Browsing by Subject "TRAUMA"

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  • Suomalainen, L.; Haravuori, H.; Berg, N.; Kiviruusu, O.; Marttunen, M. (2011)
    Background: In November 2007, a student shot eight people and himself at Jokela High School, Finland. This study aims to evaluate the long-term effects of exposure to a school shooting among adolescents. Method: Associations between psychological outcomes and background factors were analysed and compared with "comparison students" four months after the incident. A questionnaire including Impact of Event Scale (IES) and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-36) was used. Results: Half of the females and a third of the males suffered from posttraumatic distress. High level of posttraumatic distress (IES >= 35), predicting PTSD, was observed in 27% of the females and 7% of the males. The odds ratio was 6.4 (95% confidence interval 3.5-10.5) for having high levels of posttraumatic distress. Severe or extreme exposure and female gender were found to increase the risk. Forty-two percent of the females and 16% of the males had psychiatric disturbance (GHQ >= 9). Severe or extreme exposure, older age and female gender increased the risk. Perceived support from family and friends was found to be protective. Conclusions: The observed risk and protective factors were similar to earlier studies. Follow-up will be essential in identifying factors predicting persisting trauma-related symptoms in adolescence. (C) 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
  • Palmu, Raimo; Partonen, Timo; Suominen, Kirsi; Vuola, Jyrki; Isometsä, Erkki (2018)
    Objective: We investigated alcohol use and smoking at time of burn and their relationships with severity of burn and presence of mental disorders. Methods: Consecutive acute burn patients (N = 107) admitted to the Helsinki Burn Center were assessed with the structured clinical interview for mental disorders (SCID) at baseline and after 6 months. Information regarding being under the influence of alcohol and having smoking-related activity at burn as well as about hazardous drinking (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test) and heavy smoking before the burn was recorded. Results: Around half (52%) of the acute burn patients were under the influence of alcohol and 19% had been both drinking and smoking at the time of the burn. Patients under the influence at the time of burn had significantly higher prevalence of lifetime mental disorders compared to those patients who were not under the influence of alcohol (73.2% vs. 45.1%, p = 0.003), especially alcohol dependence (55.4% vs. 13.7%, p <0.001) and anxiety disorders (28.6% vs. 9.8%, p = 0.015). Patients who had both alcohol use and smoking at burn had even more often at least one mental disorder (95.0% vs. 51.7%, p <0.001), in specific alcohol dependence (90.0% vs. 23.0%, p <0.001), or psychotic disorder (25.0% vs. 6.9%, p = 0.016). The main characteristics of the burns themselves did not differ significantly between these groups. Conclusion: Half of the burn patients were under the influence of alcohol at the time of the burn in this study. In almost all patients where alcohol and smoking contributed to the burn a diagnosable alcohol use disorder was present. Interventions for those with alcohol use disorders and the associated risk behaviors are important for the prevention of burns. (C) 2017 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
  • Santavirta, Torsten; Santavirta, Nina; Gilman, Stephen (2018)
    Importance Although there is evidence that adverse childhood experiences are associated with worse mental health in adulthood, scarce evidence is available regarding an emerging concern that the next generation might also be affected. Objective To compare the risk of psychiatric hospitalization in cousins whose parents were vs were not exposed to the Finnish evacuation policy that involved a mean 2-year stay with a Swedish foster family. Design, Setting, and Participants This multigenerational, population-based cohort study of Finnish individuals and their siblings born between January 1, 1933, and December 31, 1944, analyzed the association of evacuee status as a child during World War II in the first generation with the risk of psychiatric hospitalization among offspring in the second generation. Evacuee status during World War II was determined using the Finnish National Archive’s registry of participants in the Finnish evacuation. Data on evacuee status were linked to the psychiatric diagnoses in the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register from January 1, 1971, through December 31, 2012, for offspring (n = 93 391) born between January 1, 1950, and December 31, 2010. Sex-specific Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios for risk of psychiatric hospitalization during the follow-up period. Because offspring of evacuees and their nonevacuated siblings are cousins, the Cox proportional hazards regression models included fixed effects to adjust for confounding factors in families. Data analysis was performed from June 15, 2016, to August 26, 2017. Exposures Parental participation in the evacuation during World War II (coded 1 for parents who were evacuated and placed in foster care and 0 for those not evacuated). Main Outcomes and Measures Offspring’s initial admission to the hospital for a psychiatric disorder, obtained from the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register from January 1, 1971, through December 31, 2012. Results Of the 93 391 study persons, 45 955 (49.2%) were women and 47 436 (50.8) were men; mean (SD) age in 2012 among survivors was 45.4 (6.58) years. Female offspring of mothers evacuated to Sweden during childhood had an elevated risk of psychiatric hospitalization (hazard ratio for any type of psychiatric disorder: 2.04 [95% CI, 1.04-4.01]; hazard ratio for mood disorder: 4.68 [95% CI, 1.92-11.42]). There was no excess risk of being hospitalized for a psychiatric disorder among women whose fathers were exposed to the Finnish evacuation policy during World War II or among men whose mothers or fathers were exposed. Conclusions and Relevance In a prior follow-up study of the Finnish evacuees, girls evacuated to Swedish foster families during World War II were more likely to be hospitalized for a psychiatric disorder—in particular, a mood disorder—in adulthood than their nonevacuated sisters. The present study found that the offspring of these individuals were also at risk for mental health problems that required hospitalization and suggests that early-life adversities, including war-related exposures, may be associated with mental health disorders that persist across generations.
