Browsing by Subject "TRENDS"

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  • Sokhi, Ranjeet S.; Singh, Vikas; Querol, Xavier; Finardi, Sandro; Targino, Admir Creso; Andrade, Maria de Fatima; Pavlovic, Radenko; Garland, Rebecca M.; Massague, Jordi; Kong, Shaofei; Baklanov, Alexander; Ren, Lu; Tarasova, Oksana; Carmichael, Greg; Peuch, Vincent-Henri; Anand, Vrinda; Arbilla, Graciela; Badali, Kaitlin; Beig, Gufran; Carlos Belalcazar, Luis; Bolignano, Andrea; Brimblecombe, Peter; Camacho, Patricia; Casallas, Alejandro; Charland, Jean-Pierre; Choi, Jason; Chourdakis, Eleftherios; Coll, Isabelle; Collins, Marty; Cyrys, Josef; da Silva, Cleyton Martins; Di Giosa, Alessandro Domenico; Di Leo, Anna; Ferro, Camilo; Gavidia-Calderon, Mario; Gayen, Amiya; Ginzburg, Alexander; Godefroy, Fabrice; Alexandra Gonzalez, Yuri; Guevara-Luna, Marco; Haque, Sk Mafizul; Havenga, Henno; Herod, Dennis; Horrak, Urmas; Hussein, Tareq; Ibarra, Sergio; Jaimes, Monica; Kaasik, Marko; Kousa, Anu; Kukkonen, Jaakko; Kulmala, Markku; Kuula, Joel; Petäjä, Tuukka (2021)
    This global study, which has been coordinated by the World Meteorological Organization Global Atmospheric Watch (WMO/GAW) programme, aims to understand the behaviour of key air pollutant species during the COVID-19 pandemic period of exceptionally low emissions across the globe. We investigated the effects of the differences in both emissions and regional and local meteorology in 2020 compared with the period 2015-2019. By adopting a globally consistent approach, this comprehensive observational analysis focuses on changes in air quality in and around cities across the globe for the following air pollutants PM2.5, PM10, PMC (coarse fraction of PM), NO2, SO2, NOx, CO, O-3 and the total gaseous oxidant (O-X = NO2 + O-3) during the pre-lockdown, partial lockdown, full lockdown and two relaxation periods spanning from January to September 2020. The analysis is based on in situ ground-based air quality observations at over 540 traffic, background and rural stations, from 63 cities and covering 25 countries over seven geographical regions of the world. Anomalies in the air pollutant concentrations (increases or decreases during 2020 periods compared to equivalent 2015-2019 periods) were calculated and the possible effects of meteorological conditions were analysed by computing anomalies from ERA5 reanalyses and local observations for these periods. We observed a positive correlation between the reductions in NO2 and NOx concentrations and peoples' mobility for most cities. A correlation between PMC and mobility changes was also seen for some Asian and South American cities. A clear signal was not observed for other pollutants, suggesting that sources besides vehicular emissions also substantially contributed to the change in air quality. As a global and regional overview of the changes in ambient concentrations of key air quality species, we observed decreases of up to about 70% in mean NO2 and between 30% and 40% in mean PM2.5 concentrations over 2020 full lockdown compared to the same period in 2015-2019. However, PM2.5 exhibited complex signals, even within the same region, with increases in some Spanish cities, attributed mainly to the long-range transport of African dust and/or biomass burning (corroborated with the analysis of NO2/CO ratio). Some Chinese cities showed similar increases in PM2.5 during the lockdown periods, but in this case, it was likely due to secondary PM formation. Changes in O-3 concentrations were highly heterogeneous, with no overall change or small increases (as in the case of Europe), and positive anomalies of 25% and 30% in East Asia and South America, respectively, with Colombia showing the largest positive anomaly of similar to 70%. The SO2 anomalies were negative for 2020 compared to 2015-2019 (between similar to 25 to 60%) for all regions. For CO, negative anomalies were observed for all regions with the largest decrease for South America of up to similar to 40%. The NO2/CO ratio indicated that specific sites (such as those in Spanish cities) were affected by biomass burning plumes, which outweighed the NO2 decrease due to the general reduction in mobility (ratio of similar to 60%). Analysis of the total oxidant (OX = NO2 + O-3) showed that primary NO2 emissions at urban locations were greater than the O-3 production, whereas at background sites, O-X was mostly driven by the regional contributions rather than local NO2 and O-3 concentrations. The present study clearly highlights the importance of meteorology and episodic contributions (e.g., from dust, domestic, agricultural biomass burning and crop fertilizing) when analysing air quality in and around cities even during large emissions reductions. There is still the need to better understand how the chemical responses of secondary pollutants to emission change under complex meteorological conditions, along with climate change and socio-economic drivers may affect future air quality. The implications for regional and global policies are also significant, as our study clearly indicates that PM2.5 concentrations would not likely meet the World Health Organization guidelines in many parts of the world, despite the drastic reductions in mobility. Consequently, revisions of air quality regulation (e.g., the Gothenburg Protocol) with more ambitious targets that are specific to the different regions of the world may well be required.
