Browsing by Subject "TRIGLYCERIDES"

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  • van Leeuwen, Elisabeth M.; Sabo, Aniko; Bis, Joshua C.; Huffman, Jennifer E.; Manichaikul, Ani; Smith, Albert V.; Feitosa, Mary F.; Demissie, Serkalem; Joshi, Peter K.; Duan, Qing; Marten, Jonathan; van Klinken, Jan B.; Surakka, Ida; Nolte, Ilja M.; Zhang, Weihua; Mbarek, Hamdi; Li-Gao, Ruifang; Trompet, Stella; Verweij, Niek; Evangelou, Evangelos; Lyytikainen, Leo-Pekka; Tayo, Bamidele O.; Deelen, Joris; van der Most, Peter J.; van der Laan, Sander W.; Arking, Dan E.; Morrison, Alanna; Dehghan, Abbas; Franco, Oscar H.; Hofman, Albert; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Sijbrands, Eric J.; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Mychaleckyj, Josyf C.; Campbell, Archie; Hocking, Lynne J.; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Brody, Jennifer A.; Rice, Kenneth M.; White, Charles C.; Harris, Tamara; Isaacs, Aaron; Campbell, Harry; Lange, Leslie A.; Rudan, Igor; Kolcic, Ivana; Navarro, Pau; Zemunik, Tatijana; Salomaa, Veikko; Ripatti, Samuli; CHARGE Lipids Working Grp (2016)
    Background So far, more than 170 loci have been associated with circulating lipid levels through genome-wide association studies (GWAS). These associations are largely driven by common variants, their function is often not known, and many are likely to be markers for the causal variants. In this study we aimed to identify more new rare and low-frequency functional variants associated with circulating lipid levels. Methods We used the 1000 Genomes Project as a reference panel for the imputations of GWAS data from similar to 60 000 individuals in the discovery stage and similar to 90 000 samples in the replication stage. Results Our study resulted in the identification of five new associations with circulating lipid levels at four loci. All four loci are within genes that can be linked biologically to lipid metabolism. One of the variants, rs116843064, is a damaging missense variant within the ANGPTL4 gene. Conclusions This study illustrates that GWAS with high-scale imputation may still help us unravel the biological mechanism behind circulating lipid levels.
  • Wurtz, Peter; Wang, Qin; Soininen, Pasi; Kangas, Antti J.; Fatemifar, Ghazaleh; Tynkkynen, Tuulia; Tiainen, Mika; Perola, Markus; Tillin, Therese; Hughes, Alun D.; Mantyselka, Pekka; Kahonen, Mika; Lehtimaki, Terho; Sattar, Naveed; Hingorani, Aroon D.; Casas, Juan-Pablo; Salomaa, Veikko; Kivimaki, Mika; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Smith, George Davey; Vanhala, Mauno; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Raitakari, Olli T.; Chaturvedi, Nish; Kettunen, Johannes; Ala-Korpela, Mika (2016)
    BACKGROUND Statins are first-line therapy for cardiovascular disease prevention, but their systemic effects across lipoprotein subclasses, fatty acids, and circulating metabolites remain incompletely characterized. OBJECTIVES This study sought to determine the molecular effects of statin therapy on multiple metabolic pathways. METHODS Metabolic profiles based on serum nuclear magnetic resonance metabolomics were quantified at 2 time points in 4 population-based cohorts from the United Kingdom and Finland (N = 5,590; 2.5 to 23.0 years of follow-up). Concentration changes in 80 lipid and metabolite measures during follow-up were compared between 716 individuals who started statin therapy and 4,874 persistent nonusers. To further understand the pharmacological effects of statins, we used Mendelian randomization to assess associations of a genetic variant known to mimic inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase (the intended drug target) with the same lipids and metabolites for 27,914 individuals from 8 population-based cohorts. RESULTS Starting statin therapy was associated with numerous lipoprotein and fatty acid changes, including substantial lowering of remnant cholesterol (80% relative to low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C]), but only modest lowering of triglycerides (25% relative to LDL-C). Among fatty acids, omega-6 levels decreased the most (68% relative to LDL-C); other fatty acids were only modestly affected. No robust changes were observed for circulating amino acids, ketones, or glycolysis-related metabolites. The intricate metabolic changes associated with statin use closely matched the association pattern with rs12916 in the HMGCR gene (R-2 = 0.94, slope 1.00 +/- 0.03). CONCLUSIONS Statin use leads to extensive lipid changes beyond LDL-C and appears efficacious for lowering remnant cholesterol. Metabolomic profiling, however, suggested minimal effects on amino acids. The results exemplify how detailed metabolic characterization of genetic proxies for drug targets can inform indications, pleiotropic effects, and pharmacological mechanisms. (C) 2016 by the American College of Cardiology Foundation.
