Browsing by Subject "TRAUMATIC BRAIN-INJURY"

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  • Lång, M.; Skrifvars, M. B.; Siironen, J.; Tanskanen, P.; Ala-Peijari, M.; Koivisto, T.; Djafarzadeh, S.; Bendel, S. (2018)
    BackgroundNormobaric hyperoxia is used to alleviate secondary brain ischaemia in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI), but clinical evidence is limited and hyperoxia may cause adverse events. MethodsAn open label, randomised controlled pilot study comparing blood concentrations of reactive oxygen species (ROS), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and neuron-specific enolase (NSE) between two different fractions of inspired oxygen in severe TBI patients on mechanical ventilation. ResultsWe enrolled 27 patients in the Fi O-2 0.40 group and 38 in the Fi O-2 0.70 group; 19 and 23 patients, respectively, completed biochemical analyses. In baseline, there were no differences between Fi O-2 0.40 and Fi O-2 0.70 groups, respectively, in ROS (64.8 nM [22.6-102.1] vs. 64.9 nM [26.8-96.3], P = 0.80), IL-6 (group 92.4 pg/ml [52.9-171.6] vs. 94.3 pg/ml [54.8-133.1], P = 0.52) or NSE (21.04 ug/l [14.0-30.7] vs. 17.8 ug/l [14.1-23.9], P = 0.35). ROS levels did not differ at Day 1 (24.2 nM [20.6-33.5] vs. 29.2 nM [22.7-69.2], P = 0.10) or at Day 2 (25.4 nM [21.7-37.4] vs. 47.3 nM [34.4-126.1], P = 0.95). IL-6 concentrations did not differ at Day 1 (112.7 pg/ml [65.9-168.9) vs. 83.9 pg/ml [51.8-144.3], P = 0.41) or at Day 3 (55.0 pg/ml [34.2-115.6] vs. 49.3 pg/ml [34.4-126.1], P = 0.95). NSE levels did not differ at Day 1 (15.9 ug/l [9.0-24.3] vs. 15.3 ug/l [12.2-26.3], P = 0.62). There were no differences between groups in the incidence of pulmonary complications. ConclusionHigher fraction of inspired oxygen did not increase blood concentrations of markers of oxidative stress, inflammation or neurological injury or the incidence of pulmonary complications in severe TBI patients on mechanical ventilation.
  • Takala, Riikka S. K.; Kiviranta, Riku; Olkkola, Klaus T.; Vahlberg, Tero; Laukka, Dan; Kotkansalo, Anna; Rahi, Melissa; Sankinen, Matti; Posti, Jussi; Katila, Ari; Rinne, Jaakko (2017)
    Purpose: The aim was to assess anterior pituitary hormone levels during the acute phase of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) and analyze the possible association with the clinical condition and outcome. Material and methods: Forty patients with aSAH whose aneurysm was secured by endovascular coiling were enrolled. Basal secretions of cortisol, testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin (PRL), and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) levels were measured up to 14 days after the incident. Results: The main finding was that hypocortisolism was rare whereas testosterone deficiency was common in male patients. Furthermore, various other hormone deviations were frequent and there was wide interindividual variability. We found no association between delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI), outcome of the patients or aneurysm location, and hormone abnormalities, while both Hunt & Hess and Fisher grade were associated with low PRL levels. Hunt & Hess 5 was associated with low PRL concentration when compared to grades 1 (OR = 4.81, 95% CI 1.15-20.14, p = 0.03), 3 (OR 7.73, 95% CI 1.33-45.01, p = 0.02), and 4 (OR = 6.86 95% CI 1.28-26.83, p = 0.02). Fisher grade 4 was associated with low PRL concentration when compared to grades 3 (OR 3.37, 95% CI 1.06-10.73, p = 0.03) and 2 (OR 9.71, 95% CI 1.22-77.10, p = 0.04). Conclusion: Deviations from normal and huge interindividual differences are common in hormone levels during the acute phase of aSAH. Routine assessment of anterior pituitary function in the acute phase of aSAH is not warranted. During the follow-up in the outpatient clinic, hormone concentrations were not measured, which would have brought a more long-term perspective into our findings.