  • Auvinen, Anssi; Rannikko, Antti; Taari, Kimmo; Kujala, Paula; Mirtti, Tuomas; Kenttämies, Anu; Rinta-Kiikka, Irina; Lehtimäki, Terho; Oksala, Niku; Pettersson, Kim; Tammela, Teuvo L. (2017)
    The current evidence of PSA-based prostate cancer screening shows a reduction in cause-specific mortality, but with substantial overdiagnosis. Recently, new developments in detection of clinically relevant prostate cancer include multiple kallikreins as biomarkers besides PSA, and multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) for biopsy decision. They offer opportunities for improving the outcomes in screening, particularly reduction in overdiagnosis and higher specificity for potentially lethal cancer. A population-based randomized screening trial will be started, with 67,000 men aged 55-67 years at entry. A quarter of the men will be allocated to the intervention arm, and invited to screening. The control arm will receive no intervention. All men in the screening arm will be offered a serum PSA determination. Those with PSA of 3 ng/ml or higher will have an additional multi-kallikrein panel and those with indications of increased risk of clinically relevant prostate cancer will undergo mpMRI. Men with a malignancy-suspect finding in MRI are referred to targeted biopsies. Screening interval is 6 years for men with baseline PSA <1.5 ng/ml, 4 years with PSA 1.5-3.0 and 2 years if initial PSA > 3. The main outcome of the trial is prostate cancer mortality, with analysis at 10 and 15 years. The statistical power is sufficient for detecting a 28% reduction at 10 years and 22% at 15 years. The proposed study has the potential to provide the evidence to justify screening as a public health policy if mortality benefit can be sustained with substantially reduced overdiagnosis.
  • Hochkirch, Axel; Samways, Michael J.; Gerlach, Justin; Bohm, Monika; Williams, Paul; Cardoso, Pedro; Cumberlidge, Neil; Stephenson, P. J.; Seddon, Mary B.; Clausnitzer, Viola; Borges, Paulo A.; Mueller, Gregory M.; Pearce-Kelly, Paul; Raimondo, Domitilla C.; Danielczak, Anja; Dijkstra, Klaas-Douwe B. (2021)
    Measuring progress toward international biodiversity targets requires robust information on the conservation status of species, which the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List of Threatened Species provides. However, data and capacity are lacking for most hyperdiverse groups, such as invertebrates, plants, and fungi, particularly in megadiverse or high-endemism regions. Conservation policies and biodiversity strategies aimed at halting biodiversity loss by 2020 need to be adapted to tackle these information shortfalls after 2020. We devised an 8-point strategy to close existing data gaps by reviving explorative field research on the distribution, abundance, and ecology of species; linking taxonomic research more closely with conservation; improving global biodiversity databases by making the submission of spatially explicit data mandatory for scientific publications; developing a global spatial database on threats to biodiversity to facilitate IUCN Red List assessments; automating preassessments by integrating distribution data and spatial threat data; building capacity in taxonomy, ecology, and biodiversity monitoring in countries with high species richness or endemism; creating species monitoring programs for lesser-known taxa; and developing sufficient funding mechanisms to reduce reliance on voluntary efforts. Implementing these strategies in the post-2020 biodiversity framework will help to overcome the lack of capacity and data regarding the conservation status of biodiversity. This will require a collaborative effort among scientists, policy makers, and conservation practitioners.
  • Henriques, Sérgio; Böhm, Monika; Collen, Ben; Luedtke, Jennifer; Hoffmann, Michael; Hilton-Taylor, Craig; Cardoso, Pedro; Butchart, Stuart H. M.; Freeman, Robin (2020)
    Abstract Given the current biodiversity crisis, pragmatic approaches to detect global conservation trends across a broad range of taxa are critical. A sampled approach to the Red List Index (RLI) was proposed, as many groups are highly speciose. However, a decade after its conception, the recommended 900 species sample has only been implemented in six groups and trend data are available for none, potentially because this sample is unfeasibly high. Using a broader set of all available data we show that when re-assessments are conducted every 10 years, 200 species (400 in some cases) should be sufficient to detect a RLI trend. Correctly detecting changes in slope still requires samples of 900 species (11,000 in some cases). Sampled assessments can accelerate biodiversity monitoring and complement current metrics, but the time-period between assessments and the approaches? purpose should be carefully considered, as there is a trade-off between sample size and the resulting indices.