  • Puolakkainen, T.; Vahasilta, L.; Bensch, F.; Narjus-Sterba, M.; Wilson, M. L.; Thoren, H.; Snall, J. (2021)
    Current knowledge of blunt cerebrovascular injuries (BCVIs) in craniomaxillofacial fracture (CMF) patients is limited. The purpose of this study was to determine the occurrence of BCVIs in patients with all types of CMF. This retrospective study included CMF patients in a level 1 trauma centre during a 3-year period. Patients who were not imaged with computed tomography angiography and patients with mechanisms other than blunt injury were excluded. The primary outcome variable was BCVI. A total of 753 patients were included in the analysis. A BCVI was detected in 4.4% of the patients screened. BCVIs occurred in 8.7% of cranial fracture patients, 7.1% of combined craniofacial fracture patients, and 3.1% of facial fracture patients. The risk of BCVI was significantly increased in patients with isolated cranial fractures (odds ratio (OR) 2.55, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.18?5.50; P = 0.017), those involved in motor vehicle accidents (OR 3.42, 95% CI 1.63?7.17; P = 0.001), and those sustaining high-energy injuries (OR 3.17, 95% CI 1.57?6.40; P = 0.001). BCVIs in CMF patients are relatively common in highenergy injuries. However, these injuries also occur in minor traumas. Imaging thresholds should be kept low in this patient population when BCVIs are suspected.
  • Lindgren, Maija; Mäntylä, Teemu; Rikandi, Eva; Torniainen-Holm, Minna; Morales-Munoz, Isabel; Kieseppä, Tuula; Mantere, Outi; Suvisaari, Jaana (2017)
    In addition to severe traumatic experiences, milder, more common childhood adversities reflecting psychosocial burden may also be common in people with psychotic disorders and have an effect on symptomatology and functioning. We explored eleven negative childhood experiences and their influence on clinical symptoms among young adults with first-episode psychosis (FEP, n = 75) and matched population controls (n = 51). Individuals with FEP reported more adversities than controls. Specifically serious conflicts within the family, bullying at school, maternal mental health problems, and one's own and parents' serious illness during childhood were experienced by the patients more often than by controls. In the FEP group, the severity of adversity was associated with increased anxiety, manic, and obsessive-compulsive symptoms, but not with the severity of positive psychotic symptoms. Adversity produced a more pronounced effect on symptoms in male patients than in female patients. To conclude, in line with earlier studies of more chronic psychosis, a majority of the participants with FEP reported exposure to childhood adversities, with the FEP group reporting more adversities than controls. High levels of mood and anxiety symptoms in patients with FEP may be related to cumulative exposure to childhood adversities. This should be taken into account in the treatment for FEP.
