Browsing by Subject "TURBULENCE"

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  • Manninen, A. J.; Marke, T.; Tuononen, M.; O'Connor, E. J. (2018)
    We present a method using Doppler lidar data for identifying the main sources of turbulent mixing within the atmospheric boundary layer. The method identifies the presence of turbulence and then assigns a turbulent source by combining several lidar quantities: attenuated backscatter coefficient, vertical velocity skewness, dissipation rate of turbulent kinetic energy, and vector wind shear. Both buoyancy-driven and shear-driven situations are identified, and the method operates in both clear-sky and cloud-topped conditions, with some reservations in precipitation. To capture the full seasonal cycle, the classification method was applied to more than 1year of data from two sites, Hyytiala, Finland, and Julich, Germany. Analysis showed seasonal variation in the diurnal cycle at both sites; a clear diurnal cycle was observed in spring, summer, and autumn seasons, but due to their respective latitudes, a weaker cycle in winter at Julich, and almost non-existent at Hyytiala. Additionally, there are significant contributions from sources other than convective mixing, with cloud-driven mixing being observed even within the first 500m above ground. Also evident is the considerable amount of nocturnal mixing within the lowest 500m at both sites, especially during the winter. The presence of a low-level jet was often detected when sources of nocturnal mixing were diagnosed as wind shear. The classification scheme and the climatology extracted from the classification provide insight into the processes responsible for mixing within the atmospheric boundary layer, how variable in space and time these can be, and how they vary with location. Key Points
  • Liu, Hong-Li; Tej, Anandmayee; Liu, Tie; Goldsmith, Paul F.; Stutz, Amelia; Juvela, Mika; Qin, Sheng-Li; Xu, Feng-Wei; Bronfman, Leonardo; Evans, Neal J.; Saha, Anindya; Issac, Namitha; Tatematsu, Ken'ichi; Wang, Ke; Li, Shanghuo; Zhang, Siju; Baug, Tapas; Dewangan, Lokesh; Wu, Yue-Fang; Zhang, Yong; Lee, Chang Won; Liu, Xun-Chuan; Zhou, Jianwen; Soam, Archana (2022)
    We present a comprehensive study of the gas kinematics associated with density structures at different spatial scales in the filamentary infrared dark cloud, G034.43+00.24 (G34). This study makes use of the (HCO+)-C-13 (1-0) molecular line data from the ALMA Three-millimeter Observations of Massive Star-forming regions (ATOMS) survey, which has spatial and velocity resolution of similar to 0.04 pc and 0.2 km s(-1), respectively. Several tens of dendrogram structures have been extracted in the position-position-velocity space of (HCO+)-C-13, which include 21 small-scale leaves and 20 larger-scale branches. Overall, their gas motions are supersonic but they exhibit the interesting behaviour where leaves tend to be less dynamically supersonic than the branches. For the larger scale, branch structures, the observed velocity-size relation (i.e. velocity variation/dispersion versus size) are seen to follow the Larson scaling exponent while the smaller-scale, leaf structures show a systematic deviation and display a steeper slope. We argue that the origin of the observed kinematics of the branch structures is likely to be a combination of turbulence and gravity-driven ordered gas flows. In comparison, gravity-driven chaotic gas motion is likely at the level of small-scale leaf structures. The results presented in our previous paper and this current follow-up study suggest that the main driving mechanism for mass accretion/inflow observed in G34 varies at different spatial scales. We therefore conclude that a scale-dependent combined effect of turbulence and gravity is essential to explain the star-formation processes in G34.
