Browsing by Subject "TYPE-1"

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  • Syrjälä, Essi; Nevalainen, Jaakko; Peltonen, Jaakko; Takkinen, Hanna-Mari; Hakola, Leena; Åkerlund, Mari; Veijola, Riitta; Ilonen, Jorma; Toppari, Jorma; Knip, Mikael; Virtanen, Suvi M. (2019)
    Several dietary factors have been suspected to play a role in the development of advanced islet autoimmunity (IA) and/or type 1 diabetes (T1D), but the evidence is fragmentary. A prospective population-based cohort of 6081 Finnish newborn infants with HLA-DQB1-conferred susceptibility to T1D was followed up to 15 years of age. Diabetes-associated autoantibodies and diet were assessed at 3-to 12-month intervals. We aimed to study the association between consumption of selected foods and the development of advanced IA longitudinally with Cox regression models (CRM), basic joint models (JM) and joint latent class mixed models (JLCMM). The associations of these foods to T1D risk were also studied to investigate consistency between alternative endpoints. The JM showed a marginal association between meat consumption and advanced IA: the hazard ratio adjusted for selected confounding factors was 1.06 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.12). The JLCMM identified two classes in the consumption trajectories of fish and a marginal protective association for high consumers compared to low consumers: the adjusted hazard ratio was 0.68 (0.44, 1.05). Similar findings were obtained for T1D risk with adjusted hazard ratios of 1.13 (1.02, 1.24) for meat and 0.45 (0.23, 0.86) for fish consumption. Estimates from the CRMs were closer to unity and CIs were narrower compared to the JMs. Findings indicate that intake of meat might be directly and fish inversely associated with the development of advanced IA and T1D, and that disease hazards in longitudinal nutritional epidemiology are more appropriately modeled by joint models than with naive approaches.
  • Bauer, Witold; Veijola, Riitta; Lempainen, Johanna; Kiviniemi, Minna; Härkönen, Taina; Toppari, Jorma; Knip, Mikael; Gyenesei, Attila; Ilonen, Jorma (2019)
    Context: Children with initial autoantibodies to either insulin (IAA) or glutamic acid decarboxylase (GADA) differ in peak age of seroconversion and have different type 1 diabetes (T1D) risk gene associations, suggesting heterogeneity in the disease process. Objective: To compare the associations of age at seroconversion, HLA risk, and specificity of secondary autoantibodies with the progression of islet autoimmunity between children with either IAA or GADA as their first autoantibody. Design and methods: A cohort of 15,253 children with HLA-associated increased risk of T1D participated in a follow-up program in which islet autoantibodies were regularly measured. The median follow-up time was 6.7 years. Spearman correlation, Kaplan-Meier survival plots, and Cox proportional-hazard models were used for statistical analyses. Results: Persistent positivity for at least one of the tested autoantibodies was detected in 998 children; 388 of children progressed to clinical T1D. Young age at initial seroconversion was associated with a high probability of expansion of IAA-initiated autoimmunity and progression to clinical diabetes, whereas expansion of GADA-initiated autoimmunity and progression to diabetes were not dependent on initial seroconversion age. The strength of HLA risk affected the progression of both IAA- and GADA-initiated autoimmunity. The simultaneous appearance of two other autoantibodies increased the rate of progression to diabetes compared with that of a single secondary autoantibody among subjects with GADA-initiated autoimmunity but not among those with IAA as the first autoantibody. Conclusions: Findings emphasize the differences in the course of islet autoimmunity initiated by either IAA or GADA supporting heterogeneity in the pathogenic process.