  • Airaksinen, N.; Nurmi-Luthje, I.; Luthje, P. (2016)
    Background and Aims: The coverage of the official statistics is poor in motorcycle and moped accidents. The aim of this study was to analyze the severity of motorcycle and moped crashes, and to define the degree of under-reporting in official statistics. Material and Methods: All first attendances due to an acute motorcyclist or moped driver injury registered in the emergency department between June 2004 and May 2006 were analyzed. The severity of the injuries was classified using the Abbreviated Injury Scale score and the New Injury Severity Score. The hospital injury data were compared to the traffic accident statistics reported by the police and compiled and maintained by Statistics Finland. Results: A total of 49 motorcyclists and 61 moped drivers were involved in crashes, leading to a total of 94 and 109 injuries, respectively. There were slightly more vertebral and midfoot fractures among motorcyclists than among moped drivers (p=0.038 and 0.016, respectively). No significant differences were found between the severity (maximum Abbreviated Injury Scale and median New Injury Severity Scores) of the motorcycle and moped crashes. There was no in-hospital mortality. The degree of agreement (overlap) between the hospital dataset and the official statistics was 32%. The rate of under-reporting was 68%. Conclusions: According to the maximum Abbreviated Injury Scale and New Injury Severity Scores, the injury severity was equal for motorcycle and moped crashes. The degree of agreement between the hospital dataset and the official statistics was 32%.
  • Airaksinen, Noora K.; Nurmi-Lüthje, Ilona S.; Kataja, J. Matti; Kröger, Heikki P. J.; Lüthje, Peter M. J. (2018)
    Background: Most of the cycling accidents that occur in Finland do not end up in the official traffic accident statistics. Thus, there is minimal information on these accidents and their consequences, particularly in cases in which alcohol was involved. The focus of the present study is on cycling accidents and injuries involving alcohol in particular. Methods: Data on patients visiting the emergency department at North Kymi Hospital because of a cycling accident was prospectively collected for two years, from June 1, 2004 to May 31, 2006. Blood alcohol concentration (BAC) was measured on admission with a breath analyser. The severity of the cycling injuries was classified according to the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS). Results: A total of 217 cycling accidents occurred. One third of the injured cyclists were involved with alcohol at the time of visiting the hospital. Of these, 85% were males. A blood alcohol concentration of Conclusions: Cyclists involved with alcohol were, in most cases, heavily intoxicated and were not wearing a bicycle helmet. Head injuries were more common among these cyclists than among sober cyclists. As cycling continues to increase, it is important to monitor cycling accidents, improve the accident statistics and heighten awareness of the risks of head injuries when cycling under the influence of alcohol. (c) 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Ericsson, Christoffer R.; Nordquist, Hilla; Lindström, Veronica; Rudman, Ann (2021)
    Background Paramedics experience traumatic events and social emergencies during assignments while also being subjected to verbal and physical threats. Consequently, they are at risk for burnout and secondary traumatic stress, factors inherent to professional quality of life. Defusing and peer-support potentially decrease such symptoms; however, perceived defusing needs and use are not always balanced. Our aim was to explore Finnish paramedics' professional quality of life, using the Professional Quality of Life Scale, with associations to EMS assignment experiences as well as formal and informal defusing need and use over a 12-month period. Methods A quantitative study of 257 Finnish paramedics using a cross-sectional design. Study outcomes were secondary traumatic stress (STS), compassion satisfaction (CS), and burnout (BO) scores using the modified 9-item Short Professional Quality of Life scale (ProQOL). Likert-type scales were used to collect participants' recollections of assignment experiences and defusing from a 12-month period. Associations were explored using Spearman's correlation coefficients. Results Short ProQOL score medians were STS 4.00 (IQR 3), BO 6.00 (IQR 3) and CS 13.00 (IQR 3). STS and BO correlated to experiences of social emergencies and traumatic events while BO correlated to experiences of threat situations (r = 0.206, p = .001). Paramedics perceived a need for defusing in general associated with STS (r = 0.178, p < .001) and participated in informal defusing. Participation in defusing of any form did not associate with ProQOL scores. Conclusions Finnish paramedics' more frequent experiences of social emergencies, traumatic events, and paramedic-directed threat situations were associated with higher levels of STS and BO. STS was also associated with paramedics' increased need for defusing and use of informal peer defusing, although neither STS, BO or CS scores associated to any defusing form. Managing paramedics STS and BO, while fostering CS, could therefore be a future research focus.