  • Spillerova, K.; Settembre, N.; Biancari, F.; Albäck, A.; Venermo, M. (2017)
    Introduction: This study aimed to evaluate the impact of angiosome targeted (direct) revascularisation according to revascularisation method in patients with diabetes. Materials and methods: This retrospective study cohort comprised 545 diabetic patients with critical limb ischaemia and tissue loss (Rutherford 5, 6). All patients underwent infrapopliteal endovascular (PTA) or open surgical revascularisation between January 2008 and December 2013. Differences in the outcome after direct revascularisation, bypass surgery, and PTA were investigated by means of Cox proportional hazards analysis. The endpoints were wound healing, leg salvage, and amputation free survival. Results: Overall, 60.3% of the ischaemic wounds healed during 1 year of follow-up. The highest wound healing rate was achieved after direct bypass (77%) and the worst after indirect PTA (52%). The Cox proportional hazards analysis showed that the number of affected angiosomes = 10 mg/dL (HR 2.05, 95% CI 1.45-2.90), atrial fibrillation (HR 1.54, 95% CI 1.05-2.26), and number of affected angiosomes >3 (HR 1.75, 95% CI 1.24-2.46) were significantly associated with poor leg salvage. Direct PTA was associated with a lower rate of major amputation compared with indirect PTA (HR 0.57 95% CI 0.37-0.89). Conclusion: In diabetics, indirect endovascular revascularisation leads to significantly worse wound healing and leg salvage rates compared with direct revascularisation. Therefore, endovascular procedures should be targeted according to the angiosome concept. In bypass surgery, however, the concept is of less value and the artery with the best runoff should be selected as the outflow artery. (C) 2017 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Moustgaard, Heta; Joutsenniemi, Kaisla; Myrskyla, Mikko; Martikainen, Pekka (2014)
  • Nionelli, Luana; Wang, Yaqin; Pontonio, Erica; Immonen, Mikko; Rizzello, Carlo; Maina, Ndegwa; Katina, Kati; Coda, Rossana (2020)
    Bread is one of the most consumed food products in the world and one of the most discarded, due to its intrinsic short shelf-life and susceptibility to mold spoilage. Additionally, bread waste is generated during production and distribution, leading to the disposal of bread otherwise still fit for consumption. To avoid generating huge amount of bread waste, strategies to enable its reutilization should be sought. In this study, surplus bread, still suitable for consumption, was bioprocessed with enzymes and fermented by selected lactic acid bacteria generating an ingredient with antifungal properties. Bread hydrolysate fermented by Lactobacillus brevis AM7 showed broad inhibitory spectrum against the fungal species tested and antifungal activity ranging from 20 to 70%. Nine antifungal peptides were identified via Liquid Chromatography-Electrospray Ionisation-Mass Spectra/ Mass Spectra (nano-LC-ESI-MS/MS), having 10-17 amino acid residues and mass ranging from 1083.6 to 1980.7 Da, all of them encrypted in wheat proteins sequences. Bread hydrolysate fermented by Lb. brevis AM7, non fermented bread hydrolysate and a slurry consisting of water-bread mixture were used as ingredients in bread making and compared to regular wheat bread. Breads containing the fermented hydrolysate (18 and 22% of the dough weight) showed the longest mold-free shelf-life compared to the other breads, lasting up to 10 days before mold appearance. Additionally, the fermented hydrolysate was the least detrimental on bread quality, emphasizing the positive impact and potential of the studied biotechnology.
  • White, Joanne C.; Saarinen, Ninni; Wulder, Michael A.; Kankare, Ville; Hermosilla, Txomin; Coops, Nicholas C.; Holopainen, Markus; Hyyppä, Juha; Vastaranta, Mikko (2019)
    Information regarding the nature and rate of forest recovery is required to inform forest management, monitoring, and reporting activities. Delayed establishment or return of forests has implications to harvest rotations and carbon uptake, among others, creating a need for spatially-explicit, large-area, characterizations of forest recovery. Landsat time series (LTS) has been demonstrated as a means to quantitatively relate forest recovery, noting that there are gaps in our understanding of the linkage between spectral measures of forest recovery and manifestations of forest structure and composition. Field plots provide a means to better understand the linkage between forest characteristics and spectral recovery indices. As such, from a large set of existing field plots, we considered the conditions present for the year in which the co-located pixel was considered spectrally recovered using the Years to Recovery (Y2R) metric. Y2R is a long-term metric of spectral recovery that indicates the number of years required for a pixel to return to 80% of its pre-disturbance Normalized Burn Ratio value. Absolute and relative metrics of recovery at 5 years post-disturbance were also considered. We used these three spectral recovery metrics to predict the stand development class assigned by the field crew for 284 seedling plots with an overall accuracy of 73.59%, with advanced seedling stands more accurately discriminated (omission error, OE = 15.74%) than young seedling stands (OE = 49.84%). We then used field-measured attributes (e.g. height, stem density, dominant species) from the seedling plots to classify the plots into three spectral recovery groups, which were defined using the Y2R metric: spectral recovery in (1) 1–5 years, (2) 6–10 years, or (3) 11–15 years. Overall accuracy for spectral recovery groups was 61.06%. Recovery groups 1 and 3 were discriminated with greater accuracy (producer’s and user’s accuracies > 66%) than recovery group 2 (<50%). The top field-measured predictors of spectral recovery were mean height, dominant species, and percentage of stems in the plot that were deciduous. Variability in stand establishment and condition make it challenging to accurately discriminate among recovery rates within 10 years post-harvest. Our results indicate that the long-term metric Y2R relates to forest structure and composition attributes measured in the field and that spectral development post-disturbance corresponds with expectations of structural development, particularly height, for different species, site types, and deciduous abundance. These results confirm the utility of spectral recovery measures derived from LTS data to augment landscape-level assessments of post-disturbance recovery.
