Browsing by Subject "TRUST"

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  • van den Born, Riyan J.G.; Verbrugge, Laura; Ganzevoort, Wessel (2020)
    Adaptive management strategies are required to manage multi-actor and multifunctional river landscapes. Such strategies need to be inclusive of perspectives of different stakeholders. We present a case study of a pilot engineering project in the Dutch river Waal, which drastically changed the appearance of the river landscape. We study perceptions of four stakeholder groups (residents, recreational anglers, recreational boaters and shipping professionals) regarding the impacts of this intervention on landscape values, including aesthetics, naturalness, biodiversity, flood safety and accessibility. Results show that stakeholders differ in which functions of the river landscape they found important and how they perceive the longitudinal dams to influence the landscape. They also differ in levels of place attachment and trust in the responsible authority. Shipping professionals stood out for their more negative evaluations of the dams compared to the other stakeholders, while especially residents demonstrated high levels of place identity and connection with nature. Residents also feel that the dams are improving flood risk safety in the area, and they positively evaluate knowledge and skills of Dutch water managers. These results provide water managers with much needed insights into landscape functions valued by different stakeholder groups and those perceived as most endangered by landscape interventions.
  • Kujala, Paivi; Virkkala, Seija; Lahdesmaki, Merja (2021)
    This article focuses on rural business support as a policy regime of the second pillar of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). We examine the relationships present in the regime to find out how authorities become enablers in the entrepreneurship promotion process. A rural business support regime is considered as a government policy network, consisting of dynamic collaboration and interaction between the European Commission, policymakers, policy implementers and rural entrepreneurs. Based on 38 interviews of rural development actors in Finland, our case-study identifies four properties in the relationships, namely trust, learning, discretion and creativity that are crucial factors in enabling interactions in the rural business support regime. As a contribution, we develop a model for enabling rural authority. We conclude the article by presenting implications for the legitimacy, coherence and durability of the rural business support regime in Finland and in the EU, as we argue that enabling action affects these policy impacts.
  • Himmelroos, Staffan; Peltoniemi, Johanna (2021)
    The number of countries that have adopted policies allowing emigrants to participate in home country elections from abroad has increased greatly in the last few decades. The enfranchisement of non-resident citizens in home country elections is, nevertheless, somewhat controversial because it gives political influence to individuals who are unlikely to be affected by the outcome of an election. Despite an active debate on external voting rights among political theorists, little is known what the citizens themselves think of this practice. To examine how both non-resident and resident citizens perceive external voting rights, we use two surveys of Finnish citizens from 2019. The first survey was directed to Finnish citizens living abroad (n = 1,949), and the second was conducted using an online panel consisting of Finnish citizens living in Finland (n = 994). Both surveys included items with normative questions about external voting rights, which allows us to compare what resident and non-resident citizens think of the enfranchisement of external citizens. Our findings suggest that resident citizens view external voting rights more negatively than non-resident citizens. The factors associated with these attitudes are also quite different for the two examined populations. For resident citizens more education and ideological self-placement to the left is associated with more positive views of external voting rights, while experience of having voted from abroad and dissatisfaction with democracy in the host country is associated with more positive views among non-resident citizens.
  • Reinikainen, Hanna; Tan, Teck Ming; Luoma-aho, Vilma; Salo, Jari (2021)
    This study considers how the relationships between social media influencers, brands and individuals are intertwined on social media and analyses the spill-over effects of feelings of betrayal. An experimental design with two transgression scenarios (influencer vs. brand) was created, and 250 individuals were recruited to participate in the study. The results show that a perceived betrayal by a brand can negatively affect the perceived coolness of the social media influencer that has endorsed the brand, as well as the parasocial relationships that followers have with the influencer. Accordingly, a perceived betrayal by a social media influencer can negatively affect attitudes, trust and purchase intentions toward a brand that the influencer has endorsed. The current research helps in understanding brand and influencer transgressions and highlights the fact that both influencers and brands should have a sense of collaboration responsibility. It also introduces the concept of influencer coolness, understood here as a desirable success factor for social media influencers, which partly explains their desirability and influence, and a feature that can be endangered through both influencer and brand betrayals.
  • Ramdani, Rijal; Lounela, Anu K. (2020)
    Tropical peatland suffers from rapid degradation due to expansion of palm oil plantations. In Indonesia, Environmental Non-Governmental Organizations (ENGOs) have an important role in peatland protection. This paper discusses the implications of responsibilization in the relation between advocacy and service ENGOs in the context of tropical peatland protection and the expansion of palm oil in Sumatra, Indonesia. Drawing on the scholarly discussion on responsibilization in environmental management we show that responsibilization in peatland protection increases distrust among the ENGOs by generating a diversity of actors with different material support, burdens and principles of work, and even polarized opposition between the networks. Such distrust has a bearing on the effect of the actions, networks, and material support of advocacy and service ENGOs. Advocacy ENGOs share similar interests with their donors, which allow them to perform their expected actions autonomously, while service ENGOs are more dependent on donors' programmes and aims. The research utilized methods such as face-to-face semi-structured interviews with advocacy and service ENGOs, state and non-state actors, palm oil farmers, palm oil associations and three leaders of local communities, combined with participant observation. We argue that responsibilization should be explored case by case because different responsibilization processes lead to differing burdens among different types of ENGOs. Contrary to expectations, responsibilization in peatland protection may thus decrease the possibilities for peatland protection in the area.