  • Strandberg, Arto Y.; Hoti, Fabian J.; Strandberg, Timo E.; Christopher, Solomon; Haukka, Jari; Korhonen, Pasi (2016)
    Background Insulin therapy in type 2 diabetes may increase mortality and cancer incidence, but the impact of different types of basal insulins on these endpoints is unclear. Compared to the traditional NPH insulin, the newer, longer-acting insulin analogues detemir and glargine have shown benefits in randomized controlled trials. Whether these advantages translate into lower mortality among users in real life is unknown. Objective To estimate the differences in all-cause and cause-specific mortality rates between new users of basal insulins in a population-based study in Finland. Methods 23 751 individuals aged >= 40 with type 2 diabetes, who initiated basal insulin therapy in 2006-2009 were identified from national registers, with comprehensive data for mortality, causes of death, and background variables. Propensity score matching was performed on characteristics. Follow-up time was up to 4 years (median 1.7 years). Results 2078 deaths incurred. With NPH as reference, the adjusted HRs for all-cause mortality were 0.39 (95% CI, 0.30-0.50) for detemir, and 0.55 (95% CI, 0.44-0.69) for glargine. As compared to glargine, the HR was 0.71 (95% CI, 0.54-0.93) among detemir users. Compared to NPH, the mortality risk for both cardiovascular causes as well as cancer were also significantly lower for glargine, and especially for detemir in adjusted analysis. Furthermore, the results were robust in various sensitivity analyses. Conclusion In real clinical practice, mortality was substantially higher among users of NPH insulin as compared to insulins detemir or glargine. Considering the large number of patients who require insulin therapy, this difference in risk may have major clinical and public health implications. Due to limitations of the observational study design, further investigation using an interventional study design is warranted.
  • Nohynek, Hanna; Jokinen, Jukka; Partinen, Markku; Vaarala, Outi; Kirjavainen, Turkka; Sundman, Jonas; Himanen, Sari-Leena; Hublin, Christer; Julkunen, Ilkka; Olsen, Paivi; Saarenpaa-Heikkila, Outi; Kilpi, Terhi (2012)
  • Virtanen, Jenni; Smura, Teemu; Aaltonen, Kirsi; Moisander-Jylhä, Anna-Maria; Knuuttila, Anna; Vapalahti, Olli; Sironen, Tarja (2019)
    Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) is the causative agent of Aleutian disease (AD), which affects mink of all genotypes and also infects other mustelids such as ferrets, martens and badgers. Previous studies have investigated diversity in Finnish AMDV strains, but these studies have been restricted to small parts of the virus genome, and mostly from newly infected farms and free-ranging mustelids. Here, we investigated the diversity and evolution of Finnish AMDV strains by sequencing the complete coding sequences of 31 strains from mink originating from farms differing in their virus history, as well as from free-ranging mink. The data set was supplemented with partial genomes obtained from 26 strains. The sequences demonstrate that the Finnish AMDV strains have considerable diversity, and that the virus has been introduced to Finland in multiple events. Frequent recombination events were observed, as well as variation in the evolutionary rate in different parts of the genome and between different branches of the phylogenetic tree. Mink in the wild carry viruses with high intra-host diversity and are occasionally even co-infected by two different strains, suggesting that free-ranging mink tolerate chronic infections for extended periods of time. These findings highlight the need for further sampling to understand the mechanisms playing a role in the evolution and pathogenesis of AMDV.
  • BEEHIVE Collaboration; Wymant, Chris; Blanquart, Francois; Golubchik, Tanya; Gall, Astrid; Bakker, Margreet; Bezemer, Daniela; Croucher, Nicholas J.; Hall, Matthew; Hillebregt, Mariska; Ong, Swee Hoe; Ratmann, Oliver; Albert, Jan; Bannert, Norbert; Fellay, Jacques; Fransen, Katrien; Gourlay, Annabelle; Grabowski, M. Kate; Gunsenheimer-Bartmeyer, Barbara; Gunthard, Huldrych F.; Kivelä, Pia; Kouyos, Roger; Laeyendecker, Oliver; Liitsola, Kirsi; Meyer, Laurence; Porter, Kholoud; Ristola, Matti; van Sighem, Ard; Berkhout, Ben; Cornelissen, Marion; Kellam, Paul; Reiss, Peter; Fraser, Christophe (2018)
