Browsing by Subject "TRIAL"

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  • Gu, Ying; Lee, Hsi-Ming; Napolitano, Nicole; Clemens, McKenzie; Zhang, Yazhou; Sorsa, Timo; Zhang, Yu; Johnson, Francis; Golub, Lorne M. (2013)
  • Jousi, Mikko O.; Erkkilä, Jukka; Varjonen, Mari; Soiva, Martti; Hukkinen, Katja; Sequeiros, Roberto Blanco (2019)
    Background Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is gaining popularity in breast imaging. There are several different technical approaches for conducting DBT imaging. Purpose To determine optimal imaging parameters, test patient friendliness, evaluate the initial diagnostic performance, and describe diagnostic advances possible with the new Continuous Sync-and-Shoot method. Material and Methods Thirty-six surgical breast specimens were imaged with digital mammography (DM) and a prototype of a DBT system (Planmed Oy, Helsinki, Finland). We tested the patient friendliness of the sync-and-shoot movement without radiation exposure in eight volunteers. Different imaging parameters were tested with 20 specimens to identify the optimal combination: angular range 30 degrees, 40 degrees, and 60 degrees; pixel binning; Rhodium (Rh) and Silver (Ag) filtrations; and different kV and mAs values. Two breast radiologists evaluated 16 DM and DBT image pairs and rated six different image properties. Imaging modalities were compared with paired t-test. Results The Continuous Sync-and-Shoot method produced diagnostically valid images. Five out of eight volunteers felt no/minimal discomfort, three experienced mild discomfort from the tilting movement of the detector, with the motion being barely recognized. The combination of 30 degrees, Ag filtering, and 2 x 2 pixel binning produced the best image quality at an acceptable dose level. DBT was significantly better in all six evaluated properties (P <0.05). Mean Dose(DBT)/Dose(DM) ratio was 1.22 (SD = 0.42). Conclusion The evaluated imaging method is feasible for imaging and analysing surgical breast specimens and DBT is significantly better than DM in image evaluation.
  • Sundell, Veli-Matti; Jousi, Mikko; Hukkinen, Katja; Blanco, Roberto; Mäkelä, Teemu; Kaasalainen, Touko (2019)
    Background: Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is a three-dimensional breast imaging method. DBT vendors employ various approaches in both image acquisition and data processing, which may affect image quality and radiation exposure to patients. Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the performance of five DBT systems: Fujifilm Amulet Innovality (using both a standard mode and high-resolution mode), GE Senographe Essential, Hologic Selenia Dimensions, Planmed Clarity 3D, and Siemens Mammomat Inspiration. Materials and methods: The performance of each device and imaging technique was evaluated and compared by phantom measurements performed with four quality assurance phantoms. Technical image quality assessments consisted of measuring artefact extent, in-plane resolution, relative noise power spectrum, and geometric accuracy. Results: Artefact spreading varied remarkably between the devices, and the full width at half maximum values of artefact spread functions varied from 3.5 mm to 10.7 mm. Noticeable in-plane resolution anisotropy, determined using modulation transfer function (MTF) analysis, was typically observed between tube travel direction and chest wall-nipple direction. The MTF50 varied from 1.1 mm(-1) to 1.6 mm(-1) and from 1.5 mm(-1) to 4.1 mm(-1) in the tube travel and chest wall-nipple directions, respectively. Moreover, distinctly different noise power spectra were observed between the systems. The geometric accuracy in every system was within 0.5%. Conclusion: Technical image quality assessments with image quality phantoms revealed remarkable differences in artefact spread, in-plane resolution, and noise properties between the DBT systems and imaging methods.
  • Type 1 Diabet TrialNet Study Grp; Redondo, Maria J.; Geyer, Susan; Steck, Andrea K.; Knip, Mikael (2018)
    OBJECTIVEWe tested the ability of a type 1 diabetes (T1D) genetic risk score (GRS) to predict progression of islet autoimmunity and T1D in at-risk individuals.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODSWe studied the 1,244 TrialNet Pathway to Prevention study participants (T1D patients' relatives without diabetes and with one or more positive autoantibodies) who were genotyped with Illumina ImmunoChip (median [range] age at initial autoantibody determination 11.1 years [1.2-51.8], 48% male, 80.5% non-Hispanic white, median follow-up 5.4 years). Of 291 participants with a single positive autoantibody at screening, 157 converted to multiple autoantibody positivity and 55 developed diabetes. Of 953 participants with multiple positive autoantibodies at screening, 419 developed diabetes. We calculated the T1D GRS from 30 T1D-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms. We used multivariable Cox regression models, time-dependent receiver operating characteristic curves, and area under the curve (AUC) measures to evaluate prognostic utility of T1D GRS, age, sex, Diabetes Prevention Trial-Type 1 (DPT-1) Risk Score, positive autoantibody number or type, HLA DR3/DR4-DQ8 status, and race/ethnicity. We used recursive partitioning analyses to identify cut points in continuous variables.RESULTSHigher T1D GRS significantly increased the rate of progression to T1D adjusting for DPT-1 Risk Score, age, number of positive autoantibodies, sex, and ethnicity (hazard ratio [HR] 1.29 for a 0.05 increase, 95% CI 1.06-1.6; P = 0.011). Progression to T1D was best predicted by a combined model with GRS, number of positive autoantibodies, DPT-1 Risk Score, and age (7-year time-integrated AUC = 0.79, 5-year AUC = 0.73). Higher GRS was significantly associated with increased progression rate from single to multiple positive autoantibodies after adjusting for age, autoantibody type, ethnicity, and sex (HR 2.27 for GRS >0.295, 95% CI 1.47-3.51; P = 0.0002).CONCLUSIONSThe T1D GRS independently predicts progression to T1D and improves prediction along T1D stages in autoantibody-positive relatives.