  • Tan, Teck Ming; Balaji, M. S.; Oikarinen, Eeva-Liisa; Alatalo, Sari; Salo, Jari (2021)
    Brand managers inevitably have to face service failures and respond to them. Undertaking brand recovery is essential as customers might desire to take revenge or spread negative word-of-mouth if they feel betrayed or disappointed by the brand following the service failure. Thus, it is necessary to understand customer responses to brand recovery, which depend on whether they feel betrayed or disappointed (while related, this paper distinguishes these feelings). This research challenges the conventional wisdom by demonstrating that, after presenting customers with an exclusive brand offering during the brand recovery, brand betrayal predicts a positive brand attitude and brand disappointment predicts a negative brand attitude with the service failure. Further, the brand attitude mediates the positive relationship between brand betrayal, positive word-of-mouth, and the likelihood of recommending the brand to others. Thus, the quick recovery that follows an exclusive brand offering positively impacts on the brand relationship among betrayed customers.
  • Laitinen, Kaisa; Laaksonen, Salla-Maaria; Koivula, Minna (2021)
    Nonhuman communicators are challenging the prevailing conceptualizations of technology-mediated team communication. Slackbot is a social bot that can be configured to respond to trigger words and, thus, take part in discussions on the platform. A set of 84 bot-related communication episodes were identified from a journalistic team's Slack messages (N=45,940) and analyzed utilizing both qualitative content analysis and interaction process analysis (IPA). This integrated mixed-methods analysis revealed novel insights into the micro-level dynamics of human-machine communication in organizational teams. In response to Slackbot's greetings, acclamations, work-related messages, and relational messages, we identified how the team members respond to the bot, discuss it, and summon it to appear on the platform. Further, the IPA revealed that the bot-related communication episodes are shaped by the bot's responses toward more socioemotional and personal functions. Findings suggest that a team-configured social bot can manifest and facilitate relational team communication. Lay Summary New communication technologies not only support but also take part in organizational team communication, challenging how we see the agency of these technologies. This paper examines Slackbot, a bot that "participates" in team discussions based on the use of triggering words that are configured by the team members. We used integrated mixed methods to study a set of Slackbot interactions with team members. Specifically, we examined how team members summon, interact with, and discuss the bot based on the bot's greetings, acclamations, relational comments, and work-related messages. We found that Slackbot changes the nature of the team interaction. The analysis showed that when the bot participates in the discussion thread, it becomes more relational and less task focused. These findings suggest that a social bot can facilitate relational communication and provide assets that support organizational teamwork.
  • Jallinoja, Piia; Väliverronen, Esa (2021)
    Tässä tutkimuksessa selvitämme suomalaisten luottamusta instituutioihin, asiantuntijoihin ja uutismediaan koronakriisin käsittelyssä sekä yksilön vapauteen ja vastuuseen liittyviä asenteita huhtikuussa ja kesäkuussa 2020. Tulosten mukaan suomalaiset luottivat varsin vahvasti hallitukseen, viranomaisiin sekä THL:n ja yliopistojen tutkijoihin kriisin käsittelyssä. Samoin Yle Uutisiin ja MTV Uutisiin luotettiin kriisin raportoinnissa. Enemmistö vastaajista pyrki noudattamaan viranomaisohjeita ja hyväksyi yksilöiden vapauksien rajoitukset epidemian hallitsemiseksi. Enemmistö piti koronarokotuksista kieltäytyjiä vastuuttomina, mutta samalla enemmistö uskoi, että koronarokotusten tulisi olla vapaaehtoisia. Tutkimme tarkemmin sitä, ketkä luottivat eniten ja ketkä vähiten mainittuihin tahoihin. Naiset suhtautuvat miehiä myönteisimmin THL:n toimintaan ja Yle Uutisiin, miehet puolestaan sosiaalisen median vaikuttajiin. Perussuomalaiset erosivat lähes kaikkien muuttujien suhteen muista puolueista: he olivat kriittisimpiä THL:ää, STM:ää, Yle Uutisia sekä viranomaisten rokotetietoa kohtaan. Lopuksi pohdimme, miten voimme näiden tulosten valossa tulkita väitteitä tieteen ja asiantuntijoiden arvostuksen laskusta. Pohdimme myös sitä, muuttiko koronakriisi suomalaisten suhtautumista kansallisiin instituutioihin.