  • Hadid, L. Z.; Genot, V.; Aizawa, S.; Milillo, A.; Zender, J.; Murakami, G.; Benkhoff, J.; Zouganelis, I.; Alberti, T.; Andre, N.; Bebesi, Z.; Califano, F.; Dimmock, A. P.; Dosa, M.; Escoubet, C. P.; Griton, L.; Ho, G. C.; Horbury, T. S.; Iwai, K.; Janvier, M.; Kilpua, E.; Lavraud, B.; Madar, A.; Miyoshi, Y.; Muller, D.; Pinto, R. F.; Rouillard, A. P.; Raines, J. M.; Raouafi, N.; Sahraoui, F.; Sanchez-Cano, B.; Shiota, D.; Vainio, R.; Walsh, A. (2021)
    The investigation of multi-spacecraft coordinated observations during the cruise phase of BepiColombo (ESA/JAXA) are reported, with a particular emphasis on the recently launched missions, Solar Orbiter (ESA/NASA) and Parker Solar Probe (NASA). Despite some payload constraints, many instruments onboard BepiColombo are operating during its cruise phase simultaneously covering a wide range of heliocentric distances (0.28 AU-0.5 AU). Hence, the various spacecraft configurations and the combined in-situ and remote sensing measurements from the different spacecraft, offer unique opportunities for BepiColombo to be part of these unprecedented multipoint synergistic observations and for potential scientific studies in the inner heliosphere, even before its orbit insertion around Mercury in December 2025. The main goal of this report is to present the coordinated observation opportunities during the cruise phase of BepiColombo (excluding the planetary flybys). We summarize the identified science topics, the operational instruments, the method we have used to identify the windows of opportunity and discuss the planning of joint observations in the future.
  • Vihma, Timo; Kilpeläinen, Tiina; Manninen, Miina; Sjöblom, Anna; Jakobson, Erko; Palo, Timo; Jaagus, Jaak; Maturilli, Marion (2011)
  • Borovsky, Joseph E.; Osmane, Adnane (2019)
    Using the solar-wind-driven magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere system, a methodology is developed to reduce a state-vector description of a time-dependent driven system to a composite scalar picture of the activity in the system. The technique uses canonical correlation analysis to reduce the time-dependent system and driver state vectors to time-dependent system and driver scalars, with the scalars describing the response in the system that is most-closely related to the driver. This reduced description has advantages: low noise, high prediction efficiency, linearity in the described system response to the driver, and compactness. The methodology identifies independent modes of reaction of a system to its driver. The analysis of the magnetospheric system is demonstrated. Using autocorrelation analysis, Jensen- Shannon complexity analysis, and permutation-entropy analysis the properties of the derived aggregate scalars are assessed and a new mode of reaction of the magnetosphere to the solar wind is found. This state-vector-reduction technique may be useful for other multivariable systems driven by multiple inputs.
  • Rivera-Ingraham, A.; Ristorcelli, I.; Juvela, M.; Montillaud, J.; Men'shchikov, A.; Malinen, J.; Pelkonen, V. -M.; Marston, A.; Martin, P. G.; Pagani, L.; Paladini, R.; Paradis, D.; Ysard, N.; Ward-Thompson, D.; Bernard, J. -P.; Marshall, D. J.; Montier, L.; Toth, L. V. (2017)
    Context. The onset of star formation is intimately linked with the presence of massive unstable filamentary structures. These filaments are therefore key for theoretical models that aim to reproduce the observed characteristics of the star formation process in the Galaxy. Aims. As part of the filament study carried out by the Herschel Galactic Cold Cores Key Programme, here we study and discuss the filament properties presented in GCC VII (Paper I) in context with theoretical models of filament formation and evolution. Methods. A conservatively selected sample of filaments located at a distance D <500 pc was extracted from the GCC fields with the getfilaments algorithm. The physical structure of the filaments was quantified according to two main components: the central (Gaussian) region of the filament (core component), and the power-law-like region dominating the filament column density profile at larger radii (wing component). The properties and behaviour of these components relative to the total linear mass density of the filament and the column density of its environment were compared with the predictions from theoretical models describing the evolution of filaments under gravity-dominated conditions. Results. The feasibility of a transition from a subcritical to supercritical state by accretion at any given time is dependent on the combined effect of filament intrinsic properties and environmental conditions. Reasonably self-gravitating (high M-line,M-core) filaments in dense environments (Av greater than or similar to 3 mag) can become supercritical on timescales of t similar to 1 Myr by accreting mass at constant or decreasing width. The trend of increasing M-line,M-tot (M-line,M-core and M-line,M-wing) and ridge A(v) with background for the filament population also indicates that the precursors of star-forming filaments evolve coevally with their environment. The simultaneous increase of environment and filament Av explains the observed association between dense environments and high Mlille,co values, and it argues against filaments remaining in constant single-pressure equilibrium states. The simultaneous growth of filament and background in locations with efficient mass assembly, predicted in numerical models of filaments in collapsing clouds, presents a suitable scenario for the fulfillment of the combined filament mass-environment criterium that is in quantitative agreement with Herschel observations.
