Browsing by Subject "TRANSITION"

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  • Donsbach, Carsten; Reiter, Kevin; Sundholm, Dage; Weigend, Florian; Dehnen, Stefanie (2018)
    The use of ionic liquids (C(n)C(1)Im)[BF4] with long alkyl chains (n=10,12) in the ionothermal treatment of Na-2[HgTe2] led to lamellar crystal structures with molecular macrocyclic anions [Hg8Te16](8-) (1), the heaviest known topological relative of porphyrin. [Hg8Te16](8-) differs from porphyrin by the absence of an electronic pi-system, which prevents a global aromaticity. Quantum chemical studies reveal instead small ring currents in the pyrrole-type five-membered rings that indicate weak local (sigma) aromaticity. As a result of their lamellar nature, the compounds are promising candidates for the formation of sheets containing chalcogenidometalate anions.
  • Toijala, H.; Eimre, K.; Kyritsakis, A.; Zadin, Vahur; Djurabekova, F. (2019)
    In this work we combine density functional theory and quantum transport calculations to study the influence of atomic-scale defects on the work function and field emission characteristics of metal surfaces. We develop a general methodology for the calculation of the field emitted current density from nanofeatured surfaces, which is then used to study specific defects on a Cu(111) surface. Our results show that the inclusion of a defect can significantly locally enhance the field emitted current density. However, this increase is attributed solely to the decrease of the work function due to the defect, with the effective field enhancement being minute. Finally, the Fowler-Nordheim equation is found to be valid when the modified value for the work function is used, with only an approximately constant factor separating the computed currents from those predicted by the Fowler-Nordheim equation.
  • Bieron, Jacek; Filippin, Livio; Gaigalas, Gediminas; Godefroid, Michel; Jönsson, Per; Pyykkö, Pekka (2018)
    The relativistic multiconfiguration Dirac-Hartree-Fock and the nonrelativistic multiconfiguration Hartree-Fock methods have been employed to calculate the magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole hyperfine structure constants of zinc. The calculated electric field gradients for the 4s4p P-3(1)degrees and 4s4p P-3(2)degrees states, together with experimental values of the electric quadrupole hyperfine structure constants, made it possible to extract a nuclear electric quadrupole moment Q((67) Zn) = 0.122(10) b. The error bar was evaluated in a quasistatistical approach-the calculations were carried out with 11 different methods, and then the error bar was estimated from the differences between the results obtained with those methods.
  • Dimitri, Paul; Fernandez-Luque, Luis; Banerjee, Indraneel; Bergada, Ignacio; Calliari, Luis Eduardo; Dahlgren, Jovanna; de Arriba, Antonio; Lapatto, Risto; Reinehr, Thomas; Senniappan, Senthil; Thomas-Teinturier, Cecile; Tsai, Meng-Che; Zaini, Azriyanti Anuar; Bagha, Merat; Koledova, Ekaterina (2021)
    Background: The use of technology to support health and health care has grown rapidly in the last decade across all ages and medical specialties. Newly developed eHealth tools are being implemented in long-term management of growth failure in children, a low prevalence pediatric endocrine disorder. Objective: Our objective was to create a framework that can guide future implementation and research on the use of eHealth tools to support patients with growth disorders who require growth hormone therapy. Methods: A total of 12 pediatric endocrinologists with experience in eHealth, from a wide geographical distribution, participated in a series of online discussions. We summarized the discussions of 3 workshops, conducted during 2020, on the use of eHealth in the management of growth disorders, which were structured to provide insights on existing challenges, opportunities, and solutions for the implementation of eHealth tools across the patient journey, from referral to the end of pediatric therapy. Results: A total of 815 responses were collected from 2 questionnaire-based activities covering referral and diagnosis of growth disorders, and subsequent growth hormone therapy stages of the patient pathway, relating to physicians, nurses, and patients, parents, or caregivers. We mapped the feedback from those discussions into a framework that we developed as a guide to integration of eHealth tools across the patient journey. Responses focused on improved clinical management, such as growth monitoring and automation of referral for early detection of growth disorders, which could trigger rapid evaluation and diagnosis. Patient support included the use of eHealth for enhanced patient and caregiver communication, better access to educational opportunities, and enhanced medical and psychological support during growth hormone therapy management. Given the potential availability of patient data from connected devices, artificial intelligence can be used to predict adherence and personalize patient support. Providing evidence to demonstrate the value and utility of eHealth tools will ensure that these tools are widely accepted, trusted, and used in clinical practice, but implementation issues (eg, adaptation to specific clinical settings) must be addressed. Conclusions: The use of eHealth in growth hormone therapy has major potential to improve the management of growth disorders along the patient journey. Combining objective clinical information and patient adherence data is vital in supporting decision-making and the development of new eHealth tools. Involvement of clinicians and patients in the process of integrating such technologies into clinical practice is essential for implementation and developing evidence that eHealth tools can provide value across the patient pathway.