  • Harve-Rytsälä, Heini; Ångerman, Susanne; Kirves, Hetti; Nurmi, Jouni (2021)
    Background Normoventilation is crucial for many critically ill patients. Ventilation is routinely guided by end-tidal capnography during prehospital anaesthesia, based on the assumption of the gap between arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2) and end-tidal carbon dioxide partial pressure (PetCO(2)) of approximately 0.5 kPa (3.8 mmHg). Methods We retrospectively analysed the airway registry and patient chart data of patients who had been anaesthetised and intubated endotracheally by the prehospital critical care team and had their prehospital arterial blood gases analysed. Bland-Altman analysis was used to estimate the bias and limits of agreement. Results Altogether 502 patients were included in the study, with a median age of 58 years. The most common patient groups were post-resuscitation (155, 31%), neurological emergencies (96, 19%), intoxication (75, 15%) and trauma (68, 14%). The median of the gap between PaCO2 and PetCO(2) was 1.3 kPa (interquartile range 0.7 to 2.2) (9.8 (5.3-16.5) mmHg). Mean bias of PetCO(2) was -1.6 kPa/12.0 mmHg (standard deviation 1.7 kPa/12.8 mmHg) with 95% confidence limits of agreement -4.9 to 1.9 kPa (-36.8 to 14.3 mmHg). The gap was >= 1.0 kPa (>7.5 mmHg) in 297 (66%, 95% confidence interval 55 to 63) patients. Conclusion Our results suggest that end-tidal capnography alone might not be an adequate method to achieve normoventilation for critically ill patients intubated and mechanically ventilated in prehospital setting. Thus, an arterial blood gas analysis might be useful to recognize patients with an increased gap between PaCO2 and PetCO(2).
  • Ramsay, Hugh; Barnett, Jennifer H.; Miettunen, Jouko; Mukkala, Sari; Maeki, Pirjo; Liuhanen, Johanna; Murray, Graham K.; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Ollila, Hanna; Paunio, Tiina; Veijola, Juha (2015)
    Background There is limited research regarding the association between genes and cognitive intermediate phenotypes in those at risk for psychotic disorders. Methods We measured the association between established psychosis risk variants in dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) and cognitive performance in individuals at age 23 years and explored if associations between cognition and these variants differed according to the presence of familial or clinical risk for psychosis. The subjects of the Oulu Brain and Mind Study were drawn from the general population-based Northern Finland 1986 Birth Cohort (NFBC 1986). Using linear regression, we compared the associations between cognitive performance and two candidate DRD2 polymorphisms (rs6277 and rs1800497) between subjects having familial (n=61) and clinical (n=45) risk for psychosis and a random sample of participating NFBC 1986 controls (n=74). Cognitive performance was evaluated using a comprehensive battery of tests at follow-up. Results Principal components factor analysis supported a three-factor model for cognitive measures. The minor allele of rs6277 was associated with poorer performance on a verbal factor (p=0.003) but this did not significantly interact with familial or clinical risk for psychosis. The minor allele of rs1800497 was associated with poorer performance on a psychomotor factor (p=0.038), though only in those at familial risk for psychotic disorders (interaction p=0.049). Conclusion The effect of two DRD2 SNPs on cognitive performance may differ according to risk type for psychosis, suggesting that cognitive intermediate phenotypes differ according to the type (familial or clinical) risk for psychosis.
  • Skrifvars, Markus B.; French, Craig; Bailey, Michael; Presneill, Jeffrey; Nichol, Alistair; Little, Lorraine; Durantea, Jacques; Huet, Olivier; Haddad, Samir; Arabi, Yaseen; McArthur, Colin; Cooper, D. James; Bellomo, Rinaldo; EPO-TBI Investigators & ANZICS (2018)
    The EPO-TBI study randomized 606 patients with moderate or severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) to be treated with weekly epoetin alfa (EPO) or placebo. Six month mortality was lower in EPO treated patients in an analysis adjusting for TBI severity. Knowledge of possible differential effects by TBI injury subtype and acute neurosurgical treatment as well as timing and cause of death (COD) will facilitate the design of future interventional TBI trials. We defined COD as cerebral (brain death, cerebral death with withdrawal, or death during maximal care) and non-cerebral (death following withdrawal or during maximal care, which had a non-cerebral cause). The study included 305 patients treated with EPO and 297 treated with placebo, with COD recorded in 77 (99%) out of 78 non-survivors. Median time to death in patients dying of cerebral COD was 8 days (interquartile range [IQR] 5-16) compared with 29 days (IQR 7-56) (p = 0.01) for non-cerebral COD. When assessing subgroups by admission CT scan injury findings, we found no significant differential effects of EPO compared with placebo. However, EPO appeared more effective in patients with an injury type not requiring a neurosurgical operation prior to intensive care unit (ICU) admission (odds ratio [OR] 0.29, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.14-0.61, p = 0.001, p for interaction = 0.003) and in this subgroup, fewer patients died of cerebral causes in the EPO than in the placebo group (5% compared with 14%, p = 0.03). In conclusion, most TBI deaths were from cerebral causes that occurred during the first 2 weeks, and were related to withdrawal of care. EPO appeared to specifically reduce cerebral deaths in the important subgroup of patients with a diffuse type of injury not requiring a neurosurgical intervention prior to randomization.