  • JET Contributors; Ahlgren, Tommy; Björkas, Carolina; Lahtinen, Aki; Lasa Esquisabel, Ane; Nordlund, Kai; Safi, Elnaz (2020)
    A global heat flux model based on a fractional derivative of plasma pressure is proposed for the heat transport in fusion plasmas. The degree of the fractional derivative of the heat flux, a, is defined through the power balance analysis of the steady state. The model was used to obtain the experimental values of a for a large database of the Joint European Torus (JET) carbon-wall as well as ITER like-wall plasmas. The fractional degrees of the electron heat flux are found to be alpha < 2, for all the selected pulses in the database, suggesting a deviation from the diffusive paradigm. Moreover, the results show that as the volume integrated input power is increased, the fractional degree of the electron heat flux converges to alpha similar to 0.8, indicating a global scaling between the net heating and the pressure profile in the high-power JET plasmas. The model is expected to provide insight into the proper kinetic description for the fusion plasmas and improve the accuracy of the heat transport predictions.
  • Lahnamaki-Kivela, Susanna; Kuhmonen, Tuomas (2022)
    Megatrends (urbanization, digitalization, globalization, climate change, etc.) are mainstream developments that affect most economic activities. These megatrends have varying incidences and impacts on individual entrepreneurs and enterprises, also in farming sector. A farmer can either ignore or try to adapt to or benefit from megatrends. This reaction depends on many things: individuals' futures orientation, management practices, business strategy, sunk costs, the life cycle and type of business, for example. The study explores the association between eight common megatrends and business strategies among a sample of Finnish dairy producers. The analysis is based on survey data from the year 2019 (n = 135) collected among a major Finnish dairy industry co-operative's contract producers. The respondents evaluated the expected impact of the megatrends on their own business within the next 10 years with 5-point Likert-type scale (-2 horizontal ellipsis +2). K-means cluster analysis was utilized to uncover a few basic settings in the association between megatrends and farmers behaviours. After trying out several numbers of clusters, a distinctive three cluster solution was found. Additionally, cluster member profiles were framed with farmers' Likert -scale responses. The analysis indicates that dairy farmers differ in their observation of megatrends. The results confirm that some of the farmers more or less ignore the common megatrends, whereas some other farmers adapt to or benefit from the common megatrends. Supporting farmers' futures consciousness will strengthen their capacities of coping in the changing business environment.
  • Alina, D.; Montillaud, J.; Hu, Y.; Lazarian, A.; Ristorcelli, I.; Abdikamalov, E.; Sagynbayeva, S.; Juvela, M.; Liu, T.; Carriere, J-S (2022)
    Context. The role of large-scale magnetic fields in the evolution of star-forming regions remains elusive. Its investigation requires the observational characterization of well-constrained molecular clouds. The Monoceros OB 1 molecular cloud is a large complex containing several structures that have been shown to be engaged in an active interaction and to have a rich star formation history. However, the magnetic fields in this region have only been studied on small scales. Aims. We study the large-scale magnetic field structure and its interplay with the gas dynamics in the Monoceros OB 1 east molecular cloud. Methods. We combined observations of dust polarized emission from the Planck telescope and CO molecular line emission observations from the Taeduk Radio Astronomy Observatory 14-metre telescope. We calculated the strength of the plane-of-sky magnetic field using a modified Chandrasekhar-Fermi method and estimated the mass-over-flux ratios in different regions of the cloud. We used the comparison of the velocity and intensity gradients of the molecular line observations with the polarimetric observations to trace dynamically active regions. Results. The molecular complex shows an ordered large-scale plane-of-sky magnetic field structure. In the northern part, it is mostly orientated along the filamentary structures, while the southern part shows at least two regions with distinct magnetic field orientations. Our analysis reveals a shock region in the northern part right between two filamentary clouds that, in previous studies, were suggested to be involved in a collision. The magnetic properties of the north-main and north-eastern filaments suggest that these filaments once formed a single one, and that the magnetic field evolved together with the material and did not undergo major changes during the evolution of the cloud. In the southern part, we find that either the magnetic field guides the accretion of interstellar matter towards the cloud or it is dragged by the matter falling towards the main cloud. Conclusions. The large-scale magnetic field in the Monoceros OB 1 east molecular cloud is tightly connected to the global structure of the complex. In the northern part, it seems to serve a dynamically important role by possibly providing support against gravity in the direction perpendicular to the field and to the filament. In the southern part, it is probably the most influential factor governing the morphological structure by guiding possible gas inflow. A study of the whole Monoceros OB 1 molecular complex at large scales is necessary to form a global picture of the formation and evolution of the Monoceros OB 1 east cloud and the role of the magnetic field in this process.