  • Kaltiainen, Janne Petteri; Lipponen, Jukka Mauri Tapani; Holtz, Brian C. (2017)
  • Visintin, Emilio Paolo; Brylka, Asteria; Green, Eva G. T.; Mahonen, Tuuli Anna; Jasinskaja-Lahti, Inga (2016)
    Objective: Research on intergroup contact and prejudice reduction has dedicated little attention to relations between minority groups. We examined whether interminority extended contact, that is, the knowledge that a member of the minority ingroup has a friend from the minority outgroup, is associated with positive outgroup attitudes. Affective (outgroup empathy and outgroup trust) and cognitive (ingroup norm) mediators were considered. Method: Two correlational studies were conducted. Study 1 (N = 640, 50% female, mean age = 44 years) was conducted in Bulgaria among the Bulgarian Turkish and Roma ethnic minorities, while Study 2 (N = 458, 67% female, mean age = 44 years) was conducted in Finland among Estonian and Russian immigrants. Results: Path analyses showed that, over and above the effects of direct contact between the minority groups, interminority extended contact was associated with positive outgroup attitudes in both intergroup settings. These effects occurred through empathy (Study 1), trust, and ingroup norms (Study 2). Conclusion: The 2 studies highlight interminority extended contact as a means to promote harmonious interminority relationships and suggest the implementation of interventions based on extended contact to reduce interminority prejudice and to foster solidarity among minorities.
  • Kaur, Puneet; Talwar, Shalini; Islam, Nazrul; Salo, Jari; Dhir, Amandeep (2022)
    The literature offers valuable insights into various aspects of service recovery and service outcomes. However, the available findings are limited relative to the size of the ever-expanding service economy. In particular, past studies have left more granular nuances of the association between service recovery strategies and service outcomes, such as the mediating role of forgiveness or the valence of forgiveness, under-explored. Recognising that an improved understanding of recovery from failures is crucial for sustaining positive customer-brand re-lationships in the service economy, the present study investigates the mediating effect of the valence of forgiveness (both exoneration and resentment) on the association between various service recovery strategies (apology, compensation and voice) and service outcomes (brand trust and negative word of mouth [NWOM]) in the context of food delivery apps (FDAs). We tested the proposed model by analysing data from 294 FDA users who had experienced FDA service failures and recovery efforts in the recent past. The findings suggest that recovery strategies are associated with exoneration, resentment and brand trust but not with NWOM. While exoneration mediates the association of these strategies with both brand trust and NWOM, resentment mediates only the association of these strategies with NWOM. Finally, the severity of previously experienced service failures and the speed of the service provider's response moderates the association of the valence of forgiveness with brand trust and NWOM. By uncovering the key role of the valence of forgiveness in service recovery, our study offers significant theoretical and practical implications for stakeholders.
  • Schneider, Lauriina; Ollila, Sari; Mutanen, Marja (2022)
    Improvements in community health workers' (CHWs) knowledge and practices in low-income countries increasingly involve mobile phones and videos. However, little data exists on CHWs' and mothers' experiences of using such phones and videos. In this study, educational videos on nutrition, health and hygiene were downloaded onto mobile phones, which were given to 12 CHWs in rural Uganda. In 2018, these CHWs used the videos for a period of 3 months to support their work during their visits with families. We subsequently conducted individual interviews with eight CHWs and held four focus group discussions with 16 mothers. From the inductively analysed data, we identified four key themes: impact, competence, meaningfulness and choice, which are also dimensions of the Intrinsic Task Motivation Model. The model describes the motivation of workers and has previously been used in connection with CHWs. In our study, CHWs and mothers considered that the videos had more strongly impacted their learning than traditional teaching methods, and they felt the videos improved the child feeding and caring competence of both CHWs and mothers. Furthermore, the CHWs found that the videos enhanced the meaningfulness of their work, as they felt more greatly appreciated and necessary. In addition, they experienced more freedom of choice in their ability to influence their working routines. This study shows that educational videos are well received among CHWs and mothers. Educational videos are a promising method to maintain and improve the motivation of voluntary CHWs and influence correct child feeding and hygiene practices in Uganda.
  • Ravaja, Niklas; Bente, Gary; Kätsyri, Jari; Salminen, Mikko; Takala, Tapio (2018)
    We examined the effects of the emotional facial expressions of a virtual character (VC) on human frontal electroencephalographic (EEG) asymmetry (putatively indexing approach/withdrawal motivation), facial electromyographic (EMG) activity (emotional expressions), and social decision making (cooperation/defection). In a within-subjects design, the participants played the Iterated Prisoner's Dilemma game with VCs with different dynamic facial expressions (predefined or dependent on the participant's electrodermal and facial EMG activity). In general, VC facial expressions elicited congruent facial muscle activity. However, both frontal EEG asymmetry and facial EMG activity elicited by an angry VC facial expression varied as a function of preceding interactional events (human collaboration/defection). Pre-decision inner emotional-motivational processes and emotional facial expressions were dissociated, suggesting that human goals influence pre-decision frontal asymmetry, whereas display rules may affect (pre-decision) emotional expressions in human-VC interaction. An angry VC facial expression, high pre-decision corrugator EMG activity, and relatively greater left frontal activation predicted the participant's decision to defect. Both post-decision frontal asymmetry and facial EMG activity were related to reciprocal cooperation. The results suggest that the justifiability of VC emotional expressions and the perceived fairness of VC actions influence human emotional responses.