  • Hirvonen, Outi M.; Leskelä, Riikka-Leena; Gronholm, Lotta; Haltia, Olli; Rissanen, Antti; Tyynela-Korhonen, Kristiina; Rahko, Eeva K.; Lehto, Juho T.; Saarto, Tiina (2019)
    Background: To avoid aggressive treatments at the end-of-life and to provide palliative care (PC), physicians need to terminate futile anti-cancer treatments and define the palliative goal of the treatment in time. This single center study assesses the practices used to make the decision that leads to treatment with a palliative goal, i.e., the PC decision and its effect on anti-cancer treatments at the end of life. Material and methods: Patients with a cancer diagnosis treated in tertiary hospital during 1st January 2013 - 31st December 2014 and deceased by the end of 2014 were identified in the hospital database (N = 2737). Of these patients, 992 were randomly selected for this study. The PC decision was screened from patient records, i.e., termination of cancer-specific treatments and a focus on symptom-centered PC. Results: The PC decision was defined in 82% of the patients during the last year of life (49% >30 days and 33%
  • Virtanen, Suvi; Sidorchuck, Anna; Fernández de la Cruz, Lorena; Brander, Gustaf; Lichtenstein, Paul; Latvala, Antti; Mataix-Cols, David (2021)
    BACKGROUND: It remains unclear if individuals with Tourette syndrome (TS) or chronic tic disorder (CTD) have an elevated risk of subsequent substance misuse. METHODS: In this population-based cohort study, we investigated the association between ICD diagnoses of TS/CTD and substance misuse outcomes, accounting for psychiatric comorbidity and familial factors. The cohort included all individuals living in Sweden at any time between January 1, 1973, and December 31, 2013. Substance misuse outcomes were defined as an ICD code of substance use-related disorder or cause of death, or as a substance use-related criminal conviction in the nationwide registers. RESULTS: The cohort included 14,277,199 individuals, of whom 7832 had a TS/CTD diagnosis (76.3% men). TS/CTD was associated with an increased risk of any subsequent substance misuse outcomes (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 3.11; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.94-3.29), including alcohol-related disorder (aHR, 3.45; 95% CI, 3.19-3.72), drug-related disorder (aHR, 6.84; 95% CI, 6.32-7.40), substance-related criminal convictions (aHR, 2.56; 95% CI, 2.36-2.77), and substance-related death (aHR, 2.54; 95% CI, 1.83-3.52). Excluding psychiatric comorbidities had little effect on the magnitude of the associations, with the exception of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, which attenuated the risk of any substance misuse outcomes (aHR, 2.00; 95% CI, 1.82-2.19). The risk of any substance misuse outcomes in individuals with TS/CTD was substantially attenuated but remained significant when compared with their unaffected siblings (aHR, 1.74; 95% CI, 1.53-1.97). CONCLUSIONS: TS/CTD were associated with various types of subsequent substance misuse outcomes, independently of psychiatric comorbidity and familial factors shared between siblings. Screening for drug and alcohol use should become part of the standard clinical routines, particularly in patients with comorbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.
  • Kortesoja, Laura; Vainikainen, Mari-Pauliina; Hotulainen, Risto; Rimpelä, Arja; Dobewall, Henrik; Lindfors, Pirjo; Karvonen, Sakari; Merikanto, Ilona (2020)
    The long-term effects of sleep on adolescent psychosocial well-being are mostly unknown, although insufficient sleep has been associated with emotional and behavioral difficulties in cross-sectional studies. With a five-year follow-up of Finnish adolescents (Time 1: n = 8834; Mean age = 13 years, 51.1% female, Time 2: n = 5315, Mean age = 15 years, 51.6% female, Time 3: n = 3712; Mean age = 17 years; 50.2% female), the purpose of this longitudinal study was to investigate the relations between self-reported sleep duration, sleep problems, and emotional and behavioral difficulties during adolescence. Emotional and behavioral difficulties were assessed using The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) measuring emotional symptoms, conduct problems, hyperactivity, peer problems and total difficulties. Sleep duration was calculated by counting the hours between self-reported bedtime and wake-up time. Sleep problems were assessed with a single question about the general sleep problems. According to the cross-lagged models for sleep and emotional and behavioral difficulties, the findings of this study indicate a developmental process during adolescence where, firstly, short sleep duration is a stronger predictor for current and prospective emotional and behavioral difficulties than vice versa. Secondly, increased emotional and behavioral difficulties expose adolescents to current and later sleep problems more strongly than reverse. Thus, the results show that short sleep duration predisposed to emotional and behavioral difficulties across adolescence, which then led to more prospective sleep problems. These findings suggest a developmental process where sleep and emotional and behavioral difficulties are intertwined in shaping adolescents' health.
  • Virtanen, Suvi; Kaprio, Jaakko; Viken, Richard; Rose, Richard J.; Latvala, Antti (2019)
    Aims To estimate birth cohort effects on alcohol consumption and abstinence in Finland and to test differences between birth cohorts in genetic and environmental sources of variation in Finnish adult alcohol use. Design The Older Finnish Twin Cohort longitudinal survey study 1975-2011. Setting Finland. Participants A total of 26 121 same-sex twins aged 18-95 years (full twin pairs at baseline n = 11 608). Measurements Outcome variables were the quantity of alcohol consumption (g/month) and abstinence (drinking zero g/month). Predictor variables were 10-year birth cohort categories and socio-demographic covariates. In quantitative genetic models, two larger cohorts (born 1901-20 and 1945-57) were compared. Findings Multi-level models in both sexes indicated higher levels of alcohol consumption in more recent birth cohorts and lower levels in earlier cohorts, compared with twins born 1921-30 (all P < 0.003). Similarly, compared with twins born 1921-30, abstaining was more common in earlier and less common in more recent cohorts (all P < 0.05), with the exception of men born 1911-20. Birth cohort differences in the genetic and environmental variance components in alcohol consumption were found: heritability was 21% [95% confidence interval (CI) = 0-56%] in the earlier-born cohort of women [mean age 62.8, standard deviation (SD) = 5.3] and 51% (95% CI = 36-56%) in a more recent cohort (mean age 60.2, SD = 3.7) at the age of 54-74. For men, heritability was 39% (95% CI = 27-45%) in both cohorts. In alcohol abstinence, environmental influences shared between co-twins explained a large proportion of variation in the earlier-born cohort (43%, 95% CI = 23-63%), whereas non-shared environmental (54%, 95% CI = 39-72%) and additive genetic influences (40%, 95% CI = 13-61%) were more important among more recent cohorts of men and women. Conclusion The contribution of genetic and environmental variability to variability in alcohol consumption in the Finnish population appears to vary by birth cohort.