  • Kilpua, Emilia K. J.; Fontaine, Dominique; Good, Simon W.; Ala-Lahti, Matti; Osmane, Adnane; Palmerio, Erika; Yordanova, Emiliya; Moissard, Clement; Hadid, Lina Z.; Janvier, Miho (2020)
    In this work, we investigate magnetic field fluctuations in three coronal mass ejection (CME)-driven sheath regions at 1 AU, with their speeds ranging from slow to fast. The data set we use consists primarily of high-resolution (0.092 s) magnetic field measurements from the Wind spacecraft. We analyse magnetic field fluctuation amplitudes, compressibility, and spectral properties of fluctuations. We also analyse intermittency using various approaches; we apply the partial variance of increments (PVIs) method, investigate probability distribution functions of fluctuations, including their skewness and kurtosis, and perform a structure function analysis. Our analysis is conducted separately for three different subregions within the sheath and one in the solar wind ahead of it, each 1 h in duration. We find that, for all cases, the transition from the solar wind ahead to the sheath generates new fluctuations, and the intermittency and compressibility increase, while the region closest to the ejecta leading edge resembled the solar wind ahead. The spectral indices exhibit large variability in different parts of the sheath but are typically steeper than Kolmogorov's in the inertial range. The structure function analysis produced generally the best fit with the extended p model, suggesting that turbulence is not fully developed in CME sheaths near Earth's orbit. Both Kraichnan-Iroshinikov and Kolmogorov's forms yielded high intermittency but different spectral slopes, thus questioning how well these models can describe turbulence in sheaths. At the smallest timescales investigated, the spectral indices indicate shallower than expected slopes in the dissipation range (between 2 and 2 :5), suggesting that, in CME-driven sheaths at 1 AU, the energy cascade from larger to smaller scales could still be ongoing through the ion scale. Many turbulent properties of sheaths (e.g. spectral indices and compressibility) resemble those of the slow wind rather than the fast. They are also partly similar to properties reported in the terrestrial magnetosheath, in particular regarding their intermittency, compressibility, and absence of Kolmogorov's type turbulence. Our study also reveals that turbulent properties can vary considerably within the sheath. This was particularly the case for the fast sheath behind the strong and quasi-parallel shock, including a small, coherent structure embedded close to its midpoint. Our results support the view of the complex formation of the sheath and different physical mechanisms playing a role in generating fluctuations in them.