  • Lavikainen, Piia; Korhonen, Maarit Jaana; Huupponen, Risto; Helin-Salmivaara, Arja (2015)
  • Azoulay, Elie; Pickkers, Peter; Soares, Marcio; Perner, Anders; Rello, Jordi; Bauer, Philippe R.; van de Louw, Andry; Hemelaar, Pleun; Lemiale, Virginie; Taccone, Fabio Silvio; Loeches, Ignacio Martin; Meyhoff, Tine Sylvest; Salluh, Jorge; Schellongowski, Peter; Rusinova, Katerina; Terzi, Nicolas; Mehta, Sangeeta; Antonelli, Massimo; Kouatchet, Achille; Barratt-Due, Andreas; Valkonen, Miia; Landburg, Precious Pearl; Bruneel, Fabrice; Bukan, Ramin Brandt; Pene, Frederic; Metaxa, Victoria; Moreau, Anne Sophie; Souppart, Virginie; Burghi, Gaston; Girault, Christophe; Silva, Ulysses V. A.; Montini, Luca; Barbier, Francois; Nielsen, Lene B.; Gaborit, Benjamin; Mokart, Djamel; Chevret, Sylvie; Efraim Investigators; Nine-I Study Grp (2017)
    In immunocompromised patients with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure (ARF), initial management aims primarily to avoid invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV). To assess the impact of initial management on IMV and mortality rates, we performed a multinational observational prospective cohort study in 16 countries (68 centers). A total of 1611 patients were enrolled (hematological malignancies 51.9%, solid tumors 35.2%, systemic diseases 17.3%, and solid organ transplantation 8.8%). The main ARF etiologies were bacterial (29.5%), viral (15.4%), and fungal infections (14.7%), or undetermined (13.2%). On admission, 915 (56.8%) patients were not intubated. They received standard oxygen (N = 496, 53.9%), high-flow oxygen (HFNC, N = 187, 20.3%), noninvasive ventilation (NIV, N = 153, 17.2%), and NIV + HFNC (N = 79, 8.6%). Factors associated with IMV included age (hazard ratio = 0.92/year, 95% CI 0.86-0.99), day-1 SOFA (1.09/point, 1.06-1.13), day-1 PaO2/FiO(2) (1.47, 1.05-2.07), ARF etiology (Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (2.11, 1.42-3.14), invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (1.85, 1.21-2.85), and undetermined cause (1.46, 1.09-1.98). After propensity score matching, HFNC, but not NIV, had an effect on IMV rate (HR = 0.77, 95% CI 0.59-1.00, p = 0.05). ICU, hospital, and day-90 mortality rates were 32.4, 44.1, and 56.4%, respectively. Factors independently associated with hospital mortality included age (odds ratio = 1.18/year, 1.09-1.27), direct admission to the ICU (0.69, 0.54-0.87), day-1 SOFA excluding respiratory score (1.12/point, 1.08-1.16), PaO2/FiO(2) <100 (1.60, 1.03-2.48), and undetermined ARF etiology (1.43, 1.04-1.97). Initial oxygenation strategy did not affect mortality; however, IMV was associated with mortality, the odds ratio depending on IMV conditions: NIV + HFNC failure (2.31, 1.09-4.91), first-line IMV (2.55, 1.94-3.29), NIV failure (3.65, 2.05-6.53), standard oxygen failure (4.16, 2.91-5.93), and HFNC failure (5.54, 3.27-9.38). HFNC has an effect on intubation but not on mortality rates. Failure to identify ARF etiology is associated with higher rates of both intubation and mortality. This suggests that in addition to selecting the appropriate oxygenation device, clinicians should strive to identify the etiology of ARF.