  • ARISE Investigators; Luethi, Nora; Bailey, Michael; Harjola, V-P; Okkonen, M.; Pettilä, V.; Sutinen, E.; Wilkman, E. (2020)
    Purpose: To assess the impact of gender and pre-menopausal state on short- and long-term outcomes in patients with septic shock. Material and methods: Cohort study of the Australasian Resuscitation in Sepsis Evaluation (ARISE) trial, an international randomized controlled trial comparing early goal-directed therapy (EGDT) to usual care in patients with early septic shock, conducted between October 2008 and April 2014. The primary exposure in this analysis was legal gender and the secondary exposure was pre-menopausal state defined by chronological age ( Results: 641 (40.3%) of all 1591 ARISE trial participants in the intention-to-treat population were females and overall, 337 (21.2%) (146 females) patients were 50 years of age or younger. After risk-adjustment, we could not identify any survival benefit for female patients at day 90 in the younger (50 years) age-group (aOR: 1.10 (0.81-1.49), p = .56). Similarly, there was no gender-difference in ICU, hospital, 1-year mortality nor quality of life measures. Conclusions: This post-hoc analysis of a large multi-center trial in early septic shock has shown no short- or long-term survival effect for women overall as well as in the pre-menopausal age-group. (C) 2019 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 2019 World Society of Emergency Surgery (WSES) Nijmegen splenic injury collaboration group; Amico, Francesco; Anning, Rebecca; Bendinelli, Cino; Balogh, Zsolt J.; Leppäniemi, Ari; Tolonen, Matti I A (2020)
    Background Recent trauma guidelines recommend non-operative management for grade III splenic injury without contrast extravasation on computed tomography. Nevertheless, such recommendations rely on low-quality evidence, and practice variation characterizes clinical management for this type of injury. We aimed to identify the role of eleven selected clinical factors influencing the management of grade III splenic injury without contrast extravasation by expert consensus and a modified Delphi approach. Methods A questionnaire was developed with the endorsement of the World Society of Emergency Surgery (WSES). This was delivered and answered live by acute care surgeons attending the 6(th)WSES congress in Nijmegen in 2019. A dedicated mobile phone application was utilized to collect the answers. All answers were evaluated for areas of discrepancy with an 80% threshold for consensus between respondents. Results Three factors generated discrepancy in opinion for managing this pattern of injury: the patients' injury severity, the presence of a bleeding diathesis, and an associated intra-abdominal injury. Agreement was obtained for the other eight factors. Conclusion Researchers should focus their efforts on the identified area of discrepancy. Clinicians should use additional care in the presence of the three factors for which discordant opinions were found.
  • Passov, Arie; Schramko, Alexey; Mäkisalo, Heikki; Nordin, Arno; Andersson, Sture; Pesonen, Eero; Ilmakunnas, Minna (2019)
    Objective Ischaemia/reperfusion-injury degrades endothelial glycocalyx. Graft glycocalyx degradation was studied in human liver transplantation. Methods To assess changes within the graft, blood was drawn from portal and hepatic veins in addition to systemic samples in 10 patients. Plasma syndecan-1, heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate, were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results During reperfusion, syndecan-1 levels were higher in graft caval effluent [3118 (934–6141) ng/ml, P = 0.005] than in portal venous blood [101 (75–121) ng/ml], indicating syndecan-1 release from the graft. Concomitantly, heparan sulfate levels were lower in graft caval effluent [96 (32–129) ng/ml, P = 0.037] than in portal venous blood [112 (98–128) ng/ml], indicating heparan sulfate uptake within the graft. Chondroitin sulfate levels were equal in portal and hepatic venous blood. After reperfusion arterial syndecan-1 levels increased 17-fold (P <0.001) and heparan sulfate decreased to a third (P <0.001) towards the end of surgery. Conclusion Syndecan-1 washout from the liver indicates extensive glycocalyx degradation within the graft during reperfusion. Surprisingly, heparan sulfate was taken up by the graft during reperfusion. Corroborating previous experimental reports, this suggests that endogenous heparan sulfate might be utilized within the graft in the repair of damaged glycocalyx.