  • Zheng, GQ; Sundquist, K; Sundquist, J; Forsti, A; Hemminki, O; Hemminki, K (2021)
    Background Previous population-based studies on second primary cancers (SPCs) in urothelial cancers have focused on known risk factors in bladder cancer patients without data on other urothelial sites of the renal pelvis or ureter. Aims To estimate sex-specific risks for any SPCs after urothelial cancers, and in reverse order, for urothelial cancers as SPCs after any cancer. Such two-way analysis may help interpret the results. Methods We employed standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) to estimate bidirectional relative risks of subsequent cancer associated with urothelial cancers. Patient data were obtained from the Swedish Cancer Registry from years 1990 through 2015. Results We identified 46 234 urinary bladder cancers (75% male), 940 ureteral cancers (60% male), and 2410 renal pelvic cancers (57% male). After male bladder cancer, SIRs significantly increased for 9 SPCs, most for ureteral (SIR 41.9) and renal pelvic (17.2) cancers. In the reversed order (bladder cancer as SPC), 10 individual FPCs were associated with an increased risk; highest associations were noted after renal pelvic (21.0) and ureteral (20.9) cancers. After female bladder cancer, SIRs of four SPCs were significantly increased, most for ureteral (87.8) and pelvic (35.7) cancers. Female bladder, ureteral, and pelvic cancers associated are with endometrial cancer. Conclusions The risks of recurrent urothelial cancers were very high, and, at most sites, female risks were twice over the male risks. Risks persisted often to follow-up periods of >5 years, motivating an extended patient follow-up. Lynch syndrome-related cancers were associated with particularly female urothelial cancers, calling for clinical vigilance.
  • Haagsma, Juanita A.; James, Spencer L.; Castle, Chris D.; Dingels, Zachary; Fox, Jack T.; Hamilton, Erin B.; Liu, Zichen; Lucchesi, Lydia R.; Roberts, Nicholas L. S.; Sylte, Dillon O.; Adebayo, Oladimeji M.; Ahmadi, Alireza; Ahmed, Muktar Beshir; Aichour, Miloud Taki Eddine; Alahdab, Fares; Alghnam, Suliman A.; Aljunid, Syed Mohamed; Al-Raddadi, Rajaa M.; Alsharif, Ubai; Altirkawi, Khalid; Anjomshoa, Mina; Antonio, Carl Abelardo T.; Appiah, Seth Christopher Yaw; Aremu, Olatunde; Arora, Amit; Asayesh, Hamid; Assadi, Reza; Awasthi, Ashish; Ayala Quintanilla, Beatriz Paulina; Balalla, Shivanthi; Banstola, Amrit; Barker-Collo, Suzanne Lyn; Baernighausen, Till Winfried; Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad; Bedi, Neeraj; Behzadifar, Masoud; Behzadifar, Meysam; Benjet, Corina; Bennett, Derrick A.; Bensenor, Isabela M.; Bhaumik, Soumyadeep; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.; Bijani, Ali; Borges, Guilherme; Borschmann, Rohan; Bose, Dipan; Boufous, Soufiane; Brazinova, Alexandra; Rincon, Julio Cesar Campuzano; Cardenas, Rosario; Carrero, Juan J.; Carvalho, Felix; Castaneda-Orjuela, Carlos A.; Catala-Lopez, Ferran; Choi, Jee-Young J.; Christopher, Devasahayam J.; Crowe, Christopher Stephen; Dalal, Koustuv; Daryani, Ahmad; Davitoiu, Dragos Virgil; Degenhardt, Louisa; De Leo, Diego; De Neve, Jan-Walter; Deribe, Kebede; Dessie, Getenet Ayalew; deVeber, Gabrielle Aline; Dharmaratne, Samath Dhamminda; Linh Phuong Doan; Dolan, Kate A.; Driscoll, Tim Robert; Dubey, Manisha; El-Khatib, Ziad; Ellingsen, Christian Lycke; Zaki, Maysaa El Sayed; Endries, Aman Yesuf; Eskandarieh, Sharareh; Faro, Andre; Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad; Fernandes, Eduarda; Filip, Irina; Fischer, Florian; Franklin, Richard Charles; Fukumoto, Takeshi; Gezae, Kebede Embaye; Gill, Tiffany K.; Goulart, Alessandra C.; Grada, Ayman; Guo, Yuming; Gupta, Rahul; Bidgoli, Hassan Haghparast; Haj-Mirzaian, Arvin; Haj-Mirzaian, Arya; Hamadeh, Randah R.; Hamidi, Samer; Maria Haro, Josep; Hassankhani, Hadi; Hassen, Hamid Yimam; Havmoeller, Rasmus; Hendrie, Delia; Henok, Andualem; Hijar, Martha; Hole, Michael K.; Rad, Enayatollah Homaie; Hossain, Naznin; Hostiuc, Sorin; Hu, Guoqing; Igumbor, Ehimario U.; Ilesanmi, Olayinka Stephen; Irvani, Seyed Sina Naghibi; Islam, Sheikh Mohammed Shariful; Ivers, Rebecca Q.; Jacobsen, Kathryn H.; Jahanmehr, Nader; Jakovljevic, Mihajlo; Jayatilleke, Achala Upendra; Jha, Ravi Prakash; Jonas, Jost B.; Shushtari, Zahra Jorjoran; Jozwiak, Jacek Jerzy; Jurisson, Mikk; Kabir, Ali; Kalani, Rizwan; Kasaeian, Amir; Kelbore, Abraham Getachew; Kengne, Andre Pascal; Khader, Yousef Saleh; Khafaie, Morteza Abdullatif; Khalid, Nauman; Khan, Ejaz Ahmad; Khoja, Abdullah T.; Kiadaliri, Aliasghar A.; Kim, Young-Eun; Kim, Daniel; Kisa, Adnan; Koyanagi, Ai; Defo, Barthelemy Kuate; Bicer, Burcu Kucuk; Kumar, Manasi; Lalloo, Ratilal; Lam, Hilton; Lami, Faris Hasan; Lansingh, Van C.; Leasher, Janet L.; Li, Shanshan; Linn, Shai; Lunevicius, Raimundas; Machado, Flavia