  • Lillemae, Kadri; Laine, Antti T.; Schramko, Alexey; Niemi, Tomi T. (2018)
    Background:Albumin and mannitol may interfere with hemostasis, but their coinfluence is unclear. We aimed to determine the effects of albumin alone and in combination with mannitol or Ringer acetate (RAC) on hemostasis in crossover in vitro study.Materials and Methods:From citrated fresh whole blood withdrawn from 10 volunteers, we prepared 2.5, 5, 10, 15, and 20 vol% dilutions of 4% albumin (Alb group). Each sample was thereafter diluted by 15% mannitol (Alb/Man group) or RAC (Alb/RAC group) at a ratio of 9:1. Using thromboelastometry, FibTEM (fibrinogen ROTEM) and ExTEM (extrinsic ROTEM) tests were performed.Results:A 20 vol%, but not 2.5 to 15 vol% dilution of albumin caused a prolonged clot formation time, -angle decrease, and maximum clot firmness (MCF) weakening compared with undiluted sample (P
  • Moquin, Alexandre; Ji, Jeff; Neibert, Kevin; Winnik, Francoise M.; Maysinger, Dusica (2018)
    Polymersomes are attractive nanocarriers for hydrophilic and lipophilic drugs; they are more stable than liposomes, tunable, and relatively easy to prepare. The copolymer composition and molar mass are critical features that determine the physicochemical properties of the polymersomes including the rate of drug release. We used the triblockcopolymer, poly(2-methyl-2-oxazoline)-block-poly-(dimethysiloxane)-block-poly(2-methyl-2-oxazoline) (PIVIOXA-PDIVIS-PMOXA), to form amphipathic polymersomes capable of loading proteins and small hydrophobic agents. The selected agents were unstable neurotrophins (nerve growth factor and brain -derived neurotrophic factor), a large protein CD109, and the fluorescent drug curcumin. We prepared, characterized, and tested polymersomes loaded with selected agents in 2D and 3D biological models. Curcumin-loaded and rhodamine-bound PMOXA-PDMS-PMOXA polymersomes were used to visualize them inside cells. NMethyl-D-aspartate receptor (NNIDAR) agonists and antagonists were also covalently attached to the surface of polymersomes for targeting neurons. Labeled and unlabeled polymersomes with or without loaded agents were characterized using dynamic light scattering (DLS), UV-vis fluorescence spectroscopy, and asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (AF(4)). Polymersomes were imaged and tested for biological activity in human and murine fibroblasts, murine macrophages, primary murine dorsal root ganglia, and murine hippocampal cultures. Polymersomes were rapidly internalized and there was a clear intracellular co-localization of the fluorescent drug (curcumin) with the fluorescent rhodamine-labeled polymersomes. Polymersomes containing CD109, a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein, promoted cell migration in the model of wound healing. Nerve growth factor-loaded polymersomes effectively enhanced neurite outgrowth in dissociated and explanted dorsal root ganglia. Brain -derived neurotrophic factor increased dendritic spine density in serum-deprived hippocampal slice cultures. NMDAR agonist-and antagomst-functionalized polymersomes targeted selectively neurons over filial cells in mixed cultures. Collectively, the study reveals the successful incorporation into polymersomes of biologically active trophic factors and small hydrophilic agents that retain their biological activity in vitro, as demonstrated in selected central and peripheral tissue models.