    Studying the evolution of viruses and their molecular epidemiology relies on accurate viral sequence data, so that small differences between similar viruses can be meaningfully interpreted. Despite its higher throughput and more detailed minority variant data, next-generation sequencing has yet to be widely adopted for HIV. The difficulty of accurately reconstructing the consensus sequence of a quasispecies from reads (short fragments of DNA) in the presence of large between-and within-host diversity, including frequent indels, may have presented a barrier. In particular, mapping (aligning) reads to a reference sequence leads to biased loss of information; this bias can distort epidemiological and evolutionary conclusions. De novo assembly avoids this bias by aligning the reads to themselves, producing a set of sequences called contigs. However contigs provide only a partial summary of the reads, misassembly may result in their having an incorrect structure, and no information is available at parts of the genome where contigs could not be assembled. To address these problems we developed the tool shiver to pre-process reads for quality and contamination, then map them to a reference tailored to the sample using corrected contigs supplemented with the user's choice of existing reference sequences. Run with two commands per sample, it can easily be used for large heterogeneous data sets. We used shiver to reconstruct the consensus sequence and minority variant information from paired-end short-read whole-genome data produced with the Illumina platform, for sixty-five existing publicly available samples and fifty new samples. We show the systematic superiority of mapping to shiver's constructed reference compared with mapping the same reads to the closest of 3,249 real references: median values of 13 bases called differently and more accurately, 0 bases called differently and less accurately, and 205 bases of missing sequence recovered. We also successfully applied shiver to whole-genome samples of Hepatitis C Virus and Respiratory Syncytial Virus. shiver is publicly available from https://github.com/ChrisHIV/shiver.
  • Teramo, Kari; Piñeiro-Ramos, José David (2019)
    Oxidative stress is responsible for microvascular complications (hypertension, nephropathy, retinopathy, peripheral neuropathy) of diabetes, which during pregnancy increase both maternal and fetal complications. Chronic hypoxia and hyperglycemia result in increased oxidative stress and decreased antioxidant enzyme activity. However, oxidative stress induces also anti-oxidative reactions both in pregnant diabetes patients and in their fetuses. Not all type 1 diabetes patients with long-lasting disease develop microvascular complications, which suggests that some of these patients have protective mechanisms against these complications. Fetal erythropoietin (EPO) is the main regulator of red cell production in the mother and in the fetus, but it has also protective effects in various maternal and fetal tissues. This dual effect of EPO is based on EPO receptor (EPO-R) isoforms, which differ structurally and functionally from the hematopoietic EPO-R isoform. The tissue protective effects of EPO are based on its anti-apoptotic, anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, cell proliferative and angiogenic properties. Recent experimental and clinical studies have shown that EPO has also positive metabolic effects on hyperglycemia and diabetes, although these have not yet been fully delineated. Whether the tissue protective and metabolic effects of EPO could have clinical benefits, are important topics for future research in diabetic pregnancies.
  • Bone Mineral Density Childhood; Groop, Leif; Leslie, R. David; Gran, Struan F.A. (2018)
    OBJECTIVELatent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA) shares clinical features with both type 1 and type 2 diabetes; however, there is ongoing debate regarding the precise definition of LADA. Understanding its genetic basis is one potential strategy to gain insight into appropriate classification of this diabetes subtype.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODSWe performed the first genome-wide association study of LADA in case subjects of European ancestry versus population control subjects (n = 2,634 vs. 5,947) and compared against both case subjects with type 1 diabetes (n = 2,454 vs. 968) and type 2 diabetes (n = 2,779 vs. 10,396).RESULTSThe leading genetic signals were principally shared with type 1 diabetes, although we observed positive genetic correlations genome-wide with both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Additionally, we observed a novel independent signal at the known type 1 diabetes locus harboring PFKFB3, encoding a regulator of glycolysis and insulin signaling in type 2 diabetes and inflammation and autophagy in autoimmune disease, as well as an attenuation of key type 1-associated HLA haplotype frequencies in LADA, suggesting that these are factors that distinguish childhood-onset type 1 diabetes from adult autoimmune diabetes.CONCLUSIONSOur results support the need for further investigations of the genetic factors that distinguish forms of autoimmune diabetes as well as more precise classification strategies.