  • Tikkanen, Emmi; Minicocci, Ilenia; Hällfors, Jenni; Di Costanzo, Alessia; D'Erasmo, Laura; Poggiogalle, Eleonora; Donini, Lorenzo Maria; Wurtz, Peter; Jauhiainen, Matti; Olkkonen, Vesa M.; Arca, Marcello (2019)
    Objective- Loss-of-function (LOF) variants in the ANGPTL3 (angiopoietin-like protein 3) have been associated with low levels of plasma lipoproteins and decreased coronary artery disease risk. We aimed to determine detailed metabolic effects of genetically induced ANGPTL3 deficiency in fasting and postprandial state. Approach and Results- We studied individuals carrying S17X LOF mutation in ANGPTL3 (6 homozygous and 32 heterozygous carriers) and 38 noncarriers. Nuclear magnetic resonance metabolomics was used to quantify 225 circulating metabolic measures. We compared metabolic differences between LOF carriers and noncarriers in fasting state and after a high-fat meal. In fasting, ANGPTL3 deficiency was characterized by similar extent of reductions in LDL (low-density lipoprotein) cholesterol (0.74 SD units lower concentration per LOF allele [95% CI, 0.42-1.06]) as observed for many TRL (triglyceride-rich lipoprotein) measures, including VLDL (very-low-density lipoprotein) cholesterol (0.75 [95% CI, 0.45-1.05]). Within most lipoprotein subclasses, absolute levels of cholesterol were decreased more than triglycerides, resulting in the relative proportion of cholesterol being reduced within TRLs and their remnants. Further, beta-hydroxybutyrate was elevated (0.55 [95% CI, 0.21-0.89]). Homozygous ANGPTL3 LOF carriers showed essentially no postprandial increase in TRLs and fatty acids, without evidence for adverse compensatory metabolic effects. Conclusions- In addition to overall triglyceride- and LDL cholesterol-lowering effects, ANGPTL3 deficiency results in reduction of cholesterol proportion within TRLs and their remnants. Further, ANGPTL3 LOF carriers had elevated ketone body production, suggesting enhanced hepatic fatty acid beta-oxidation. The detailed metabolic profile in human knockouts of ANGPTL3 reinforces inactivation of ANGPTL3 as a promising therapeutic target for decreasing cardiovascular risk.
  • FinnGen Project; Ripatti, Pietari; Rämö, Joel T.; Mars, Nina J.; Fu, Yu; Lin, Jake; Söderlund, Sanni; Benner, Christian; Surakka, Ida; Kiiskinen, Tuomo; Havulinna, Aki S.; Palta, Priit; Freimer, Nelson B.; Widén, Elisabeth; Salomaa, Veikko; Tukiainen, Taru; Pirinen, Matti; Palotie, Aarno; Taskinen, Marja-Riitta; Ripatti, Samuli (2020)
    Background: Hyperlipidemia is a highly heritable risk factor for coronary artery disease (CAD). While monogenic familial hypercholesterolemia associates with severely increased CAD risk, it remains less clear to what extent a high polygenic load of a large number of LDL (low-density lipoprotein) cholesterol (LDL-C) or triglyceride (TG)-increasing variants associates with increased CAD risk. Methods: We derived polygenic risk scores (PRSs) with approximate to 6M variants separately for LDL-C and TG with weights from a UK Biobank-based genome-wide association study with approximate to 324K samples. We evaluated the impact of polygenic hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia to lipid levels in 27 039 individuals from the National FINRISK Study (FINRISK) cohort and to CAD risk in 135 638 individuals (13 753 CAD cases) from the FinnGen project (FinnGen). Results: In FINRISK, median LDL-C was 3.39 (95% CI, 3.38-3.40) mmol/L, and it ranged from 2.87 (95% CI, 2.82-2.94) to 3.78 (95% CI, 3.71-3.83) mmol/L between the lowest and highest 5% of the LDL-C PRS distribution. Median TG was 1.19 (95% CI, 1.18-1.20) mmol/L, ranging from 0.97 (95% CI, 0.94-1.00) to 1.55 (95% CI, 1.48-1.61) mmol/L with the TG PRS. In FinnGen, comparing the highest 5% of the PRS to the lowest 95%, CAD odds ratio was 1.36 (95% CI, 1.24-1.49) for the LDL-C PRS and 1.31 (95% CI, 1.19-1.43) for the TG PRS. These estimates were only slightly attenuated when adjusting for a CAD PRS (odds ratio, 1.26 [95% CI, 1.16-1.38] for LDL-C and 1.24 [95% CI, 1.13-1.36] for TG PRS). Conclusions: The CAD risk associated with a high polygenic load for lipid-increasing variants was proportional to their impact on lipid levels and partially overlapping with a CAD PRS. In contrast with a PRS for CAD, the lipid PRSs point to known and directly modifiable risk factors providing additional guidance for clinical translation.