  • Högberg, Ulf; Andersson, Jacob; Squier, Waney; Högberg, Göran; Fellman, Vineta; Thiblin, Ingemar; Wester, Knut (2018)
    Objectives To analyse subdural haemorrhage (SDH) during infancy in Sweden by incidence, SDH category, diagnostic distribution, age, co-morbidity, mortality, and maternal and perinatal risk factors; and its association with accidents and diagnosis of abuse. Methods A Swedish population-based register study comprising infants born between 1997 and 2014, 0-1 years of age, diagnosed with SDH-diagnoses according to the (International Classification of Diseases, 10th version (ICD10), retrieved from the National Patient Register and linked to the Medical Birth Register and the Death Cause Register. Outcome measures were: 1) Incidence and distribution, 2) co-morbidity, 3) fall accidents by SDH category, 4) risk factors for all SDHs in the two age groups, 0-6 and 7-365 days, and for ICD10 SDH subgroups: S06.5 (traumatic SDH), I62.0 (acute nontraumatic), SDH and abuse diagnosis. Results Incidence of SDH was 16.5 per 100 000 infants (n = 306). Median age was 2.5 months. For infants older than one week, the median age was 3.5 months. Case fatality was 6.5%. Male sex was overrepresented for all SDH subgroups. Accidental falls were reported in 1/3 of the cases. One-fourth occurred within 0-6 days, having a perinatal risk profile. For infants aged 7-365 days, acute nontraumatic SDH was associated with multiple birth, preterm birth, and small-for-gestational age. Fourteen percent also had an abuse diagnosis, having increased odds of being born preterm, and being small-for-gestational age. Conclusions The incidence was in the range previously reported. SDH among newborns was associated with difficult birth and neonatal morbidity. Acute nontraumatic SDH and SDH with abuse diagnosis had similar perinatal risk profiles. The increased odds for acute nontraumatic SDH in twins, preterm births, neonatal convulsions or small-for-gestational age indicate a perinatal vulnerability for SDH beyond 1st week of life. The association between prematurity/small-for-gestational age and abuse diagnosis is intriguing and not easily understood.
  • Peuhkuri, Katri; Vapaatalo, Heikki; Korpela, Riitta (2011)
  • CENTER-TB1 Investigators; van Wijk, Roel P. J.; van Dijck, Jeroen T. J. M.; Timmers, Marjolein; Palotie, Aarno; Piippo-Karjalainen, Anna; Pirinen, Matti; Raj, Rahul; Ripatti, Samuli (2020)
    Purpose: Enrolling traumatic brain injury (731) patients with an inability to provide informed consent in research is challenging. Alternatives to patient consent are not sufficiently embedded in European and national legislation, which allows procedural variation and bias. We aimed to quantify variations in informed consent policy and practice. Methods: Variation was explored in the CENTER-TBI study. Policies were reported by using a questionnaire and national legislation. Data on used informed consent procedures were available for 4498 patients from 57 centres across 17 European countries. Results: Variation in the use of informed consent procedures was found between and within EU member states. Proxy informed consent (N = 1377;64%) was the most frequently used type of consent in the ICU, followed by patient informed consent (N 426;20%) and deferred consent (N 334;16%). Deferred consent was only actively used in 15 centres (26%), although it was considered valid in 47 centres (82%). Conclusions: Alternatives to patient consent are essential for TBI research. While there seems to be concordance amongst national legislations, there is regional variability in institutional practices with respect to the use of different informed consent procedures. Variation could be caused by several reasons, including inconsistencies in clear legislation or knowledge of such legislation amongst researchers. (C) 2020 Published by Elsevier Inc.
