Browsing by Subject "TURGOR PRESSURE"

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  • Paljakka, Teemu; Jyske, Tuula; Lintunen, Anna; Aaltonen, Heidi; Nikinmaa, Eero; Hölttä, Teemu (2017)
    Preconditions of phloem transport in conifers are relatively unknown. We studied the variation of needle and inner bark axial osmotic gradients and xylem water potential in Scots pine and Norway spruce by measuring needle and inner bark osmolality in saplings and mature trees over several periods within a growing season. The needle and inner bark osmolality was strongly related to xylem water potential in all studied trees. Sugar concentrations were measured in Scots pine, and they had similar dynamics to inner bark osmolality. The sucrose quantity remained fairly constant over time and position, whereas the other sugars exhibited a larger change with time and position. A small osmotic gradient existed from branch to stem base under pre-dawn conditions, and the osmotic gradient between upper stem and stem base was close to zero. The turgor in branches was significantly driven by xylem water potential, and the turgor loss point in branches was relatively close to daily minimum needle water potentials typically reported for Scots pine. Our results imply that xylem water potential considerably impacts the turgor pressure gradient driving phloem transport and that gravitation has a relatively large role in phloem transport in the stems of mature Scots pine trees.
  • Santos-Perez, Isaac; Oksanen, Hanna M.; Bamford, Dennis H.; Goni, Felix M.; Reguera, David; Abrescia, Nicola G. A. (2017)
    Genome packaging and delivery are fundamental steps in the replication cycle of all viruses. Icosahedral viruses with linear double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) usually pacicage their genome into a preformed, rigid procapsid using the power generated by a virus-encoded packaging ATPase. The pressure and stored energy due to this confinement of DNA at a high density is assumed to drive the initial stages of genome ejection. Membrane-containing icosahedral viruses, such as bacteriophage PRD1, present an additional architectural complexity by enclosing their genome within an internal membrane vesicle. Upon adsorption to a host cell, the PRD1 membrane remodels into a proteo-lipidic tube that provides a conduit for passage of the ejected linear dsDNA through the cell envelope. Based on volume analyses of PRD1 membrane vesicles captured by cryo-electron tomography and modeling of the elastic properties of the vesicle, we propose that the internal membrane makes a crucial and active contribution during infection by maintaining the driving force for DNA ejection and countering the internal turgor pressure of the host These novel functions extend the role of the PRD1 viral membrane beyond tube formation or the mere physical confinement of the genome. The presence and assistance of an internal membrane might constitute a biological advantage that extends also to other viruses that package their linear dsDNA to high density within an internal vesicle. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.