  • Strauss, Robert; Li, Zong-Yi; Liu, Ying; Beyer, Ines; Persson, Jonas; Sova, Pavel; Moeller, Thomas; Pesonen, Sari; Hemminki, Akseli; Hamerlik, Petra; Drescher, Charles; Urban, Nicole; Bartek, Jiri; Lieber, Andre (2011)
  • Manninen, A. J.; Marke, T.; Tuononen, M.; O'Connor, E. J. (2018)
    We present a method using Doppler lidar data for identifying the main sources of turbulent mixing within the atmospheric boundary layer. The method identifies the presence of turbulence and then assigns a turbulent source by combining several lidar quantities: attenuated backscatter coefficient, vertical velocity skewness, dissipation rate of turbulent kinetic energy, and vector wind shear. Both buoyancy-driven and shear-driven situations are identified, and the method operates in both clear-sky and cloud-topped conditions, with some reservations in precipitation. To capture the full seasonal cycle, the classification method was applied to more than 1year of data from two sites, Hyytiala, Finland, and Julich, Germany. Analysis showed seasonal variation in the diurnal cycle at both sites; a clear diurnal cycle was observed in spring, summer, and autumn seasons, but due to their respective latitudes, a weaker cycle in winter at Julich, and almost non-existent at Hyytiala. Additionally, there are significant contributions from sources other than convective mixing, with cloud-driven mixing being observed even within the first 500m above ground. Also evident is the considerable amount of nocturnal mixing within the lowest 500m at both sites, especially during the winter. The presence of a low-level jet was often detected when sources of nocturnal mixing were diagnosed as wind shear. The classification scheme and the climatology extracted from the classification provide insight into the processes responsible for mixing within the atmospheric boundary layer, how variable in space and time these can be, and how they vary with location. Key Points
  • Holmgren, Sara; D'amato, Dalia; Giurca, Alexandru (2020)
    This review article examines how social science literature co-produces various imaginaries of forest-based bioeconomy transformations and pathways for reaching desired ends. Based on an analysis of 59 research articles, we find that despite a growing number of social sciences studies on the forest-based bioeconomy, much of the research tends to replicate a bioeconomy imaginary articulated in EU and national bioeconomy policies and strategies. Accordingly, the research primarily reproduces a weak approach to sustainability, which prioritize economic growth and competitiveness. Expectations are largely directed at national and regional corporate interests and forest industrial renewal, while the state has a supportive rather than restricting role. We discuss the findings against the role of social sciences, and conclude that social science scholars may adopt various strategies if interested in opening up forest-based policy debates and offer alternative imaginaries of sustainable bioeconomy transformations.