R.; Abd El Razek, Hassan Magdy; Abd El Razek, Muhammed Magdy; Mahotra, Narayan Bahadur; Majdan, Marek; Majeed, Azeem; Malekzadeh, Reza; Malik, Manzoor Ahmad; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Manda, Ana-Laura; Mansournia, Mohammad Ali; Massenburg, Benjamin Ballard; Maulik, Pallab K.; Meheretu, Hailemariam Abiy Alemu; Mehndiratta, Man Mohan; Melese, Addisu; Mendoza, Walter; Mengesha, Melkamu Merid; Meretoja, Tuomo J.; Meretoja, Atte; Mestrovic, Tomislav; Miazgowski, Tomasz; Miller, Ted R.; Mini, G. K.; Mirrakhimov, Erkin M.; Moazen, Babak; Mezerji, Naser Mohammad Gholi; Mohammadibakhsh, Roghayeh; Mohammed, Shafiu; Molokhia, Mariam; Monasta, Lorenzo; Mondello, Stefania; Montero-Zamora, Pablo A.; Moodley, Yoshan; Moosazadeh, Mahmood; Moradi, Ghobad; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; Morawska, Lidia; Moreno Velasquez, Ilais; Morrison, Shane Douglas; Moschos, Marilita M.; Mousavi, Seyyed Meysam; Murthy, Srinivas; Musa, Kamarul Imran; Naik, Gurudatta; Najafi, Farid; Nangia, Vinay; Nascimento, Bruno Ramos; Ndwandwe, Duduzile Edith; Negoi, Ionut; Trang Huyen Nguyen; Son Hoang Nguyen; Long Hoang Nguyen; Huong Lan Thi Nguyen; Ningrum, Dina Nur Anggraini; Nirayo, Yirga Legesse; Ofori-Asenso, Richard; Ogbo, Felix Akpojene; Oh, In-Hwan; Oladimeji, Olanrewaju; Olagunju, Andrew T.; Olagunju, Tinuke O.; Olivares, Pedro R.; Orpana, Heather M.; Otstavnov, Stanislav S.; Mahesh, P. A.; Pakhale, Smita; Park, Eun-Kee; Patton, George C.; Pesudovs, Konrad; Phillips, Michael R.; Polinder, Suzanne; Prakash, Swayam; Radfar, Amir; Rafay, Anwar; Rafiei, Alireza; Rahimi, Siavash; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa; Rahman, Muhammad Aziz; Rai, Rajesh Kumar; Ramezanzadeh, Kiana; Rawaf, Salman; Rawaf, David Laith; Renzaho, Andre M. N.; Resnikoff, Serge; Rezaeian, Shahab; Roever, Leonardo; Ronfani, Luca; Roshandel, Gholamreza; Sabde, Yogesh Damodar; Saddik, Basema; Salamati, Payman; Salimi, Yahya; Salz, Inbal; Samy, Abdallah M.; Sanabria, Juan; Riera, Lidia Sanchez; Milicevic, Milena M. Santric; Satpathy, Maheswar; Sawhney, Monika; Sawyer, Susan M.; Saxena, Sonia; Saylan, Mete; Schneider, Ione J. C.; Schwebel, David C.; Seedat, Soraya; Sepanlou, Sadaf G.; Shaikh, Masood Ali; Shams-Beyranvand, Mehran; Shamsizadeh, Morteza; Sharif-Alhoseini, Mahdi; Sheikh, Aziz; Shen, Jiabin; Shigematsu, Mika; Shiri, Rahman; Shiue, Ivy; Silva, Joao Pedro; Singh, Jasvinder A.; Sinha, Dhirendra Narain; Soares Filho, Adauto Martins; Soriano, Joan B.; Soshnikov, Sergey; Soyiri, Ireneous N.; Starodubov, Vladimir; Stein, Dan J.; Stokes, Mark A.; Sufiyan, Mu'awiyyah Babale; Sunshine, Jacob E.; Sykes, Bryan L.; Tabares-Seisdedos, Rafael; Tabb, Karen M.; Tehrani-Banihashemi, Arash; Tessema, Gizachew Assefa; Thakur, Jarnail Singh; Khanh Bao Tran; Bach Xuan Tran; Car, Lorainne Tudor; Uthman, Olalekan A.; Uzochukwu, Benjamin S. Chudi; Valdez, Pascual R.; Varavikova, Elena; Nogales Vasconcelos, Ana Maria; Venketasubramanian, Narayanaswamy; Violante, Francesco S.; Vlassov, Vasily; Waheed, Yasir; Wang, Yuan-Pang; Wijeratne, Tissa; Winkler, Andrea Sylvia; Yadav, Priyanka; Yano, Yuichiro; Yenesew, Muluken Azage; Yip, Paul; Yisma, Engida; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Younis, Mustafa Z.; Yu, Chuanhua; Zafar, Shamsa; Zaidi, Zoubida; Bin Zaman, Sojib; Zamani, Mohammad; Zhao, Yong; Zodpey, Sanjay; Hay, Simon; Lopez, Alan D.; Mokdad, Ali H.; Vos, Theo (2020)
    Background The epidemiological transition of non-communicable diseases replacing infectious diseases as the main contributors to disease burden has been well documented in global health literature. Less focus, however, has been given to the relationship between sociodemographic changes and injury. The aim of this study was to examine the association between disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) from injury for 195 countries and territories at different levels along the development spectrum between 1990 and 2017 based on the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2017 estimates. Methods Injury mortality was estimated using the GBD mortality database, corrections for garbage coding and CODEm-the cause of death ensemble modelling tool. Morbidity estimation was based on surveys and inpatient and outpatient data sets for 30 cause-of-injury with 47 nature-of-injury categories each. The Socio-demographic Index (SDI) is a composite indicator that includes lagged income per capita, average educational attainment over age 15 years and total fertility rate. Results For many causes of injury, age-standardised DALY rates declined with increasing SDI, although road injury, interpersonal violence and self-harm did not follow this pattern. Particularly for self-harm opposing patterns were observed in regions with similar SDI levels. For road injuries, this effect was less pronounced. Conclusions The overall global pattern is that of declining injury burden with increasing SDI. However, not all injuries follow this pattern, which suggests multiple underlying mechanisms influencing injury DALYs. There is a need for a detailed understanding of these patterns to help to inform national and global efforts to address injury-related health outcomes across the development spectrum.