  • MASK Grp; Menditto, Enrica; Costa, Elisio; Midao, Luis; Haahtela, Tari; Toppila-Salmi, S.; Kuitunen, M.; Valovirta, E. (2019)
    Background: Mobile technology may help to better understand the adherence to treatment. MASK-rhinitis (Mobile Airways Sentinel NetworK for allergic rhinitis) is a patient-centred ICT system. A mobile phone app (the Allergy Diary) central to MASK is available in 22 countries. Objectives: To assess the adherence to treatment in allergic rhinitis patients using the Allergy Diary App. Methods: An observational cross-sectional study was carried out on all users who filled in the Allergy Diary from 1 January 2016 to 1 August 2017. Secondary adherence was assessed by using the modified Medication Possession Ratio (MPR) and the Proportion of days covered (PDC) approach. Results: A total of 12143 users were registered. A total of 6949 users reported at least one VAS data recording. Among them, 1887 users reported >= 7 VAS data. About 1195 subjects were included in the analysis of adherence. One hundred and thirty-six (11.28%) users were adherent (MPR >= 70% and PDC = 70% and PDC = 1.50) and 176 (14.60%) were switchers. On the other hand, 832 (69.05%) users were non-adherent to medications (MPR Conclusion and clinical relevance: Adherence to treatment is low. The relative efficacy of continuous vs on-demand treatment for allergic rhinitis symptoms is still a matter of debate. This study shows an approach for measuring retrospective adherence based on a mobile app. This also represents a novel approach for analysing medication-taking behaviour in a real-world setting.
  • Khanna, Ashish; English, Shane W.; Wang, Xueyuan S.; Ham, Kealy; Tumlin, James; Szerlip, Harold; Busse, Laurence W.; Altaweel, Laith; Albertson, Timothy E.; Mackey, Caleb; McCurdy, Michael T.; Boldt, David W.; Chock, Stefan; Young, Paul J.; Krell, Kenneth; Wunderink, Richard G.; Ostermann, Marlies; Murugan, Raghavan; Gong, Michelle N.; Panwar, Rakshit; Hastbacka, Johanna; Favory, Raphael; Venkatesh, Balasubramanian; Thompson, B. Taylor; Bellomo, Rinaldo; Jensen, Jeffrey; Kroll, Stew; Chawla, Lakhmir S.; Tidmarsh, George F.; Deane, Adam M.; ATHOS-3 Investigators (2017)
    BACKGROUND Vasodilatory shock that does not respond to high-dose vasopressors is associated with high mortality. We investigated the effectiveness of angiotensin II for the treatment of patients with this condition. METHODS We randomly assigned patients with vasodilatory shock who were receiving more than 0.2 mu g of norepinephrine per kilogram of body weight per minute or the equivalent dose of another vasopressor to receive infusions of either angiotensin II or placebo. The primary end point was a response with respect to mean arterial pressure at hour 3 after the start of infusion, with response defined as an increase from baseline of at least 10 mm Hg or an increase to at least 75 mm Hg, without an increase in the dose of background vasopressors. RESULTS A total of 344 patients were assigned to one of the two regimens; 321 received a study intervention (163 received angiotensin II, and 158 received placebo) and were included in the analysis. The primary end point was reached by more patients in the angiotensin II group (114 of 163 patients, 69.9%) than in the placebo group (37 of 158 patients, 23.4%) (odds ratio, 7.95; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4.76 to 13.3; P<0.001). At 48 hours, the mean improvement in the cardiovascular Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score (scores range from 0 to 4, with higher scores indicating more severe dysfunction) was greater in the angiotensin II group than in the placebo group (-1.75 vs. -1.28, P = 0.01). Serious adverse events were reported in 60.7% of the patients in the angiotensin II group and in 67.1% in the placebo group. Death by day 28 occurred in 75 of 163 patients (46%) in the angiotensin II group and in 85 of 158 patients (54%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.57 to 1.07; P = 0.12). CONCLUSIONS Angiotensin II effectively increased blood pressure in patients with vasodilatory shock that did not respond to high doses of conventional vasopressors. (Funded by La Jolla Pharmaceutical Company; ATHOS-3 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02338843.)