  • Vered, Marilena; Shnaiderman-Shapiro, Anna; Zlotogorski-Hurvitz, Ayelet; Salo, Tuula; Yahalom, Ran (2019)
    Objectives: To examine different immunophenotypes of cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) in tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC) and to investigate how they related to clinical outcomes. Methods: Serial sections from 54 cases of TSCC were immunohistochemically stained with a-smooth muscle actin (alpha SMA, CAF marker) to determine CAF density, and double-immunostained with alpha SMA combined with CD80 and CD86 (myeloid/monocytic-derived cell markers), Nanog (mesenchymal stem cell marker) and CD133 (hematopoietic/endothelial stem cell marker). Density of cells co-expressing these marker combinations was semi-quantitatively assessed in 5 randomly selected high power fields within the tumor area and scored as 1 - one-to-five stained cells in each field, 2 - more than 5 stained cells in each field; any finding less than score 1, was allocated a score of 0. Results: There were 26 CAF-poor, 16 CAF-rich and 12 CAF-intermediated cases. CD86(+) alpha SMA(+) cells were the most frequent (80.4%) followed by CD80(+) alpha SMA(+) (72%) and Nanog(+) alpha SMA(+) cells (56%). The CD133(+) alpha SMA(+) phenotype was found only in association with blood vessels. High density of aSMA CAFs was associated with disease recurrence and poor survival (p <0.05). Increased density of CD86(+) alpha SMA(+) cells was significantly associated with CAF-rich tumors and with poor survival (p <0.05). Conclusion: In TSCC, CAFs demonstrate heterogeneous and overlapping phenotypes with the myeloid/monocytic type being the most frequent and having an impact on the clinical outcomes. Further studies are needed in order to further characterize CAF phenotypes in carcinomas of various oral sites, as this may open new frontiers for personalized medicine.
  • Hemanthakumar, Karthik Amudhala; Fang, Shentong; Anisimov, Andrey; Mäyränpää, Mikko I.; Mervaala, Eero; Kivelä, Riikka (2021)
    Aging, obesity, hypertension, and physical inactivity are major risk factors for endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular disease (CVD). We applied fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), RNA sequencing, and bioinformatic methods to investigate the common effects of CVD risk factors in mouse cardiac endothelial cells (ECs). Aging, obesity, and pressure overload all upregulated pathways related to TGF-beta signaling and mesenchymal gene expression, inflammation, vascular permeability, oxidative stress, collagen synthesis, and cellular senescence, whereas exercise training attenuated most of the same pathways. We identified collagen chaperone Serpinhl (also called as Hsp47) to be significantly increased by aging and obesity and repressed by exercise training. Mechanistic studies demonstrated that increased SERPINH1 in human ECs induced mesenchymal properties, while its silencing inhibited collagen deposition. Our data demonstrate that CVD risk factors significantly remodel the transcriptomic landscape of cardiac ECs inducing inflammatory, senescence, and mesenchymal features. SERPINH1 was identified as a potential therapeutic target in ECs.
  • Granberg, Fredric; Byggmästar, Jesper; Nordlund, Kai (2019)
    In order to understand the effect of irradiation on the material properties, we need to look into the atomistic evolution of the system during the recoil event. The nanoscale features formed due to irradiation will ultimately affect the macroscopic properties of the material. The defect production in pristine materials have been subject to investigation previously, but as the dose increases, overlap will start to happen. This effect of cascades overlapping with pre-existing debris has only recently been touched, and mainly been investigated for interstitial-type defects. We focus on vacancy-type defect clusters in BCC Fe and start a recoil event in their near vicinity. The final defect number as well as the transformation of the defect clusters are investigated, and their behaviour is related to the distance between the defect and the cascade centre. We found that for vacancy-type defects, the suppression of defect production is not as strong as previously observed for interstitial-type defects. The cascade-induced transformation, such as change in Burgers vector or creation of dislocations, was determined for all initial defect structures.