  • Honkanen, Jarno; Vuorela, Arja; Muthas, Daniel; Orivuori, Laura; Luopajärvi, Kristiina; Tejesvi, Mysore Vishakante Gowda; Lavrinienko, Anton; Pirttilä, Anna Maria; Fogarty, Christopher L.; Härkönen, Taina; Ilonen, Jorma; Ruohtula, Terhi; Knip, Mikael; Koskimäki, Janne J.; Vaarala, Outi (2020)
    Although gut bacterial dysbiosis is recognized as a regulator of beta-cell autoimmunity, no data is available on fungal dysbiosis in the children at the risk of type 1 diabetes (T1D). We hypothesized that the co-occurrence of fungal and bacterial dysbiosis contributes to the intestinal inflammation and autoimmune destruction of insulin-producing beta-cells in T1D. Fecal and blood samples were collected from 26 children tested positive for at least one diabetes-associated autoantibody (IAA, GADA, IA-2A or ICA) and matched autoantibody-negative children with HLA-conferred susceptibility to T1D (matched for HLA-DQB1 haplotype, age, gender and early childhood nutrition). Bacterial 16S and fungal ITS2 sequencing, and analyses of the markers of intestinal inflammation, namely fecal human beta-defensin-2 (HBD2), calprotectin and secretory total IgA, were performed. Anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies (ASCA) and circulating cytokines, IFNG, IL-17 and IL-22, were studied. After these analyses, the children were followed for development of clinical T1D (median 8 years and 8 months). Nine autoantibody positive children were diagnosed with T1D, whereas none of the autoantibody negative children developed T1D during the follow-up. Fungal dysbiosis, characterized by high abundance of fecal Saccharomyces and Candida, was found in the progressors, i.e., children with beta-cell autoimmunity who during the follow-up progressed to clinical T1D. These children showed also bacterial dysbiosis, i.e., increased Bacteroidales and Clostridiales ratio, which was, however, found also in the non-progressors, and is thus a common nominator in the children with beta-cell autoimmunity. Furthermore, the progressors showed markers of intestinal inflammation detected as increased levels of fecal HBD2 and ASCA IgG to fungal antigens. We conclude that the fungal and bacterial dysbiosis, and intestinal inflammation are associated with the development of T1D in children with beta-cell autoimmunity.
  • Lee, J-H.; Ostalecki, C.; Zhao, Z.; Kesti, T.; Bruns, H.; Simon, B.; Harrer, T.; Saksela, K.; Baur, A. S. (2018)
    HIV-Nef activates the myeloid cell-typical tyrosine kinase Hck, but its molecular role in the viral life cycle is not entirely understood. We found that HIV plasma extracellular vesicles (HIV pEV) containing/10 proteases and Nef also harbor Hck, and analyzed its role in the context of HIV pEV secretion. Myeloid cells required Hck for the vesicle-associated release of ADAM17. This could be induced by the introduction of Nef and implied that HIV targeted Hck for vesicle-associated ADAM17 secretion from a myeloid compartment. The other contents of HIV-pEV, however, including miRNA and effector protein profiles, as well as the presence of haptoglobin suggested hepatocytes as a possible cellular source. HIV liver tissue analysis supported this assumption, revealing induction of Hck translation, evidence for ADAMprotease activation and HIV infection. Our findings suggest that HIV targets Hck to induce pro-inflammatory vesicles release and identifies hepatocytes as a possible host cell compartment. (c) 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license.
  • Huhtamo, E.; Korhonen, E. M.; Vapalahti, O. (2013)
  • Messiaen, L; Riccardi, G; Peltonen, J; Maertens, O; Callens, T; Karvonen, SL; Leisti, EL; Koivunen, J; Vandenbroucke, M.; Stephens, K; Pöyhönen, M (2003)
  • Koskinen, Maarit K.; Mikk, Mari-Liis; Laine, Antti-Pekka; Lempainen, Johanna; Löyttyniemi, Eliisa; Vähäsalo, Paula; Hekkala, Anne; Härkönen, Taina; Kiviniemi, Minna; Simell, Olli; Knip, Mikael; Veijola, Riitta; Ilonen, Jorma; Toppari, Jorma (2020)
    A declining first-phase insulin response (FPIR) is associated with positivity for multiple islet autoantibodies, irrespective of class II HLA DR-DQ genotype. We examined the associations of FPIR with genetic variants outside the HLA DR-DQ region in the Finnish Type 1 Diabetes Prediction and Prevention (DIPP) study in children with and without multiple autoantibodies. Association between FPIR and class I alleles A*24 and B*39 and eight single nucleotide polymorphisms outside the HLA region were analyzed in 438 children who had one or more FPIR results available after seroconversion. Hierarchical linear mixed models were used to analyze repeated measurements of FPIR. In children with multiple autoantibodies, the change in FPIR over time was significantly different between those with various PTPN2 (rs45450798), FUT2 (rs601338), CTSH (rs3825932), and IKZF4 (rs1701704) genotypes in at least one of the models. In general, children carrying susceptibility alleles for type 1 diabetes experienced a more rapid decline in insulin secretion compared with children without susceptibility alleles. The presence of the class I HLA A*24 allele was also associated with a steeper decline of FPIR over time in children with multiple autoantibodies. Certain genetic variants outside the class II HLA region may have a significant impact on the longitudinal pattern of FPIR.
