Browsing by Subject "TYPE-1 DIABETES-MELLITUS"

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  • Koivusaari, Katariina; Syrjälä, Essi; Niinistö, Sari; Takkinen, Hanna-Mari; Ahonen, Suvi; Åkerlund, Mari; Korhonen, Tuuli E.; Toppari, Jorma; Ilonen, Jorma; Peltonen, Jaakko; Nevalainen, Jaakko; Knip, Mikael; Alatossava, Tapani; Veijola, Riitta; Virtanen, Suvi M (2020)
    Several prospective studies have shown an association between cows’ milk consumption and the risk of islet autoimmunity and/or type 1 diabetes. We wanted to study whether processing of milk plays a role. A population-based birth cohort of 6081 children with HLA-DQB1-conferred risk to type 1 diabetes was followed until the age of 15 years. We included 5545 children in the analyses. Food records were completed at the ages of 3 and 6 months and 1, 2, 3, 4 and 6 years, and diabetes-associated autoantibodies were measured at 3–12-month intervals. For milk products in the food composition database, we used conventional and processing-based classifications. We analysed the data using a joint model for longitudinal and time-to-event data. By the age of 6 years, islet autoimmunity developed in 246 children. Consumption of all cows’ milk products together (energy-adjusted hazard ratio 1·06; 95 % CI 1·02, 1·11; P = 0·003), non-fermented milk products (1·06; 95 % CI 1·01, 1·10; P = 0·011) and fermented milk products (1·35; 95 % CI 1·10, 1·67; P = 0·005) was associated with an increased risk of islet autoimmunity. The early milk consumption was not associated with the risk beyond 6 years. We observed no clear differences based on milk homogenisation and heat treatment. Our results are consistent with the previous studies, which indicate that high milk consumption may cause islet autoimmunity in children at increased genetic risk. The study did not identify any specific type of milk processing that would clearly stand out as a sole risk factor apart from other milk products.
  • Honkanen, Hanna; Oikarinen, Sami; Nurminen, Noora; Laitinen, Olli; Huhtala, Heini; Lehtonen, Jussi; Ruokoranta, Tanja Marjaana; Hankaniemi, Minna M.; Lecouturier, Valerie; Almond, Jeffrey; Tauriainen, Sisko; Simell, Olli; Ilonen, Jorma; Veijola, R; Viskari, Hanna; Knip, Jan Mikael; Hyöty, Heikki (2017)
    Aims/hypothesis This case-control study was nested in a prospective birth cohort to evaluate whether the presence of enteroviruses in stools was associated with the appearance of islet autoimmunity in the Type 1 Diabetes Prediction and Prevention study in Finland. Methods Altogether, 1673 longitudinal stool samples from 129 case children who turned positive for multiple islet autoantibodies and 3108 stool samples from 282 matched control children were screened for the presence of enterovirus RNA using RT-PCR. Viral genotype was detected by sequencing. Results Case children had more enterovirus infections than control children (0.8 vs 0.6 infections per child). Time-dependent analysis indicated that this excess of infections occurred more than 1 year before the first detection of islet autoantibodies (6.3 vs 2.1 infections per 10 follow-up years). No such difference was seen in infections occurring less than 1 year before islet autoantibody seroconversion or after seroconversion. The most frequent enterovirus types included coxsackievirus A4 (28% of genotyped viruses), coxsackievirus A2 (14%) and coxsackievirus A16 (11%). Conculusion/hypothesis The results suggest that enterovirus infections diagnosed by detecting viral RNA in stools are associated with the development of islet autoimmunity with a time lag of several months.
  • Kristensen, Peter L.; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Ulrik; Due-Andersen, Rikke; Hoi-Hansen, Thomas; Grimmeshave, Lise; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Groop, Leif; Holst, Jens J.; Vaag, Allan A.; Thorsteinsson, Birger (2016)
    Introduction: In healthy carriers of the T allele of the transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2), fasting plasma glucagon concentrations are lower compared with those with the C allele. We hypothesised that presence of the T allele is associated with a diminished glucagon response during hypoglycaemia and a higher frequency of severe hypoglycaemia (SH) in type 1 diabetes (T1DM). Material and methods: This is a post hoc study of an earlier prospective observational study of SH and four mechanistic studies of physiological responses to hypoglycaemia. 269 patients with T1DM were followed in a one-year observational study. A log-linear negative binomial model was applied with events of SH as dependent variable and TCF7L2 alleles as explanatory variable. In four experimental studies including 65 people, TCF7L2 genotyping was done and plasma glucagon concentration during experimental hypoglycaemia was determined. Results: Incidences of SH were TT 0.54, TC 0.98 and CC 1.01 episodes per patient-year with no significant difference between groups. During experimental hypoglycaemia, the TCF7L2 polymorphism did not influence glucagon secretion. Discussion: Patients with T1DM carrying the T allele of the TCF7L2 polymorphism do not exhibit diminished glucagon response during hypoglycaemia and are not at increased risk of severe hypoglycaemia compared with carriers of the C allele.
  • Lehto, Markku; Groop, Per-Henrik (2018)
    Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is a devastating condition associated with increased morbidity and premature mortality. The etiology of DKD is still largely unknown. However, the risk of DKD development and progression is most likely modulated by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Patients with autoimmune diseases, like type 1 diabetes, inflammatory bowel disease, and celiac disease, share some genetic background. Furthermore, gastrointestinal disorders are associated with an increased risk of kidney disease, although the true mechanisms have still to be elucidated. Therefore, the principal aim of this review is to evaluate the impact of disturbances in the gastrointestinal tract on the development of renal disorders.
  • Valta, Milla; Yoshihara, Masahito; Einarsdottir, Elisabet; Pahkuri, Sirpa; Ezer, Sini; Katayama, Shintaro; Knip, Mikael; Veijola, Riitta; Toppari, Jorma; Ilonen, Jorma; Kere, Juha; Lempainen, Johanna (2022)
    Objective: The pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes (T1D) is associated with genetic predisposition and immunological changes during presymptomatic disease. Differences in immune cell subset numbers and phenotypes between T1D patients and healthy controls have been described; however, the role and function of these changes in the pathogenesis is still unclear. Here we aimed to analyze the transcriptomic landscapes of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) during presymptomatic disease. Methods: Transcriptomic differences in PBMCs were compared between cases positive for islet autoantibodies and autoantibody negative controls (9 case-control pairs) and further in monocytes and lymphocytes separately in autoantibody positive subjects and control subjects (25 case-control pairs). Results: No significant differential expression was found in either data set. However, when gene set enrichment analysis was performed, the gene sets "defence response to virus" (FDR Conclusion: Gene set enrichment analysis of children with T1D-associated autoimmunity revealed changes in pathways relevant for virus infection in PBMCs, particularly in monocytes. Virus infections have been repeatedly implicated in the pathogenesis of T1D. These results support the viral hypothesis by suggesting altered immune activation of viral immune pathways in monocytes during diabetes.