  • Polonen, R. P.; Penttinen, K.; Swan, H.; Aalto-Setälä, K. (2018)
    Mutations in the cardiac ryanodine receptor (RYR2) are the leading cause for catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT). In this study, we evaluated antiarrhythmic efficacy of carvedilol and flecainide in CPVT patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (iPSC-CMs) carrying different mutations in RYR2. iPSC-CMs were generated from skin biopsies of CPVT patients carrying exon 3 deletion and IA115 or V4653F mutation in RYR2 and of a healthy individual. Ca2+ kinetics and drug effects were studied with Fluo-4 AM indicator. Carvedilol abolished Ca2+ abnormalities in 31% of L4115F, 36% of V4653F, and 46% of exon 3 deletion carrying CPVT cardiomyocytes and flecainide 33%, 30%, and 52%, respectively. Both drugs lowered the intracellular Ca2+ level and beating rate of the cardiomyocytes significantly. Moreover, flecainide caused abnormal Ca2+ transients in 61% of controls compared to 26% of those with carvedilol. Carvedilol and flecainide were equally effective in CPVT iPSC-CMs. However, flecainide induced arrhythmias in 61% of control cells. CPVT cardiomyocytes carrying the exon 3 deletion had the most severe Ca2+ abnormalities, but they had the best response to drug therapies. According to this study, the arrhythmia-abolishing effect of neither of the drugs is optimal. iPSC-CMs provide a unique platform for testing drugs for CPVT.
  • Vimaleswaran, Karani S.; Cavadino, Alana; Berry, Diane J.; Jorde, Rolf; Dieffenbach, Aida Karina; Lu, Chen; Alves, Alexessander Couto; Heerspink, Hiddo J. Lambers; Tikkanen, Emmi; Eriksson, Joel; Wong, Andrew; Mangino, Massimo; Jablonski, Kathleen A.; Nolte, Ilja M.; Houston, Denise K.; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer Singh; van der Most, Peter J.; Pasko, Dorota; Zgaga, Lina; Thiering, Elisabeth; Vitart, Veronique; Fraser, Ross M.; Huffman, Jennifer E.; de Boer, Rudolf A.; Schoettker, Ben; Saum, Kai-Uwe; McCarthy, Mark I.; Dupuis, Josee; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Sebert, Sylvain; Pouta, Anneli; Laitinen, Jaana; Kleber, Marcus E.; Navis, Gerjan; Lorentzon, Mattias; Jameson, Karen; Arden, Nigel; Cooper, Jackie A.; Acharya, Jayshree; Hardy, Rebecca; Raitakari, Olli; Ripatti, Samuli; Billings, Liana K.; Lahti, Jari; Osmond, Clive; Penninx, Brenda W.; Rejnmark, Lars; Lohman, Kurt K.; Eriksson, Johan G.; Kivimaki, Mika; LifeLines Cohort Study Investigato; ICBP; CHARGE Consortium; Global Blood Pressure Genetics Gl (2014)
  • Agarwal, Arnav; Johnston, Bradley C.; Vemooij, Robin W. M.; Carrasco-Labra, Alonso; Brignardello-Petersen, Romina; Neumann, Ignacio; Akl, Elie A.; Sun, Xin; Briel, Matthias; Busse, Jason W.; Ebrahim, Shanil; Granados, Carlos E.; Iorio, Alfonso; Irfan, Affan; Martinez Garcia, Laura; Mustafa, Reem A.; Ramirez-Morera, Anggie; Selva, Anna; Sola, Ivan; Sanabrai, Andrea J.; Tikkinen, Kari A. O.; Vandviks, Per O.; Zhang, Yuqing; Zazueta, Oscar E.; Zhou, Qi; Schunemann, Holger J.; Guyatt, Gordon H.; Alonso-Coello, Pablo (2017)
    Objectives: Explicit reporting of absolute measures is important to ensure treatment effects are correctly interpreted. We examined the extent to which authors report absolute effects for patient-important outcomes in abstracts of systematic review (SR). Study Design and Setting: We searched OVID MEDLINE and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews to identify eligible SRs published in the year 2010. Citations were stratified into Cochrane and non-Cochrane reviews, with repeated random sampling in a 1:1 ratio. Paired reviewers screened articles and recorded abstract characteristics, including reporting of effect measures for the most patient-important outcomes of benefit and harm. Results: We included 96 Cochrane and 94 non-Cochrane reviews. About 117 (77.5%) relative measures were reported in abstracts for outcomes of benefit, whereas only 34 (22.5%) absolute measures were reported. Similarly, for outcomes of harm, 41 (87.2%) relative measures were provided in abstracts, compared with only 6 (12.8%) absolute measures. Eighteen (9.5%) abstracts reported both absolute and relative measures for outcomes of benefit, whereas only two (1.1%) abstracts reported both measures for outcomes of harm. Results were similar between Cochrane and non-Cochrane reviews. Conclusion: SR abstracts seldom report measures of absolute effect. Journal editors should insist that authors report both relative and absolute effects for patient-important outcomes. (C) 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Kruit, Heidi; Tolvanen, Jenna; Eriksson, Jasmin; Place, Katariina; Nupponen, Irmeli; Rahkonen, Leena (2020)