  • Sitar, Simona; Aseyev, Vladimir; Zagar, Ema; Kogej, Ksenija (2019)
    Dynamic and static light scattering measurements were performed on isotactic and atactic forms of poly (methacrylic acid), iPMA and aPMA, respectively, in order to perform a wide survey of their molecular properties and chain dynamics in water as functions of tacticity, degree of neutralization, alpha(N), and salt concentration, c(s). The molecular parameters of PMA chains were analyzed at low alpha(N) and chain dynamics (diffusion coefficients and in this connection the polyelectrolyte slow mode behavior) at higher alpha(N). The data revealed that both PMAs form microgel-like aggregates with a core-shell structure at low alpha(N) ( = 0 and 0.25 for aPMA and iPMA, respectively). The distribution of the hydrophilic and hydrophobic functional groups within the aggregates and their compactness depended considerably on chain tacticity and for aPMA also on c(s). Further, the effect of c(s) on the polyelectrolyte slow diffusion coefficient, D-s, of partly (0.25
  • Sjosten, Noora; Kivimaki, Mika; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Ferrie, Jane E.; Goldberg, Marcel; Zins, Marie; Pentti, Jaana; Westerlund, Hugo; Vahtera, Jussi (2012)
    Objectives: To examine the trajectories of physical activity from preretirement to postretirement and to further clarify whether the changes in physical activity are associated with changes in body weight. Design: Prospective. Setting: French national gas and electricity company (GAZEL cohort). Participants: From the original sample of 20 625 employees, only those retiring between 2001 and 2008 on a statutory basis were selected for the analyses (analysis 1: n = 2711, 63% men; analysis 2: n = 3812, 75% men). Persons with data on at least one preretirement and postretirement measurement of the outcome were selected. Primary and secondary outcome measures: All outcome data were gathered by questionnaires. In analysis 1, the annual prevalence of higher physical activity (walking >= 5 km/week) 4 years before and after retirement was analysed. In analysis 2, changes in leisure-time sport activities (engagement, frequency and manner) from preretirement to postretirement were analysed with simultaneous changes in body weight (kilogram). Results: In analysis 1 (n = 2711), prevalence estimates for 4 years before and 4 years after retirement showed that higher leisure-time physical activity (walking at least 5 km/week) increased by 36% in men and 61% in women during the transition to retirement. This increase was also observed among people at a higher risk of physical inactivity, such as smokers and those with elevated depressive symptoms. In a separate sample (analysis 2, n = 3812), change in weight as a function of preretirement and postretirement physical activity was analysed. Weight gain preretirement to postretirement was 0.85 (95% CI 0.48 to 1.21) to 1.35 (0.79 to 1.90) kg greater among physically inactive persons (decrease in activity or inactive) compared with those physically active (p Conclusions: Retirement transition may be associated with beneficial changes in lifestyle and may thus be a good starting point to preventive interventions in various groups of individuals in order to maintain long-term changes.
  • Ali-Kovero, Kirsi; Pietilainen, Olli; Mauramo, Elina; Jäppinen, Sauli; Rahkonen, Ossi; Lallukka, Tea; Kanerva, Noora (2020)
    Retirement is a major life transition affecting health and health behaviour, but evidence on how this transition contributes to changes in healthy food habits is scarce. We examined whether the consumption of fruit and vegetables as well as fish changes after transition into statutory retirement. The data were derived from the prospective Helsinki Health Study. At phase 1 in 2000-2002, all participants were 40- to 60-year-old employees of the City of Helsinki, Finland (n 8960, response rate 67 %). Follow-up surveys were conducted in 2007, 2012 and 2017 (response rates 79-83 %). Using the four phases, we formed three nested cohorts in which the participants either continued working or moved to statutory retirement. The final analytical sample consisted of 6887 participants (14 357 observations). Frequency of fruit, vegetable and fish consumption was calculated from a twenty-two-item FFQ. Analyses of repeated measures of food consumption before and after retirement transition were conducted with a negative binomial mixed model, adjusting for age, marital status, limiting long-standing illness and household income. During the follow-up, altogether 3526 participants retired. Transition to retirement was associated with a decrease in vegetable consumption among women and, contrarily, with an increase in fruit consumption among men (P <0 center dot 05 for interaction between time and employment status). Fish consumption did not differ by the change in employment status. Statutory retirement can have mixed effects on healthy food habits, and these can differ between food groups and sex. Healthy food habits should be promoted among employees transitioning to retirement.