  • Ryynanen, Olli-Pekka; Iirola, Timo; Reitala, Janne; Malmivaara, Antti (2010)
    Background -: Prehospital care is classified into ALS- (advanced life support) and BLS- (basic life support) levels according to the methods used. ALS-level prehospital care uses invasive methods, such as intravenous fluids, medications and intubation. However, the effectiveness of ALS care compared to BLS has been questionable. Aim -: The aim of this systematic review is to compare the effectiveness of ALS- and BLS-level prehospital care. Material and methods -: In a systematic review, articles where ALS-level prehospital care was compared to BLS-level or any other treatment were included. The outcome variables were mortality or patient's health-related quality of life or patient's capacity to perform daily activities. Results -: We identified 46 articles, mostly retrospective observational studies. The results on the effectiveness of ALS in unselected patient cohorts are contradictory. In cardiac arrest, early cardiopulmonary resuscitation and defibrillation are essential for survival, but prehospital ALS interventions have not improved survival. Prehospital thrombolytic treatment reduces mortality in patients having a myocardial infarction. The majority of research into trauma favours BLS in the case of penetrating trauma and also in cases of short distance to a hospital. In patients with severe head injuries, ALS provided by paramedics and intubation without anaesthesia can even be harmful. If the prehospital care is provided by an experienced physician and by a HEMS organisation (Helicopter Emergency Medical Service), ALS interventions may be beneficial for patients with multiple injuries and severe brain injuries. However, the results are contradictory. Conclusions -: ALS seems to improve survival in patients with myocardial infarction and BLS seems to be the proper level of care for patients with penetrating injuries. Some studies indicate a beneficial effect of ALS among patients with blunt head injuries or multiple injuries. There is also some evidence in favour of ALS among patients with epileptic seizures as well as those with a respiratory distress.
  • Raj, Rahul; Mikkonen, Era D.; Kivisaari, Riku; Skrifvars, Markus B.; Korja, Miikka; Siironen, Jari (2016)
    BACKGROUND: Surgery for elderly patients with acute subdural hematomas (ASDH) is controversial, because postoperative mortality rates are reported to be high and long-term outcomes unknown. Thus, we aimed to describe midterm and long-term mortality rates of elderly patients operated for an ASDH. METHODS: We reviewed all consecutive >= 75-year-old patients operated on for an ASDH between 2009 and 2012. We recorded data on preadmission functional status (independent or dependent) and use of antithrombotic medication. Patients were followed up a median of 4.2 years (range, 2.5-6.4 years). RESULTS: Forty-four patients were included. The majority of the patients (70%) were independent and taking antithrombotic medication (77%). Independent patients had a 1-year mortality of 42%, compared to 69% for dependent patients; 56% of patients taking antithrombotics and 30% of those without antithrombotics died within the first postoperative year. All patients with an admission Glasgow coma scale score of 3-8 died within the first postoperative year, if they used antithrombotics or were dependent before the injury. Of all 1-year survivors, 77% were alive at the end of follow-up. CONCLUSION: In this first surgical case series of 75-year-old or older patients with ASDH, the overall mortality rate appears to be relatively low, especially for preoperatively conscious and independent patients without antithrombotic medication. Patients alive at 1-year after surgery had a life expectancy comparable to their age-matched peers. The prognosis seems to be detrimental for preoperatively unconscious patients who were functionally dependent or used antithrombotic medication before the injury.
  • Vehviläinen, Juho; Brinck, Tuomas; Lindfors, Matias; Numminen, Jussi; Siironen, Jari; Raj, Rahul (2020)
    Background Blunt cerebrovascular injuries (BCVIs) and cervical spinal injuries (CSIs) are not uncommon injuries in patients with severe head injury and may affect patient recovery. We aimed to assess the independent relationship between BCVI, CSI, and outcome in patients with severe head injury. Methods We identified patients with severe head injury from the Helsinki Trauma Registry treated during 2015-2017 in a large level 1 trauma hospital. We assessed the association between BCVI and SCI using multivariable logistic regression, adjusting for injury severity. Our primary outcome was functional outcome at 6 months, and our secondary outcome was 6-month mortality. Results Of 255 patients with a cervical spine CT, 26 patients (10%) had a CSI, and of 194 patients with cervical CT angiography, 16 patients (8%) had a BCVI. Four of the 16 BCVI patients had a BCVI-related brain infarction, and four of the CSI patients had some form of spinal cord injury. After adjusting for injury severity in multivariable logistic regression analysis, BCVI associated with poor functional outcome (odds ratio [OR] = 6.0, 95% CI [confidence intervals] = 1.4-26.5) and mortality (OR = 7.9, 95% CI 2.0-31.4). We did not find any association between CSI and outcome. Conclusions We found that BCVI with concomitant head injury was an independent predictor of poor outcome in patients with severe head injury, but we found no association between CSI and outcome after severe head injury. Whether the association between BCVI and poor outcome is an indirect marker of a more severe injury or a result of treatment needs further investigations.