    Introduction To investigate the safety of balloon catheter for cervical ripening in women with term pre-labor rupture of membranes (PROM) and to compare the incidence of maternal and neonatal infections in women with PROM and women with intact membranes undergoing cervical ripening with a balloon catheter. Material and methods This retrospective cohort study of 1923 women with term singleton pregnancy and an unfavorable cervix undergoing cervical ripening with a balloon catheter was conducted in Helsinki University Hospital between January 2014 and December 2018. For each case of PROM, two controls were assigned. The main outcome measures were the rates of maternal and neonatal infections. Statistical analyses were performed by SPSS. Results In all, 641 (33.3%) women following PROM and 1282 (66.6%) women with intact amniotic membranes underwent labor induction. The rates of intrapartum infection (3.7% vs 7.7%; P = .001) and neonatal infection (1.7% vs 3.8%; P = .01) were not increased in women induced by balloon catheter following PROM. Intrapartum infections were associated with nulliparity (odds ratio [OR] 3.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.6-6.5), history of previous cesarean section (OR 2.8, 95% CI 1.2-6.4), extended gestational age >= 41 weeks (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.2-3.0) and an induction to delivery interval of 48 hours or more (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.2-3.3). The risk of neonatal infection was associated with nulliparity (OR 3.3, 95% CI 1.4-8.0), gestational age >= 41 weeks (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.09-3.36) and induction to delivery interval of 48 hours or more (OR 3.4, 95% CI 1.9-6.0). Conclusions Use of balloon catheter in women with term PROM appears safe and was not associated with increased maternal or neonatal infectious morbidity.
  • Ritzel, Robert; Roussel, Ronan; Giaccari, Andrea; Vora, Jiten; Brulle-Wohlhueter, Claire; Yki-Järvinen, Hannele (2018)
    AimsTo investigate the efficacy and safety of insulin glargine 300U/mL (Gla-300) vs insulin glargine 100U/mL (Gla-100) over 12months in a patient-level meta-analysis, using data from the EDITION studies in people with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Methods EDITION 1, 2 and 3 were multicentre, randomized, open-label, 2-arm, parallel-group, treat-to-target phase IIIa studies. Similar study designs and endpoints enabled a meta-analysis to be conducted. ResultsReductions in glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) were better sustained over 12months with Gla-300 than with Gla-100 (least squares [LS] mean difference in change from baseline: -0.10 % [95% confidence interval {CI} -0.18 to -0.02] or -1.09mmol/mol [95% CI -2.01 to -0.20]; P=.0174). Risk of confirmed (3.9mmol/L) or severe hypoglycaemia was 15% lower with Gla-300 vs Gla-100 at night (relative risk 0.85 [95% CI 0.77-0.92]) and 6% lower at any time of day (relative risk 0.94 [95% CI 0.90-0.98]). Rates of hypoglycaemia were 18% lower with Gla-300 vs Gla-100 at night (rate ratio 0.82 [95% CI 0.67-0.99]), but comparable at any time of day. HbA1c ConclusionsIn a broad population of people with T2DM over 12months, use of Gla-300 provided more sustained glycaemic control and significantly lower hypoglycaemia risk at night and at any time of day compared with Gla-100.
  • Andre, T.; Vernerey, D.; Im, S. A.; Bodoky, G.; Buzzoni, R.; Reingold, S.; Rivera, F.; McKendrick, J.; Scheithauer, W.; Ravit, G.; Fountzilas, G.; Yong, W. P.; Isaacs, R.; Österlund, P.; Liang, J. T.; Creemers, G. J.; Rakez, M.; Van Cutsem, E.; Cunningham, D.; Tabernero, J.; de Gramont, A. (2020)
    Background: The bevacizumab-Avastin (R) adjuVANT (AVANT) study did not meet its primary end point of improving disease-free survival (DFS) with the addition of bevacizumab to oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy in stage III colon cancer (CC). We report here the long-term survival results (S-AVANT). Patients and methods: Patients with curatively resected stage III CC were randomly assigned to FOLFOX4, FOLFOX4-bevacizumab, or XELOX-bevacizumab. Results: A total of 2867 patients were randomized: FOLFOX4: n = 955, FOLFOX4-bevacizumab: n = 960, XELOX-bevacizumab: n = 952. With a median of 6.73 years follow-up (interquartile range 5.51-10.54), 672 patients died, of whom 198 (20.7%), 250 (26.0%), and 224 (23.5%) were in the FOLFOX4, FOLFOX4-bevacizumab, and XELOX-bevacizumab arms, respectively. The 10-year overall survival (OS) rates were 74.6%, 67.2%, and 69.9%, (P = 0.003) and 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) rates were 73.2%, 68.5%, and 71.0% (P = 0.174), respectively. OS and DFS hazard ratios were 1.29 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.07-1.55; P = 0.008] and 1.16 (95% CI 0.99-1.37; P = 0.063) for FOLFOX4-bevacizumab versus FOLFOX4 and 1.15 (95% CI 0.95-1.39; P = 0.147) and 1.1 (95% CI 0.93 -1.29; P = 0.269) for XELOX-bevacizumab versus FOLFOX4, respectively. CC-related deaths (n = 542) occurred in 157 (79.3%) patients receiving FOLFOX4, 205 (82.0%) receiving FOLFOX4-bevacizumab, and 180 (80.4%) receiving XELOX-bevacizumab (P = 0.764), while non-CC-related deaths occurred in 41 (20.7%), 45 (18.0%), and 44 (19.6%) patients, respectively. Cardiovascular-related and sudden deaths during treatment or follow-up were reported in 13 (6.6%), 17 (6.8%), and 14 (6.3%) patients, in the FOLFOX4, FOLFOX4-bevacizuamb, and XELOX-bevacizumab arms, respectively (P = 0.789). Treatment arm, sex, age, histological differentiation, performance status, T/N stages, and localization of primary tumor were independent prognostic factors of OS in stage III. Conclusions: S-AVANT confirms the initial AVANT report. No benefit of the bevacizumab addition to FOLFOX4 adjuvant therapy in patients with stage III CC was observed in terms of DFS with a negative effect in OS, without increase in non-CC related deaths.