  • GBD 2015 Eastern Mediterranean Reg; Mokdad, Ali H.; Shiri, Rahman (2018)
    We used the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2015 study results to explore the burden of high body mass index (BMI) in the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR). We estimated the prevalence of overweight and obesity among children (2-19 years) and adults (20 years) in 1980 and 2015. The burden of disease related to high BMI was calculated using the GBD comparative risk assessment approach. The prevalence of obesity increased for adults from 15.1% (95% UI 13.4-16.9) in 1980 to 20.7% (95% UI 18.8-22.8) in 2015. It increased from 4.1% (95% UI 2.9-5.5) to 4.9% (95% UI 3.6-6.4) for the same period among children. In 2015, there were 417,115 deaths and 14,448,548 disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) attributable to high BMI in EMR, which constitute about 10 and 6.3% of total deaths and DALYs, respectively, for all ages. This is the first study to estimate trends in obesity burden for the EMR from 1980 to 2015. We call for EMR countries to invest more resources in prevention and health promotion efforts to reduce this burden.
  • Virkkala, Raimo; Lehikoinen, Aleksi; Rajasärkkä, Ari (2020)
    Protected areas (PAs) should maintain populations of focal species, but their ability to achieve this target is affected both by land use outside PAs and by climate warming. To study effects of land use on species and ability of PAs to maintain populations of species, we compared trends in abundance of 15 resident bird species between two periods of relatively stable and increasing logging volume in boreal forests in Finland, in 2006-2011 and 2012-2018, respectively. We studied trends in abundance of forest birds in unprotected areas and in PAs, where logging is not allowed. In general, patterns of population changes did not differ between PAs and unprotected areas. Abundances of ten of the 15 species were, however, concentrated in southern Finland, where PAs have low coverage, and where trends in abundance merely reflect changes in unprotected areas. Five species declined, and they all probably suffered from the effects of increased logging. Four of them had a southern distribution in Finland, so they should even benefit from the rapid climate warming occurring in these regions. In northern Finland, PAs cover a much higher proportion of land than in southern Finland, and thus PA network may better maintain populations, which was also reflected in more stable populations of species therein. For populations to persist in PAs and for PAs to buffer against environmental changes, a PA network should have a high level of coverage as in northernmost Finland thus supporting Aichi Target 11.
  • Virkkala, Raimo; Aalto, Juha; Heikkinen, Risto; Rajasärkkä, Ari; Kuusela, Saija; Leikola, Niko; Luoto, Miska (2020)
    Increased attention is being paid to the ecological drivers and conservation measures which could mitigate climate change-induced pressures for species survival, potentially helping populations to remain in their present-day locations longer. One important buffering mechanism against climate change may be provided by the heterogeneity in topography and consequent local climate conditions. However, the buffering capacity of this topoclimate has so far been insufficiently studied based on empirical survey data across multiple sites and species. Here, we studied whether the fine-grained air temperature variation of protected areas (PAs) affects the population changes of declining northern forest bird species. Importantly to our study, in PAs harmful land use, such as logging, is not allowed, enabling the detection of the effects of temperature buffering, even at relatively moderate levels of topographic variation. Our survey data from 129 PAs located in the boreal zone in Finland show that the density of northern forest species was higher in topographically heterogeneous PAs than in topographically more homogeneous PAs. Moreover, local temperature variation had a significant effect on the density change of northern forest birds from 1981-1999 to 2000-2017, indicating that change in bird density was generally smaller in PAs with higher topographic variation. Thus, we found a clear buffering effect stemming from the local temperature variation of PAs in the population trends of northern forest birds.