  • Frösen, Juhana; Frisk, Oskari; Raj, Rahul; Hernesniemi, Juha; Tukiainen, Erkki; Barner-Rasmussen, Ian (2019)
    Treatment of gunshot wounds of the brain (GSWB) remains controversial and there is high variation in reported survival rates (from  90%) depending on the etiology and country. We retrospectively analyzed the outcome of a series of consecutive GSWB patients admitted alive to a level 1 trauma center in a safe high-income welfare country with a low rate of homicidal gun violence.
  • Gellerfors, M.; Fevang, E.; Bäckman, A.; Krüger, A.; Mikkelsen, S.; Nurmi, J.; Rognås, L.; Sandström, E.; Skallsjö, G.; Svensén, C.; Gryth, D.; Lossius, H.M. (2018)
    Background: Pre-hospital tracheal intubation success and complication rates vary considerably among provider categories. The purpose of this study was to estimate the success and complication rates of pre-hospital tracheal intubation performed by physician anaesthetist or nurse anaesthetist pre-hospital critical care teams. Methods: Data were prospectively collected from critical care teams staffed with a physician anaesthetist or a nurse anaesthetist according to the Utstein template for pre-hospital advanced airway management. The patients served by six ambulance helicopters and six rapid response vehicles in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden from May 2015 to November 2016 were included. Results: The critical care teams attended to 32 007 patients; 2028 (6.3%) required pre-hospital tracheal intubation. The overall success rate of pre-hospital tracheal intubation was 98.7% with a median intubation time of 25 s and an on-scene time of 25 min. The majority (67.0%) of the patients' tracheas were intubated by providers who had performed >2500 tracheal intubations. The success rate of tracheal intubation on the first attempt was 84.5%, and 95.9% of intubations were completed after two attempts. Complications related to pre-hospital tracheal intubation were recorded in 10.9% of the patients. Intubations after rapid sequence induction had a higher success rate compared with intubations without rapid sequence induction (99.4% vs 98.1%; P=0.02). Physicians had a higher tracheal intubation success rate than nurses (99.0% vs 97.6%; P=0.03). Conclusions: When performed by experienced physician anaesthetists and nurse anaesthetists, pre-hospital tracheal intubation was completed rapidly with high success rates and a low incidence of complications.
  • Brandstack, Nina; Kurki, T.; Laalo, J.; Kauko, T.; Tenovuo, O. (2016)
    Reproducibility of two different methods for quantifying fiber tracts by using a diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) sequence suitable for clinical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocols was evaluated. DTI of 15 subjects was used to analyze intra-rater and inter-rater reproducibility. Another 10 subjects underwent MRI twice for assessment of between-scan reliability. Ten long association tracts were defined by fiber tracking using inclusion and exclusion regions of interest (ROIs). Whole-tract analysis and tractography-based core analysis were performed, and the effect of fractional anisotropy (FA 0.15/0.30) and turning angle threshold (27A degrees/60A degrees) on reproducibility was evaluated. Additionally, ROI measurements were performed in the core of the tracts. For the tract-based methods, intra-rater and inter-rater reliabilities of FA and mean diffusivity (MD) measurements were excellent. Between-scan reproducibility was good or excellent in 127 of 130 of the measurements. There was no systematic difference in the reproducibility of the FA, MD, and volume measurements depending on the FA or turning angle threshold. For the cross-sectional ROI measurements, reliability showed large variation from poor to excellent depending on the tract. Compared with the commonly used cross-sectional core ROI method, the tract-based analyses seem to be a more robust way to identify and measure white matter tracts of interest, and provide a novel reproducible tool to perform core analysis.