  • Wirtz, Ralph M.; Sihto, Harri; Isola, Jorma; Heikkila, Paivi; Kellokumpu-Lehtinen, Pirkko-Liisa; Auvinen, Paivi; Turpeenniemi-Hujanen, Taina; Jyrkkio, Sirkku; Lakis, Sotiris; Schlombs, Kornelia; Laible, Mark; Weber, Stefan; Eidt, Sebastian; Sahin, Ugur; Joensuu, Heikki (2016)
    The biological subtype of breast cancer influences the selection of systemic therapy. Distinction between luminal A and B cancers depends on consistent assessment of Ki-67, but substantial intra-observer and inter-observer variability exists when immunohistochemistry (IHC) is used. We compared RT-qPCR with IHC in the assessment of Ki-67 and other standard factors used in breast cancer subtyping. RNA was extracted from archival breast tumour tissue of 769 women randomly assigned to the FinHer trial. Cancer ESR1, PGR, ERBB2 and MKI67 mRNA content was quantitated with an RT-qPCR assay. Local pathologists assessed ER, PgR and Ki-67 expression using IHC. HER2 amplification was identified with chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) centrally. The results were correlated with distant disease-free survival (DDFS) and overall survival (OS). qPCR-based and IHC-based assessments of ER and PgR showed good concordance. Both low tumour MKI67 mRNA (RT-qPCR) and Ki-67 protein (IHC) levels were prognostic for favourable DDFS [hazard ratio (HR) 0.42, 95 % CI 0.25-0.71, P = 0.001; and HR 0.56, 0.37-0.84, P = 0.005, respectively] and OS. In multivariable analyses, cancer MKI67 mRNA content had independent influence on DDFS (adjusted HR 0.51, 95 % CI 0.29-0.89, P = 0.019) while Ki-67 protein expression had not any influence (P = 0.266) whereas both assessments influenced independently OS. Luminal B patients treated with docetaxel-FEC had more favourable DDFS and OS than those treated with vinorelbine-FEC when the subtype was defined by RT-qPCR (for DDFS, HR 0.52, 95 % CI 0.29-0.94, P = 0.031), but not when defined using IHC. Breast cancer subtypes approximated with RT-qPCR and IHC show good concordance, but cancer MKI67 mRNA content correlated slightly better with DDFS than Ki-67 expression. The findings based on MKI67 mRNA content suggest that patients with luminal B cancer benefit more from docetaxel-FEC than from vinorelbine-FEC.