  • Byggmästar, J; Granberg, F; Sand, A E; Pirttikoski, A; Alexander, Rebecca; Marinica, M. C.; Nordlund, K (2019)
    Overlap of collision cascades with previously formed defect clusters become increasingly likely at radiation doses typical for materials in nuclear reactors. Using molecular dynamics, we systematically investigate the effects of different pre-existing self-interstitial clusters on the damage produced by an overlapping cascade in bcc iron and tungsten. We find that the number of new Frenkel pairs created in direct overlap with an interstitial cluster is reduced to essentially zero, when the size of the defect cluster is comparable to that of the disordered cascade volume. We develop an analytical model for this reduced defect production as a function of the spatial overlap between a cascade and a defect cluster of a given size. Furthermore, we discuss cascade-induced changes in the morphology of self-interstitial clusters, including transformations between 1/2<111> and <100> dislocation loops in iron and tungsten, and between C15 clusters and dislocation loops in iron. Our results provide crucial new cascade-overlap effects to be taken into account in multi-scale modelling of radiation damage in bcc metals.
  • Martiskainen, Mari; Heiskanen, Eva; Speciale, Giovanna (2018)
    Community action has an increasingly prominent role in the debates surrounding transitions to sustainability. Initiatives such as community energy projects, community gardens, local food networks and car sharing clubs provide new spaces for sustainable consumption, and combinations of technological and social innovations. These initiatives, which are often driven by social good rather than by pure monetary motives, have been conceptualised as grassroots innovations. Previous research in grassroots innovations has largely focused on conceptualising such initiatives and analysing their potential for replication and diffusion; there has been less research in the politics involved in these initiatives. We examine grassroots innovations as forms of political engagement that is different from the 1970s' alternative technology movements. Through an analysis of community-run Energy Cafes in the United Kingdom, we argue that while present-day grassroots innovations appear less explicitly political than their predecessors, they can still represent a form of political participation. Through the analytical lens of material politics, we investigate how Energy Cafes engage in diverse - explicit and implicit, more or less conscious forms of political engagement. In particular, their work to "demystify" clients' energy bills can unravel into various forms of advocacy and engagement with energy technologies and practices in the home. Some Energy Cafe practices also make space for a needs-driven approach that acknowledges the embeddedness of energy in the household and wider society.
  • Kajander-Unkuri, Satu; Leino-Kilpi, Helena; Katajisto, Jouko; Meretoja, Riitta; Raisanen, Anu; Saarikoski, Mikko; Salminen, Leena; Suhonen, Riitta (2016)
    Self-assessment is widely used to assess competence in health care, although there is evidence of the weaknesses of self-assessment in the literature. In general, the process of self-assessment has been found to stimulate students' deep-level learning and problem-solving skills. Nursing students need to develop their self-assessment skills in order to identify their learning and ensure up-to-date outcomes and safe practice. This study aims to assess the congruence between graduating nursing students' self-assessment and their mentors' assessments concerning nurse competence with particular focus on nursing skills. The data were collected in November December 2011 in the last week of final clinical placement of nurse education. Completed questionnaires were received from 60 students and 50 mentors. From these, 42 student mentor pairs were matched for the sample of this study. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used in the data analysis. Comparisons between the assessments showed that students assessed their nurse competence as higher than their mentors (VAS 64.5 +/- 12.2 vs. 56.7 +/- 19.0). In nursing skills, the assessments were closer to each other (VAS 75.4 +/- 12.8 vs. 72.2 +/- 16.7); however, students' assessments still remained higher than those of mentors'. No congruent assessments were found between students and mentors. Compared to mentors' assessments, students overestimated their nurse competence. However, the results may be due to different understanding of nurse competence, and more research is needed on students' self-assessment by comparing students' assessments with those of peers, mentors and/or educators or knowledge tests. Nursing students should practise self-assessment during their nurse education. Mentors would also benefit practising in assessing students' nurse competence. (C) 2015 Australian College of Nursing Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