  • Pekkila, Johannes; Vaisala, Miikka S.; Käpylä, Maarit J.; Käpylä, Petri J.; Anjum, Omer (2017)
    We focus on implementing and optimizing a sixth-order finite-difference solver for simulating compressible fluids on a GPU using third-order Runge-Kutta integration. Since graphics processing units perform well in data-parallel tasks, this makes them an attractive platform for fluid simulation. However, high-order stencil computation is memory-intensive with respect to both main memory and the caches of the GPU. We present two approaches for simulating compressible fluids using 55-point and 19-point stencils. We seek to reduce the requirements for memory bandwidth and cache size in our methods by using cache blocking and decomposing a latency-bound kernel into several bandwidth-bound kernels. Our fastest implementation is bandwidth-bound and integrates 343 million grid points per second on a Tesla K40t GPU, achieving a 3.6x speedup over a comparable hydrodynamics solver benchmarked on two Intel Xeon E5-2690v3 processors. Our alternative GPU implementation is latency-bound and achieves the rate of 168 million updates per second. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Zhilenko, D.; Krivonosova, O.; Gritsevich, M. (IOP Publishing, 2018)
    Journal of Physics Conference Series
    Flows of a viscous incompressible fluid in a spherical layer that are due to rotational oscillations of its inner boundary at two frequencies with respect to the state of rest are numerically studied. It is found that an increase in the amplitude of oscillations of the boundary at the higher frequency can result in a significant enhancement of the low-frequency mode in a flow near the outer boundary. The direction of propagation of the low-frequency wave changes from radial to meridional, whereas the high-frequency wave propagates in the radial direction in a limited inner region of the spherical layer. The role of the meridional circulation in the energy exchange between spaced waves is demonstrated.
  • Auvinen, Mikko; Järvi, Leena; Hellsten, Antti; Rannik, Ullar; Vesala, Timo (2017)
    Conventional footprint models cannot account for the heterogeneity of the urban landscape imposing a pronounced uncertainty on the spatial interpretation of eddycovariance (EC) flux measurements in urban studies. This work introduces a computational methodology that enables the generation of detailed footprints in arbitrarily complex urban flux measurements sites. The methodology is based on conducting high-resolution large-eddy simulation (LES) and Lagrangian stochastic (LS) particle analysis on a model that features a detailed topographic description of a real urban environment. The approach utilizes an arbitrarily sized target volume set around the sensor in the LES domain, to collect a dataset of LS particles which are seeded from the potential source area of the measurement and captured at the sensor site. The urban footprint is generated from this dataset through a piecewise postprocessing procedure, which divides the footprint evaluation into multiple independent processes that each yield an intermediate result. These results are ultimately selectively combined to produce the final footprint. The strategy reduces the computational cost of the LES-LS simulation and incorporates techniques to account for the complications that arise when the EC sensor is mounted on a building instead of a conventional flux tower. The presented computational framework also introduces a result assessment strategy which utilizes the obtained urban footprint together with a detailed land cover type dataset to estimate the potential error that may arise if analytically derived footprint models were employed instead. The methodology is demonstrated with a case study that concentrates on generating the footprint for a building-mounted EC measurement station in downtown Helsinki, Finland, under the neutrally stratified atmospheric boundary layer.
  • van Dinther, D.; Wood, C. R.; Hartogensis, O. K.; Nordbo, A.; O'Connor, E. J. (2015)
    In this study, the crosswind (wind component perpendicular to a path, U-perpendicular to) is measured by a scintillometer and estimated with Doppler lidar above the urban environment of Helsinki, Finland, for 15 days. The scintillometer allows acquisition of a path-averaged value of U-perpendicular to ((U-perpendicular to) over bar), while the lidar allows acquisition of path-resolved U-perpendicular to (U-perpendicular to(x), where x is the position along the path). The goal of this study is to evaluate the performance of scintillometer estimates for conditions under which U-perpendicular to(x) is variable. Two methods are applied to estimate (U-perpendicular to) over bar from the scintillometer signal: the cumulative-spectrum method (relies on scintillation spectra) and the look-up-table method (relies on time-lagged correlation functions). The values of (U-perpendicular to) over bar of both methods compare well with the lidar estimates, with root-mean-square deviations of 0.71 and 0.73 ms(-1). This indicates that, given the data treatment applied in this study, both measurement technologies are able to obtain estimates of (U-perpendicular to) over bar in the complex urban environment. The detailed investigation of four cases indicates that the cumulative-spectrum method is less susceptible to a variable U-perpendicular to (x) /than the look-up-table method. However, the look-up-table method can be adjusted to improve its capabilities for estimating (U-perpendicular to) over bar under conditions under for which U-perpendicular to (x) is variable.