  • Guo, Qi; Burgess, Stephen; Turman, Constance; Bolla, Manjeet K.; Wang, Qin; Lush, Michael; Abraham, Jean; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Andrulis, Irene L.; Apicella, Carmel; Arndt, Volker; Barrdahl, Myrto; Benitez, Javier; Berg, Christine D.; Blomqvist, Carl; Bojesen, Stig E.; Bonanni, Bernardo; Brand, Judith S.; Brenner, Hermann; Broeks, Annegien; Burwinkel, Barbara; Caldas, Carlos; Campa, Daniele; Canzian, Federico; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Chanock, Stephen J.; Chin, Suet-Feung; Couch, Fergus J.; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S.; Cybulski, Cezary; Czene, Kamila; Darabi, Hatef; Devilee, Peter; Diver, W. Ryan; Dunning, Alison M.; Earl, Helena M.; Eccles, Diana M.; Ekici, Arif B.; Eriksson, Mikael; Evans, D. Gareth; Fasching, Peter A.; Figueroa, Jonine; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Flyger, Henrik; Gapstur, Susan M.; Gaudet, Mia M.; Giles, Graham G.; Muranen, Taru A.; Nevanlinna, Heli; kConFab AOCS Investigators (2017)
    There is increasing evidence that elevated body mass index (BMI) is associated with reduced survival for women with breast cancer. However, the underlying reasons remain unclear. We conducted a Mendelian randomization analysis to investigate a possible causal role of BMI in survival from breast cancer. We used individual-level data from six large breast cancer case-cohorts including a total of 36 210 individuals (2475 events) of European ancestry. We created a BMI genetic risk score (GRS) based on genotypes at 94 known BMI-associated genetic variants. Association between the BMI genetic score and breast cancer survival was analysed by Cox regression for each study separately. Study-specific hazard ratios were pooled using fixed-effect meta-analysis. BMI genetic score was found to be associated with reduced breast cancer-specific survival for estrogen receptor (ER)-positive cases [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.11, per one-unit increment of GRS, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01-1.22, P = 0.03). We observed no association for ER-negative cases (HR = 1.00, per one-unit increment of GRS, 95% CI 0.89-1.13,P = 0.95). Our findings suggest a causal effect of increased BMI on reduced breast cancer survival for ER-positive breast cancer. There is no evidence of a causal effect of higher BMI on survival for ER-negative breast cancer cases.
  • Koivunoro, Hanna; Kankaanranta, Leena; Seppälä, Tiina; Haapaniemi, Aaro; Mäkitie, Antti; Joensuu, Heikki (2019)
    Background and purpose: Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) that recurs locally is a therapeutic challenge. We investigated the efficacy of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) in the treatment of such patients and the factors associated with treatment response and survival. Methods and materials: Seventy-nine patients with inoperable, locally recurred HNSCC were treated with L-boronophenylalanine-mediated BNCT in Espoo, Finland, between February, 2003 and January, 2012. Prior treatments consisted of surgery and conventionally fractionated radiotherapy to a median cumulative dose of 66 Gy (interquartile range [IQR], 59-70 Gy) administered with or without concomitant chemotherapy. Tumor response was assessed using the RECISTv. 1.0 criteria. Results: Forty patients received BNCT once (on 1 day), and 39 twice. The median time between the 2 treatments was 6 weeks. Forty-seven (68%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 57-79%) of the 69 evaluable patients responded; 25 (36%) had a complete response, 22 (32%) a partial response, 17 (25%) a stable disease lasting for a median of 4.2 months, and 5 (7%) progressed. The patients treated with BNCT twice responded more often than those treated once. The median follow-up time after BNCT was 7.8 years. The 2-year locoregional progression-free survival rate was 38% and the overall survival rate 21%. A high minimum tumor dose and a small volume were independently associated with long survival in a multi-variable analysis. Conclusions: Most patients responded to BNCT. A high minimum tumor dose from BNCT was predictive for response and survival. (C) 2019 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.
  • FINGER Study Grp; Stephen, Ruth; Liu, Yawu; Ngandu, Tiia; Antikainen, Riitta; Hulkkonen, Juha; Koikkalainen, Juha; Levälahti, Esko; Parkkola, Riitta; Pippola, Pauliina; Rinne, Juha; Strandberg, Timo; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Vanninen, Ritva; Kivipelto, Miia; Soininen, Hilkka; Solomon, Alina (2019)
    BackgroundThe Finnish Geriatric Intervention Study to Prevent Cognitive Impairment and Disability (FINGER) was a multicenter randomized controlled trial that reported beneficial effects on cognition for a 2-year multimodal intervention (diet, exercise, cognitive training, vascular risk monitoring) versus control (general health advice). This study reports exploratory analyses of brain MRI measures.MethodsFINGER targeted 1260 older individuals from the general Finnish population. Participants were 60-77years old, at increased risk for dementia but without dementia/substantial cognitive impairment. Brain MRI scans were available for 132 participants (68 intervention, 64 control) at baseline and 112 participants (59 intervention, 53 control) at 2years. MRI measures included regional brain volumes, cortical thickness, and white matter lesion (WML) volume. Cognition was assessed at baseline and 1- and 2-year visits using a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery. We investigated the (1) differences between the intervention and control groups in change in MRI outcomes (FreeSurfer 5.3) and (2) post hoc sub-group analyses of intervention effects on cognition in participants with more versus less pronounced structural brain changes at baseline (mixed-effects regression models, Stata 12).ResultsNo significant differences between the intervention and control groups were found on the changes in MRI measures. Beneficial intervention effects on processing speed were more pronounced in individuals with higher baseline cortical thickness in Alzheimer's disease signature areas (composite measure of entorhinal, inferior and middle temporal, and fusiform regions). The randomization groupxtimexcortical thickness interaction coefficient was 0.198 (p=0.021). A similar trend was observed for higher hippocampal volume (groupxtimexhippocampus volume interaction coefficient 0.1149, p=0.085).ConclusionsThe FINGER MRI exploratory sub-study did not show significant differences between the intervention and control groups on changes in regional brain volumes, regional cortical thicknesses, or WML volume after 2years in at-risk elderly without substantial impairment. The cognitive benefits on processing speed of the FINGER intervention may be more pronounced in individuals with fewer structural brain changes on MRI at baseline. This suggests that preventive strategies may be more effective if started early, before the occurrence of more pronounced structural brain changes.Trial registrationClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01041989. Registered January 5, 2010.