  • Leinonen, Heini; Kivelä, Laura; Lähdeaho, Marja-Leena; Huhtala, Heini; Kaukinen, Katri; Kurppa, Kalle (2019)
    The prevalence and associated factors of daily life restrictions due to a gluten-free diet in adult celiac disease patients diagnosed in childhood are poorly known. We investigated these issues by collecting the medical data of 955 pediatric patients and sending questionnaires evaluating various health outcomes to the 559 patients who had reached adulthood. Of the 231 respondents, 46% reported everyday life restrictions caused by dietary treatment. Compared with those without restrictions, they more often had anemia at diagnosis (37% vs. 22%, p = 0.014), but the groups were comparable in other diagnostic features. In adulthood, patients with restrictions reported more overall symptoms (32% vs. 17%, p = 0.006), although the symptoms measured with the Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale questionnaire were comparable. Despite strict dietary adherence in both groups, the experience of restrictions was associated with dietary challenges (34% vs. 9%, p <0.001), health concerns (22% vs. 13%, p = 0.050), and lower vitality scores in the Psychological General Well-Being questionnaire. The groups did not differ in their current age, socioeconomic status, family history of celiac disease, general health or health-related lifestyle, the presence of co-morbidities, or regular follow up. Our results encourage healthcare professionals to discuss the possible health concerns and dietary challenges with patients to avoid unnecessary daily life restrictions, especially when young patients start to take responsibility for their treatment.
  • Granberg, F.; Byggmästar, J.; Nordlund, K. (2020)
    The understanding of materials' behaviour during continuous irradiation is of great interest for utilizing materials in environments where harsh radiation is present, like nuclear power plants. Most power plants, both current and future ones, are based, at least partially, on Fe or FeCr alloys. In this study, we investigate the response of BCC Fe and several FeCr alloys to massively overlapping cascades. The effect of the added chromium on the defect accumulation and defect evolution was studied. Both a bulk setup, for observing the evolution deep inside the material far from grain boundaries and surfaces, and a setup with a nearby open surface, to investigate the effect of a permanent defect sink, were studied. We found that the primary defect production is similar in all materials, and also the build-up before serious overlap is comparable. When cascade overlap starts, we found that different sized clusters are formed in the different materials, depending on the setup. The defect cluster evolution was followed and could be related to the dislocation reactions in the materials. We found that the irradiation mixing was specific to the different chromium concentrations, the low chromium-containing alloy showed ordering, whereas the highest chromium-containing sample showed segregation. (C) 2019 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.
  • Bjorkman, Torbjorn; Kurasch, Simon; Lehtinen, Ossi; Kotakoski, Jani; Yazyev, Oleg V.; Srivastava, Anchal; Skakalova, Viera; Smet, Jurgen H.; Kaiser, Ute; Krasheninnikov, Arkady V. (2013)
  • Sezonenko, Tetiana; Qiu, Xing-Ping; Winnik, Francoise M.; Sato, Takahiro (2019)
    Suitably end-functionalized diblock copolymers (2-isopropyl-2oxazoline)-b-(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline) (PIPOZ-b-PEOZ) were linked to a tetrafunctional core to synthesize two isomeric thermosensitive 4-arm star block polymers which have the PIPOZ block near the core, core-(PIPOZ-bPEOZ)(4), or near the outer surface the star polymer, core-(PEOZ-b-PIPOZ)(4) The solution properties of the star copolymers in water were monitored by turbidimetry, microcalorimetry, and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). The dehydration and cloud-point temperatures of both core-(PIPOZ-b-PEOZ)(4) and core-(PEOZ-b-PIPOZ)(4) in water are in the vicinity of 50 degrees C. Above this temperature, core-(PIPOZ-b-PEOZ)(4) forms starlike aggregates or star micelle, whereas core-(PEOZ-b-PIPOZ)(4) remains isolated, with no sign of aggregation. These results demonstrate the importance of chain architecture on the association of thermosensitive tetra-arm star block copolymers in water above the dehydration temperature.