  • Kääriäinen, M.; Kuuskeri, M.; Helminen, M.; Kuokkanen, Hannu (2017)
    Background and Aims: The open abdomen technique is a standard procedure in the treatment of intra-abdominal catastrophe. Achieving primary abdominal closure within the initial hospitalization is a main objective. This study aimed to analyze the success of closure rate and the effect of negative pressure wound therapy, mesh-mediated medial traction, and component separation on the results. We present the treatment algorithm used in our institution in open abdomen situations based on these findings. Material and Methods: Open abdomen patients (n=61) treated in Tampere University Hospital from May 2005 until October 2013 were included in the study. Patient characteristics, treatment prior to closure, closure technique, and results were retrospectively collected and analyzed. The first group included patients in whom direct or bridged fascial closure was achieved, and the second group included those in whom only the skin was closed or a free skin graft was used. Background variables and variables related to surgery were compared between groups. Results and Conclusion: Most of the open abdomen patients (72.1%) underwent fascial defect repair during the primary hospitalization, and 70.5% of them underwent direct fascial closure. Negative pressure wound therapy was used as a temporary closure method for 86.9% of the patients. Negative pressure wound therapy combined with mesh-mediated medial traction resulted in the shortest open abdomen time (p=0.039) and the highest fascial repair rate (p=0.000) compared to negative pressure wound therapy only or no negative pressure wound therapy. The component separation technique was used for 11 patients; direct fascial closure was achieved in 5 and fascial repair by bridging the defect with mesh was achieved in 6. A total of 8 of 37 (21.6%) patients with mesh repair had a mesh infection. The negative pressure wound therapy combined with mesh-mediated medial traction promotes definitive fascial closure with a high closure rate and a shortened open abdomen time. The component separation technique can be used to facilitate fascial repair but it does not guarantee direct fascial closure in open abdomen patients.
  • Stenroos, A.; Handolin, L. (2018)
    Background and Aim: During the last decade urban skiing and snowboarding has gained a lot of popularity. In urban skiing/snowboarding riders try to balance on handrails and jump off buildings. Previous studies in skiing and snowboarding accidents have mostly been conducted at hospitals located close to alpine terrain with big ski resort areas. The aim of this study is to evaluate the types and severity of traumatic brain injuries occurring in small, suburban hills and in urban environment, and to characterize injury patterns to find out the specific mechanisms of injuries behind. Materials and Methods: This study included all patients admitted to the Helsinki University Hospital Trauma Unit from 2006 to 2015 with a head injury (ICD 10 S06-S07) from skiing or snowboarding accidents in Helsinki capital area. Head injuries that did not require a CT-scan, and injuries older than 24hours were excluded from this study. Results: There were a total of 72 patients that met the inclusion criteria Mean length of stay in hospital was 2.95days. According to the AIS classification, 30% had moderate, 14% had severe, and 10% had critical head injuries. Patients who got injured in terrain parks or on streets where more likely to be admitted to ICU than those injured on slopes. Based on GOS score at discharge, 78% were classified as having a good recovery from the injury, 13% had a moderate disability, 5% had a severe disability and 3% of the injuries were fatal. There were no statistically significant differences in decreased GOS between the accident sites. Conclusion: Head injuries occurring in small suburban hills and in urban environments can be serious and potentially fatal. The profile and severity of skiing injuries in urban environments and small, suburban hills is comparable to those on alpine terrain.
  • Helin, T. A.; Zuurveld, M.; Manninen, M.; Meijers, J. C. M.; Lassila, R.; Brinkman, H. J. M. (2018)
    BACKGROUND: Uncontrollable bleeding is the leading cause of death in traumatically injured patients. The extent to which direct factor Xa inhibitors interfere with the applied resuscitation measures is presently unknown. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: In this study, we investigated the effect of the resuscitation fluid s saline, albumin, fresh frozen plasma (FFP) and solvent/ detergent (S/D)-treated plasma, fibrinogen concentrate, prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC), and combinations thereof on the hemostatic profile of rivaroxaban-anticoagulated whole blood and plasma. We used rivaroxaban-spiked whole blood and plasma from healthy donors, as well as plasma from patients on rivaroxaban, and mimicked a resuscitation approach in a 50% plasma dilution setting. Thromboelastography, thrombin generation, and fibrin generation clot lysis test were assessed using tissue factor to initiate coagulation and tissue plasminogen activator to induce clot lysis. RESULTS: Rivaroxaban resulted in a hypocoagulant state that remained largely unaltered upon subsequent 50% dilution with S/D-treated plasma or FFP. Using SID treated plasma as a diluent, clot stability decreased due to its low (12-antiplasmin. Dilution with saline and albumin induced a profibrinolytic state and further deteriorated the impaired hemostatic potential of rivaroxabananticoagulated blood, even after PCC and fibrinogen support. Combined use of plasma (either FFP or S/D treated) and PCC, however, considerably improved both coagulation and clot stability. CONCLUSION: In the setting of rivaroxaban anticoagulation and major blood loss, transfusing plasma together with PCC may provide the most effective resuscitation approach with the notion that additional antifibrinolytic drug support (e.g., tranexamic acid) is likely required.