  • Macharey, Georg; Gissler, Mika; Rahkonen, Leena; Ulander, Veli-Matti; Vaisanen-Tommiska, Mervi; Nuutila, Mika; Heinonen, Seppo (2017)
    Purpose The aim of this study was to estimate whether breech presentation at term was associated with known individual obstetric risk factors for adverse fetal outcome. Methods This was a retrospective, nationwide Finnish population-based cohort study. Obstetric risks in all breech and vertex singleton deliveries at term were compared between the years 2005 and 2014. A multivariable logistic regression model was used to determine significant risk factors. Results The breech presentation rate at term for singleton pregnancies was 2.4%. The stillbirth rate in term breech presentation was significantly higher compared to cephalic presentation (0.2 vs 0.1%). The odds ratios (95% CIs) for fetal growth restriction, oligohydramnios, gestational diabetes, a history of cesarean section and congenital fetal abnormalities were 1.19 CI (1.07-1.32), 1.42 CI (1.27-1.57), 1.06 CI (1.00-1.13), 2.13 (1.98-2.29) and 2.01 CI (1.92-2.11). Conclusions The study showed that breech presentation at term on its own was significantly associated with antenatal stillbirth and a number of individual obstetric risk factors for adverse perinatal outcomes. The risk factors included oligohydramnios, fetal growth restriction, gestational diabetes, history of caesarean section and congenital anomalies.
  • PRIAS Study Grp; Drost, Frank-Jan H.; Rannikko, Antti; Valdagni, Riccardo; Pickles, Tom; Kakehi, Yoshiyuki; Remmers, Sebastiaan; van der Poel, Henk G.; Bangma, Chris H.; Roobol, Monique J. (2018)
    Background: Active surveillance (AS) for low-risk prostate cancer (PCa) appears to provide excellent long-term PCa-specific and overall survival. The choice for AS as initial treatment is mainly based on avoiding side effects from invasive treatment; but AS entails regular check-ups and the possibility of still having to switch or deciding to switch to invasive treatment. Here, we assessed the long-term follow-up data from AS in real life clinical practices. Methods: Data from the first 500 men, enrolled in PRIAS before July 2008 by 30 centers across 8 countries, were analyzed to provide long-term follow-up results. Men were advised to be regularly examined with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) tests, digital rectal examinations, and prostate biopsies. Men were advised to switch to invasive treatment if they had disease reclassification [Gleason score (GS) >= 3+ 4 on biopsy, more than two positive biopsy cores, a stage higher than cT2] or a PSA-doubling time of 0-3 years. We assessed time on AS, outcomes and reasons for discontinuing AS, and rates of potential unnecessary biopsies and treatments. Results: The median follow-up time was 6.5 years. During this period, 325 (65%) men discontinued after a median of 2.3 years and 121 (24%) men had no recent (> 1 year) data-update after a median of 7.3 years. The remaining 54 (11%) men were confirmed to be still on AS. Most men discontinued based on protocol advice; 38% had other reasons. During follow-up, 838 biopsy sessions were performed of which 79% to 90% did not lead to reclassification, depending on the criteria. Of the 325 discontinued men, 112 subsequently underwent radical prostatectomy (RP), 126 underwent radiotherapy, 57 switched to watchful waiting (WW) or died, and 30 had another or unknown treatment. RP results were available of 99 men: 34% to 68%, depending on definition, had favorable outcomes; 50% of unfavorable the outcomes occurred in the first 2 years. Of the 30 (6%) men who died, 1 man died due to PCa. Conclusions: These data, reflecting real life clinical practice, show that more than half of men switched to invasive treatment within 2.3 years, indicating limitations to the extent in which AS is able to reduce the adverse effects of overdiagnosis. Therefore, despite guidelines stating that PCa diagnosis must be uncoupled from treatment, it remains important to avoid overdiagnosing PCa as much as possible.