  • Friman, Terhi Kristiina; Jäämaa-Holmberg, Salla; Åberg, Fredrik; Helanterä, Ilkka; Halme, Maija; Pentikäinen, Markku O.; Nordin, Arno; Lemström, Karl B.; Jahnukainen, Timo; Räty, Riikka; Salmela, Birgitta (2022)
    Cancer is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality after solid organ transplantation (SOT) and related to lifelong immunosuppression. This retrospective registry study assessed for the first time in Finland population-based cancer risk and cancer mortality after all SOTs (lung and childhood transplantations included) as standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) and standardized mortality ratios (SMRs). Data from transplant registries were linked with the data of Finnish Cancer Registry and Statistics Finland. We followed 6548 consecutive first SOT recipients from 1 January 1987 to 31 December 2016 translating to 66 741 person-years (median follow-up time 8.9 years [interquartile range 4.0-15.1]). In total, 2096 cancers were found in 1483 patients (23% of all patients). Majority of cancers (53%) were nonmelanoma skin cancers (NMSCs). The overall SIR was 3.6 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.5-3.8) and the SIR excluding NMSCs was 2.2 (95% CI: 2.0-2.3). SIR for all cancers was highest for heart (5.0) and lowest for liver (2.7) recipients. Most common cancer types after NMSCs were non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), SIR 9.9 (95% CI: 8.5-11.4) and kidney cancer, SIR 7.3 (95% CI: 6.0-8.8). Cancer-related deaths were 17% (n = 408) of all deaths after first month post transplantation. SMR for all cancers was 2.5 (95% CI: 2.2-2.7) and for NHL 13.6 (95% CI: 10.7-16.8). Notably, overall SIR for cancer was lower in later period (2000-2016), 3.0 (95% CI: 2.8-3.2), than in earlier period (1987-1999), 4.3 (95% CI: 4.0-4.5), P < .001. Decrease in cancer incidence was temporally associated with major changes in immunosuppression in the 2000s.
  • Knaappila, Noora; Marttunen, Mauri; Fröjd, Sari; Lindberg, Nina; Kaltiala-Heino, Riittakerttu (2019)
    Background: Scientific literature suggests that the prevalence of delinquency amongst adolescents has decreased internationally in past decades. However, whether this change is consistent across all socioeconomic groups has not yet been studied. Objective: The aim of this study was to examine changes in delinquency amongst Finnish adolescents according to socioeconomic status between 2000 and 2015. Method: A population-based school survey was conducted biennially amongst 14-16-year-old Finns between 2000 and 2015 (n = 761,278). Distributions for delinquency and socioeconomic adversities (low parental education, not living with both parents and parental unemployment in the past year) were calculated using crosstabs. Associations between delinquency, time, and socioeconomic adversities were studied using binomial logistic regression results shown by odds ratios with 95 % confidence intervals. Results: Delinquency was positively associated with all three socioeconomic adversities studied and cumulative socioeconomic adversity. Although the prevalence of delinquency varied only slightly between 2000 and 2015 in the overall population, it increased significantly amongst adolescents with most socioeconomic adversities. Conclusions: The findings indicate that socioeconomic differences in delinquency have increased amongst Finnish adolescents in past decades. Delinquency prevention and intervention programs should take socioeconomic adversities into account.
  • Karppinen, Helena; Pitkala, Kaisu H.; Kautiainen, Hannu; Tilvis, Reijo S.; Valvanne, Jaakko; Yoder, Kathe; Strandberg, Timo E. (2017)
    Objective: To explore changes in self-reported disabilities, health, comorbidities and psychological wellbeing (PWB) in aged cohorts over two decades. Design, setting and subjects: Cross-sectional cohort studies with postal surveys were conducted among community-dwelling people aged 75, 80, 85, 90 and 95 years in 1989 (n = 660), 1999 (n = 2598) and 2009 (n = 1637) in Helsinki, Finland. Main outcome measures: Self-reported items on disability, self-rated health (SRH), diagnoses and PWB were compared between cohorts of the same age. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated for each study year to explore the representativeness of the samples compared to general population of same age. Results: A significantly lower proportion of the 75-85-year-olds of the later study years reported going outdoors daily, although this group had improvements in both SRH and PWB scores. The number of comorbidities increased over time among 75-85-year-olds. The only significant change that could be verified among 90- and 95-year-olds between 1999 and 2009, was the lower proportion of participants going outdoors daily. The trend of leveling-off in disabilities was not explained by the SMRs (0.90, 0.71 and 0.60 for 1989, 1999 and 2009). Conclusions: The latest older people's cohorts showed an end to previously reported improvements in disabilities, despite having favorable trends in SRH and PWB. Primary care may be faced with increasing need of appropriate services for their senior members.