  • Mancina, Rosellina M.; Sasidharan, Kavitha; Lindblom, Anna; Wei, Ying; Ciociola, Ester; Jamialahmadi, Oveis; Pingitore, Piero; Andreasson, Anne-Christine; Pellegrini, Giovanni; Baselli, Guido; Mannisto, Ville; Pihlajamaki, Jussi; Kärjä, Vesa; Grimaudo, Stefania; Marini, Ilaria; Maggioni, Marco; Becattini, Barbara; Tavaglione, Federica; Dix, Carly; Castaldo, Marie; Klein, Stephanie; Perelis, Mark; Pattou, Francois; Thuillier, Dorothee; Raverdy, Violeta; Dongiovanni, Paola; Fracanzani, Anna Ludovica; Stickel, Felix; Hampe, Jochen; Buch, Stephan; Luukkonen, Panu K.; Prati, Daniele; Yki-Järvinen, Hannele; Petta, Salvatore; Xing, Chao; Schafmayer, Clemens; Aigner, Elmar; Datz, Christian; Lee, Richard G.; Valenti, Luca; Linden, Daniel; Romeo, Stefano (2022)
    Fatty liver disease (FLD) is a growing health issue with burdening unmet clinical needs. FLD has a genetic component but, despite the common variants already identified, there is still a missing heritability component. Using a candidate gene approach, we identify a locus (rs71519934) at the Pleckstrin and Sec7 domain-containing 3 (PSD3) gene resulting in a leucine to threonine substitution at position 186 of the protein (L186T) that reduces susceptibility to the entire spectrum of FLD in individuals at risk. PSD3 downregulation by short interfering RNA reduces intracellular lipid content in primary human hepatocytes cultured in two and three dimensions, and in human and rodent hepatoma cells. Consistent with this, Psd3 downregulation by antisense oligonucleotides in vivo protects against FLD in mice fed a non-alcoholic steatohepatitis-inducing diet. Thus, translating these results to humans, PSD3 downregulation might be a future therapeutic option for treating FLD. Employing a candidate gene approach, Mancina et al. identify a genetic variant of the Pleckstrin and Sec7 domain-containing 3 (PSD3) gene that reduces susceptibility to fatty liver disease. Functional studies in vitro and in vivo demonstrate that targeting PSD3 protects against fatty liver disease.
  • AMP-T2D-GENES; Myocardial Infarction Genetics; Precision Medicine TOPMed; NHLBI TOPMED Lipids Working Grp; Hindy, George; Dornbos, Peter; Chaffin, Mark D.; Groop, Leif C.; Koistinen, Heikki A.; Tuomilehto, Jaakko (2022)
    Large-scale gene sequencing studies for complex traits have the potential to identify causal genes with therapeutic implications. We performed gene-based association testing of blood lipid levels with rare (minor allele frequency 1%) predicted damaging coding variation by using sequence data from 170,000 individuals from multiple ancestries: 97,493 European, 30,025 South Asian, 16,507 African, 16,440 Hispanic/Latino, 10,420 East Asian, and 1,182 Samoan. We identified 35 genes associated with circulating lipid levels; some of these genes have not been previously associated with lipid levels when using rare coding variation from population-based samples. We prioritize 32 genes in array-based genome-wide association study (GWAS) loci based on aggregations of rare coding variants; three (EVI5, SH2B3, and PLIN1) had no prior association of rare coding variants with lipid levels. Most of our associated genes showed evidence of association among multiple ancestries. Finally, we observed an enrichment of gene-based associations for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol drug target genes and for genes closest to GWAS index single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Our results demonstrate that gene-based associations can be beneficial for drug target development and provide evidence that the gene closest to the array-based GWAS index SNP is often the functional gene for blood lipid levels.
  • Hemilä, Harri (1992)
    There has been a long-lasting controversy about whether vitamin C has any significant effect on plasma cholesterol levels in human beings. Some early Russian studies suggested that vitamin C may decrease elevated cholesterol levels, and so the vitamin was used to some extent in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia (for review see Reference 1). However, the studies were not well controlled, and duplications have yielded conflicting results. Nevertheless, animal studies have consistently found that vitamin C has substantial effects on cholesterol metabolism. The purpose of this review is to analyze the published intervention studies in order to identify the factors that may have resulted in the discordance in the results. Several of the studies have used subjects with initially low cholesterol levels. Such studies do not test the hypothesis that a low level of the vitamin may decrease the rate of cholesterol catabolism, and thereby enhance hypercholesterolemia in some people. Accordingly, studies with hypercholesterolemic subjects are more relevant for testing this hypothesis. Most of the studies in the latter group have reported a significant decrease in the cholesterol level with vitamin C supplementation. Furthermore, such results indicate that in certain people low vitamin C status may be one of the factors that lead to the elevation of cholesterol levels.