ultrastructural analysis confirmed that all three cargos accumulated in ILVs. PAM containing multivesicular bodies made frequent dynamic tubular contacts with younger and older multivesicular bodies. Frequent dynamic contacts were observed between lysosomes and PAM containing early endosomes and multivesicular bodies. The ancient ability of PAM to localize to ciliary membranes, which release bioactive ectosomes, may be related to its ability to accumulate in ILVs and exosomes. (C) 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
  • Zhao, Zhe; Kesti, Tapio; Uğurlu, Hasan; Baur, Andreas S.; Fagerlund, Riku; Saksela, Kalle (2019)
    When studying how HIV-1 Nef can promote packaging of the proinflammatory transmembrane protease TACE (tumor necrosis factor-alpha converting enzyme) into extracellular vesicles (EVs) we have revealed a novel tyrosine kinase-regulated unconventional protein secretion (UPS) pathway for TACE. When TACE was expressed without its trafficking cofactor iRhom allosteric Hck activation by Nef triggered translocation of TACE into EVs. This process was insensitive to blocking of classical secretion by inhibiting endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to Golgi transport, and involved a distinct form of TACE devoid of normal glycosylation and incompletely processed for prodomain removal. Like most other examples of UPS this process was Golgi reassembly stacking protein (GRASP)-dependent but was not associated with ER stress. These data indicate that Hck-activated UPS provides an alternative pathway for TACE secretion that can bypass iRhom-dependent ER to Golgi transfer, and suggest that tyrosine phosphorylation might have a more general role in regulating UPS.