  • Oosterwijk, Aleid; Henzing, Bas; Järvi, Leena (2018)
    To study the environmental fate of nanoparticles, reliable measurements of particle fluxes in the atmosphere are of importance. The eddy-covariance (EC) technique can be used to calculate surface fluxes. In this study, the EC technique has been applied to calculate particle fluxes in Helsinki (Finland) and Cabauw (the Netherlands). For reliable estimations of the surface fluxes, particle flux measurements need to be corrected for attenuation at the highest frequencies. This attenuation is caused by the relatively long response time of scalar sensors and measurement set-up. The attenuation can be estimated using a theoretical or an empirical approach. Horst [Horst, Boundary-Layer Meteorology, 1997, 82(2)] developed a simple formula to estimate the attenuation, based on the empirical approach. The empirical approach relies on the assumption of spectral similarity between two scalars. In this paper the effect of the spectral similarity assumption is investigated. It is shown that in order to apply the Horst formula reliably, a decent estimate of the sensor response time is required. Furthermore, it is shown that in order to apply the empirical method, a fast sensor response is required. It is concluded that theory does not predict the position of the peak in the cospectrum well, which means that for measurement set-ups not yet operational, this requirement is not easily evaluated. The assumption of spectral similarity seems reasonable for particle fluxes and heat fluxes, when compared to similarity between fluxes of other scalars. An altered assumption of spectral similarity has been applied, where similarity is assumed only at frequencies higher than the peak frequency in the cospectrum. This assumption leads to a better estimate for the attenuation, when applied to the Helsinki data. It does not lead to an improvement for the Cabauw data set, due to the large response time of the measurement set-up.
  • Kouznetsov, Rostislav D.; Zilitinkevich, Sergej S. (2010)
  • Lu, Zu-Jia; Pelkonen, Veli-Matti; Juvela, Mika; Padoan, Paolo; Haugbolle, Troels; Nordlund, Ake (2022)
    Systematic surveys of massive clumps have been carried out to study the conditions leading to the formation of massive stars. These clumps are typically at large distances and unresolved, so their physical properties cannot be reliably derived from the observations alone. Numerical simulations are needed to interpret the observations. To this end, we generate synthetic Herschel observations using our large-scale star-formation simulation, where massive stars explode as supernovae driving the interstellar-medium turbulence. From the synthetic observations, we compile a catalogue of compact sources following the exact same procedure as for the Hi-GAL compact source catalogue. We show that the sources from the simulation have observational properties with statistical distributions consistent with the observations. By relating the compact sources from the synthetic observations to their 3D counterparts in the simulation, we find that the synthetic observations overestimate the clump masses by about an order of magnitude on average due to line-of-sight projection, and projection effects are likely to be even worse for Hi-GAL Inner Galaxy sources. We also find that a large fraction of sources classified as protostellar are likely to be starless, and propose a new method to partially discriminate between true and false protostellar sources.
  • Xu, Fengwei; Wu, Yuefang; Liu, Tie; Liu, Xunchuan; Zhang, Chao; Esimbek, Jarken; Qin, Sheng-Li; Li, Di; Wang, Ke; Yuan, Jinghua; Meng, Fanyi; Zhang, Tianwei; Eden, David; Tatematsu, K.; Evans, Neal J.; Goldsmith, Paul. F.; Zhang, Qizhou; Henkel, C.; Yi, Hee-Weon; Lee, Jeong-Eun; Saajasto, Mika; Kim, Gwanjeong; Juvela, Mika; Sahu, Dipen; Hsu, Shih-Ying; Liu, Sheng-Yuan; Dutta, Somnath; Lee, Chin-Fei; Zhang, Chuan-Peng; Xu, Ye; Ju, Binggang (2021)
    Gas at high Galactic latitude is a relatively little noticed component of the interstellar medium. In an effort to address this, 41 Planck Galactic Cold Clumps at high Galactic latitude (HGal; divide b divide > 25 degrees) were observed in (CO)-C-12, (CO)-C-13, and (CO)-O-18 J = 1-0 lines, using the Purple Mountain Observatory 13.7 m telescope. (CO)-C-12 (1-0) and (CO)-C-13 (1-0) emission was detected in all clumps, while (CO)-O-18 (1-0) emission was only seen in 16 clumps. The highest and average latitudes are 71.degrees 4 and 37.degrees 8, respectively. Fifty-one velocity components were obtained, and then each was identified as a single clump. Thirty-three clumps were further mapped at 1 ' resolution, and 54 dense cores were extracted. Among dense cores, the average excitation temperature T (ex) of (CO)-C-12 is 10.3 K. The average line widths of thermal and nonthermal velocity dispersions are 0.19 and 0.46 km s(-1), respectively, suggesting that these cores are dominated by turbulence. Distances of the HGal clumps given by Gaia dust reddening are about 120-360 pc. The ratio of X (13)/X (18) is significantly higher than that in the solar neighborhood, implying that HGal gas has a different star formation history compared to the gas in the Galactic disk. HGal cores with sizes from 0.01 to 0.1 pc show no notable Larson's relation, and the turbulence remains supersonic down to a scale of slightly below 0.1 pc. None of the HGal cores that bear masses from 0.01 to 1 M (circle dot) are gravitationally bound, and all appear to be confined by outer pressure.