  • Humaloja, Jaana; Skrifvars, Markus B.; Raj, Rahul; Wilkman, Erika; Pekkarinen, Pirkka T.; Bendel, Stepani; Reinikainen, Matti; Litonius, Erik (2021)
    Background In neurocritically ill patients, one early mechanism behind secondary brain injury is low systemic blood pressure resulting in inadequate cerebral perfusion and consequent hypoxia. Intuitively, higher partial pressures of arterial oxygen (PaO2) could be protective in case of inadequate cerebral circulation related to hemodynamic instability. Study purpose We examined whether the association between PaO2 and mortality is different in patients with low compared to normal and high mean arterial pressure (MAP) in patients after various types of brain injury. Methods We screened the Finnish Intensive Care Consortium database for mechanically ventilated adult (>= 18) brain injury patients treated in several tertiary intensive care units (ICUs) between 2003 and 2013. Admission diagnoses included traumatic brain injury, cardiac arrest, subarachnoid and intracranial hemorrhage, and acute ischemic stroke. The primary exposures of interest were PaO2 (recorded in connection with the lowest measured PaO2/fraction of inspired oxygen ratio) and the lowest MAP, recorded during the first 24 h in the ICU. PaO2 was grouped as follows: hypoxemia (<8.2 kPa, the lowest 10th percentile), normoxemia (8.2-18.3 kPa), and hyperoxemia (> 18.3 kPa, the highest 10th percentile), and MAP was divided into equally sized tertiles (<60, 60-68, and > 68 mmHg). The primary outcome was 1-year mortality. We tested the association between hyperoxemia, MAP, and mortality with a multivariable logistic regression model, including the PaO2, MAP, and interaction of PaO2*MAP, adjusting for age, admission diagnosis, premorbid physical performance, vasoactive use, intracranial pressure monitoring use, and disease severity. The relationship between predicted 1-year mortality and PaO2 was visualized with locally weighted scatterplot smoothing curves (Loess) for different MAP levels. Results From a total of 8290 patients, 3912 (47%) were dead at 1 year. PaO2 was not an independent predictor of mortality: the odds ratio (OR) for hyperoxemia was 1.16 (95% CI 0.85-1.59) and for hypoxemia 1.24 (95% CI 0.96-1.61) compared to normoxemia. Higher MAP predicted lower mortality: OR for MAP 60-68 mmHg was 0.73 (95% CI 0.64-0.84) and for MAP > 68 mmHg 0.80 (95% CI 0.69-0.92) compared to MAP <60 mmHg. The interaction term PaO2*MAP was nonsignificant. In Loess visualization, the relationship between PaO2 and predicted mortality appeared similar in all MAP tertiles. Conclusions During the first 24 h of ICU treatment in mechanically ventilated brain injured patients, the association between PaO2 and mortality was not different in patients with low compared to normal MAP.
  • CENTER-TBI High Resolution; Zeiler, Frederick A.; Ercole, Ari; Piippo-Karjalainen, Anna; Raj, Rahul; Younsi, Alexander (2019)
    BackgroundMonitoring cerebrovascular reactivity in adult traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been linked to global patient outcome. Three intra-cranial pressure (ICP)-derived indices have been described. It is unknown which index is superior for outcome association in TBI outside previous single-center evaluations. The goal of this study is to evaluate indices for 6- to 12-month outcome association using uniform data harvested in multiple centers.MethodsUsing the prospectively collected data from the Collaborative European NeuroTrauma Effectiveness Research in TBI (CENTER-TBI) study, the following indices of cerebrovascular reactivity were derived: PRx (correlation between ICP and mean arterial pressure (MAP)), PAx (correlation between pulse amplitude of ICP (AMP) and MAP), and RAC (correlation between AMP and cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP)). Univariate logistic regression models were created to assess the association between vascular reactivity indices with global dichotomized outcome at 6 to 12months, as assessed by Glasgow Outcome Score-Extended (GOSE). Models were compared via area under the receiver operating curve (AUC) and Delong's test.ResultsTwo separate patient groups from this cohort were assessed: the total population with available data (n=204) and only those without decompressive craniectomy (n=159), with identical results. PRx, PAx, and RAC perform similar in outcome association for both dichotomized outcomes, alive/dead and favorable/unfavorable, with RAC trending towards higher AUC values. There were statistically higher mean values for the index, % time above threshold, and hourly dose above threshold for each of PRx, PAx, and RAC in those patients with poor outcomes.ConclusionsPRx, PAx, and RAC appear similar in their associations with 6- to 12-month outcome in moderate/severe adult TBI, with RAC showing tendency to achieve stronger associations. Further work is required to determine the role for each of these cerebrovascular indices in monitoring of TBI patients.