  • Garoff, Ferdinand; Tinghög, Petter; Suvisaari, Jaana; Lilja, Eero; Castaneda, Anu E. (2021)
    Background: Most refugees and other forced migrants have experienced potentially traumatic events (PTEs). Torture and other traumatic experiences, as well as various daily stressors, impact the mental health and psychosocial well-being of war-affected populations. Methods: The study includes two population-based samples of Iranian and Iraqi men living in Finland and Sweden. The Finnish Migrant Health and Well-being Study (Maamu) was conducted in 2010-2012. The Linkoping study was conducted in Sweden in 2005. In both samples, health and well-being measures, social and economic outcomes as well as health service utilization were reported. Results: The final sample for analysis consisted of two groups of males of Iranian or Iraqi origin: 278 residents in Finland and 267 residents in Sweden. Both groups were subdivided according to the reported PTEs: Torture survivors; Other PTEs; No PTEs. Migrants that reported PTEs, torture survivors in particular, had significantly poorer social and health outcomes. Torture survivors also reported lower trust and confidence in authorities and public service providers, as well as more loneliness, social isolation and experiences of discrimination. Conclusions: Torture and other PTEs prevalent in refugee and migrant populations create a wide-ranging and long-term impact in terms of increased risk of various types of adverse social and health conditions. Early identification through systematic and effective screening should be the first step in guiding migrants and refugees suffering from experiences of torture and other PTEs to flexible, multidisciplinary services.
  • Coccolini, Federico; Catena, Fausto; Montori, Giulia; Ceresoli, Marco; Manfredi, Roberto; Nita, Gabriela Elisa; Moore, Ernest E.; Biffl, Walter; Ivatury, Rao; Whelan, James; Fraga, Gustavo; Leppaniemi, Ari; Sartelli, Massimo; Di Saverio, Salomone; Ansaloni, Luca (2015)
    Actually the most common indications for Open Abdomen (OA) are trauma, abdominal sepsis, severe acute pancreatitis and more in general all those situations in which an intra-abdominal hypertension condition is present, in order to prevent the development of an abdominal compartment syndrome. The mortality and morbidity rate in patients undergone to OA procedures is still high. At present many studies have been published about the OA management and the progresses in survival rate of critically ill trauma and septic surgical patients. However several issues are still unclear and need more extensive studies. The definitions of indications, applications and methods to close the OA are still matter of debate. To overcome this lack of high level of evidence data about the OA indications, management, definitive closure and follow-up, the World Society of Emergency Surgery (WSES) promoted the International Register of Open Abdomen (IROA). The register will be held on a web platform (Clinical Registers (R)) through a dedicated web site: www. clinicalregisters. org. This will allow to all surgeons and physicians to participate from all around the world only by having a computer and a web connection. The IROA protocol has been approved by the coordinating center Ethical Committee (Papa Giovanni XXIII hospital, Bergamo, Italy).
  • Toivari, Miika; Suominen, Anna Liisa; Apajalahti, Satu; Lindqvist, Christian; Snäll, Johanna; Thoren, Hanna (2018)
    Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to clarify the reasons for, types of, and degree of involvement of the orbital wall and the severity of orbital fractures in geriatric patients and to compare the differences between geriatric and younger adult patients. Materials and Methods: A retrospective case-control study of geriatric patients aged at least 65 years (n = 72) and younger controls aged 20 to 50 years (n = 58) with a diagnosis of a unilateral isolated orbital fracture was designed and implemented. The main exposure was age, the primary outcome was the isolated orbital fracture type, and the secondary outcomes were the associated orbital zones, fracture area (cm(2)), degree of dislocation (mm), involvement of anatomic landmarks, diplopia, altered ocular position, restricted eyemovement, and ocular injuries. The confounding variables were gender, trauma mechanism, and alcohol abuse. The statistical methods included chi(2) tests and logistic regression analyses. Results: Among the geriatric patients, the great majority of isolated orbital fractures had been caused by falls (66.7%; P Conclusions: Falling is the most common mechanism of elderly orbital fractures. Isolated orbital fractures are extensive and mainly affect the globe supporting the middle and posterior parts of the orbital floor among geriatric patients. (C) 2017 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons
  • Garoff, Ferdinand; Skogberg, Natalia; Klemettila, Antti; Lilja, Eero; Omar, Awa Ahmed Haji; Snellman, Olli; Castaneda, Anu E. (2021)