  • Lampilahti, Janne; Manninen, Hanna; Leino (os. Paananen), Katri; Väänänen, Riikka; Manninen, Antti; Buenrostro Mazon, Stephany N.; Nieminen, Tuomo; Leskinen, Matti; Enroth, Joonas; Bister, Marja; Zilitinkevich, Sergej; Kangasluoma, Juha; Järvinen, Heikki; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Petäjä, Tuukka; Kulmala, Markku (2020)
    Recent studies have shown the importance of new particle formation (NPF) to global cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) production, as well as to air pollution in megacities. In addition to the necessary presence of low-volatility vapors that can form new aerosol particles, both numerical and observational studies have shown that the dynamics of the planetary boundary layer (BL) plays an important role in NPF. Evidence from field observations suggests that roll vortices might be favorable for inducing NPF in a convective BL. However, direct observations and estimates of the potential importance of this phenomenon to the production of new aerosol particles are lacking. Here we show that rolls frequently induce NPF bursts along the horizontal circulations and that the small clusters and particles originating from these localized bursts grow in size similar to particles typically ascribed to atmospheric NPF that occur almost homogeneously at a regional scale. We outline a method to identify roll-induced NPF from measurements and, based on the collected data, estimate the impact of roll vortices on the overall aerosol particle production due to NPF at a boreal forest site (83% +/- 34% and 26% +/- 8% overall enhancement in particle formation for 3 and 10 nm particles, respectively). We conclude that the formation of roll vortices should be taken into account when estimating particle number budgets in the atmospheric BL.
  • Hindmarsh, Mark; Huber, Stephan J.; Rummukainen, Kari; Weir, David J. (2017)
    We present results from large-scale numerical simulations of a first order thermal phase transition in the early Universe, in order to explore the shape of the acoustic gravitational wave and the velocity power spectra. We compare the results with the predictions of the recently proposed sound shell model. For the gravitational wave power spectrum, we find that the predicted k(-3) behavior, where k is the wave number, emerges clearly for detonations. The power spectra from deflagrations show similar features, but exhibit a steeper high-k decay and an extra feature not accounted for in the model. There are two independent length scales: the mean bubble separation and the thickness of the sound shell around the expanding bubble of the low temperature phase. It is the sound shell thickness which sets the position of the peak of the power spectrum. The low wave number behavior of the velocity power spectrum is consistent with a causal k(3), except for the thinnest sound shell, where it is steeper. We present parameters for a simple broken power law fit to the gravitational wave power spectrum for wall speeds well away from the speed of sound where this form can be usefully applied. We examine the prospects for the detection, showing that a LISA-like mission has the sensitivity to detect a gravitational wave signal from sound waves with an RMS fluid velocity of about 0.05c, produced from bubbles with a mean separation of about 10(-2) of the Hubble radius. The shape of the gravitational wave power spectrum depends on the bubble wall speed, and it may be possible to estimate the wall speed, and constrain other phase transition parameters, with an accurate measurement of a stochastic gravitational wave background.