    Asylum seekers frequently experience potentially traumatic events (PTEs), but the type and frequency vary depending on the country of origin. The cumulative effect of multiple PTEs and other stressors expose asylum seekers to a significant risk of mental ill health. The aim of the study was to examine the prevalence of PTEs, depression and anxiety symptoms, risk for psychological trauma, psychotropic medication use and previous mental health diagnoses among adult asylum seekers in the Asylum Seekers Health and Wellbeing (TERTTU) Survey (n = 784 respondents, participation rate 78.6%). A substantial majority (88.7%, 95% CI 86.9-90.3) of asylum seekers reported one or more PTEs before arriving to Finland. PTEs during the asylum-seeking journey were reported at 12.0% (95% CI 10.7-13.4), however, when examined by region of origin, the proportion was 34.5% (95% CI 29.5-39.8) for asylum seekers from Africa (excluding North Africa). Significant symptoms of depression were reported by 41.7% (95% CI 39.6-43.9) of asylum seekers and symptoms of anxiety by 34.2% (95% CI 32.1-36.2). Half of the asylum seekers were assessed as having at least a medium-risk for psychological trauma. Prevalence rates were higher among females and asylum seekers from Africa. This study highlights the importance of using screening tools to identify asylum seekers with severe mental health problems that may need referral to further assessment and treatment. Asylum seekers from Africa (excluding North Africa) should be given additional attention in initial health screenings and examinations.
  • Lassila, H; Puolakkainen, T; Brinck, T; Wilson, M; Snäll, J (2021)
    We clarified occurrence, severity, and associated injuries of occipital condyle fractures (OCFs) in a cranial fracture population. Retrospective data of cranial fracture patients were analyzed. The outcome variable was presence of OCF in cranial fracture patients. Predictor variables were type of associated injury, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) value under 6, and death during hospital care. In addition, occurrence of OCF was assessed according to cranial fracture subtypes. Explanatory variables were age, sex, injury mechanism, involvement of alcohol, and high-energy injury. Treatment and outcome of OCFs were analyzed. Of 637 cranial fracture patients, 19 (3.0%) sustained an OCF, eight of whom had no other cranial fractures. In the multivariate adjusted model, increased risk for OCF was detected in patients with cervical injuries (OR 18.66, 95% CI 5.52, 63.12; p < 0.001) and facial fractures (OR 5.99, 95% CI 1.01, 35.45; p = 0.049). Patients with fractures not extending to the skull base were less likely to have OCF (OR 0.01, 95% CI 0.001, 0.25; p = 0.004), and fractures localized solely to the base of the skull offered a protective effect for OCF (OR 0.19, 95% CI 0.06, 0.58; p = 0.003). All OCFs were treated non-operatively with a cervical collar without complications. OCF patients typically sustain other severe injuries, particularly cervical injuries and facial fractures. Careful screening for associated injuries is therefore crucial when examining a patient with OCF. The classification scheme of Mueller et al. seems to be useful in guiding the treatment of OCFs, at least type 1 and 2 fractures. (C) 2021 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Silwal, Sanju; Lehti, Venla; Chudal, Roshan; Suominen, Auli; Lien, Lars; Sourander, Andre (2019)
    Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between parental immigration status and a diagnosis of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in their offspring. Methods: This nested matched case-control study was based on a Finnish national birth cohort for 1987-2010 and cases were diagnosed with PTSD by 2012 from the Care Register for Health Care. We identified 3639 cases and 14,434 controls individually matched for gender, place and date of birth ( +/- 30 days). Conditional logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the association between parental immigration status, parents' region of birth and time since paternal immigration, and PTSD after controlling for confounding factors. Results: The likelihood of being diagnosed with PTSD was significantly increased among children with an immigrant father (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.3 - 2.4) than those with two Finnish parents and one immigrant mother. There was no significant association between having an immigrant mother or two immigrant parents and receiving a diagnosis of PTSD. The likelihood of being diagnosed with PTSD was increased if the children's fathers had migrated less than five years before their birth (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.03 - 1.9) and if their immigrant fathers had been born in North Africa or the Middle East (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.4 - 3.3). Limitations: The sample included a heterogeneous migrant group without information on the reason for migration. The cases were identified from hospital diagnosis that may have only included severe cases. Conclusion: The increased likelihood of a diagnosis of PTSD underlines the need for psychosocial services among second-generation immigrants.