  • Buzzetti, Raffaella; Tuomi, Tiinamaija; Mauricio, Didac; Pietropaolo, Massimo; Zhou, Zhiguang; Pozzilli, Paolo; Leslie, Richard David (2020)
    A substantial proportion of patients with adult-onset diabetes share features of both type 1 diabetes (T1D) and type 2 diabetes (T2D). These individuals, at diagnosis, clinically resemble T2D patients by not requiring insulin treatment, yet they have immunogenetic markers associated with T1D. Such a slowly evolving form of autoimmune diabetes, described as latent autoimmune diabetes of adults (LADA), accounts for 2-12% of all patients with adult-onset diabetes, though they show considerable variability according to their demographics and mode of ascertainment. While therapeutic strategies aim for metabolic control and preservation of residual insulin secretory capacity, endotype heterogeneity within LADA implies a personalized approach to treatment. Faced with a paucity of large-scale clinical trials in LADA, an expert panel reviewed data and delineated one therapeutic approach. Building on the 2020 American Diabetes Association (ADA)/European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD) consensus for T2D and heterogeneity within autoimmune diabetes, we propose "deviations" for LADA from those guidelines. Within LADA, C-peptide values, proxy for beta-cell function, drive therapeutic decisions. Three broad categories of random C-peptide levels were introduced by the panel:1) C-peptide levels 2) C-peptide values >= 0.3 and 0.7 nmol/L: suggests a modified ADA/EASD algorithm as for T2D but allowing for the potentially progressive nature of LADA by monitoring C-peptide to adjust treatment. The panel concluded by advising general screening for LADA in newly diagnosed non-insulin-requiring diabetes and, importantly, that large randomized clinical trials are warranted.
  • Hakonen, Elina; Chandra, Vikash; Fogarty, Christopher L.; Yu, Nancy Yiu-Lin; Ustinov, Jarkko; Katayama, Shintaro; Galli, Emilia; Danilova, Tatiana; Lindholm, Paivi; Vartiainen, Aki; Einarsdottir, Elisabet; Krjutskov, Kaarel; Kere, Juha; Saarma, Mart; Lindahl, Maria; Otonkoski, Timo (2018)
    There is a great need to identify factors that could protect pancreatic beta cells against apoptosis or stimulate their replication and thus prevent or reverse the development of diabetes. One potential candidate is mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor (MANF), an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress inducible protein. Manf knockout mice used as a model of diabetes develop the condition because of increased apoptosis and reduced proliferation of beta cells, apparently related to ER stress. Given this novel association between MANF and beta cell death, we studied the potential of MANF to protect human beta cells against experimentally induced ER stress. Primary human islets were challenged with proinflammatory cytokines, with or without MANF. Cell viability was analysed and global transcriptomic analysis performed. Results were further validated using the human beta cell line EndoC-beta H1. There was increased expression and secretion of MANF in human beta cells in response to cytokines. Addition of recombinant human MANF reduced cytokine-induced cell death by 38% in human islets (p <0.05). MANF knockdown in EndoC-beta H1 cells led to increased ER stress after cytokine challenge. Mechanistic studies showed that the protective effect of MANF was associated with repression of the NF-kappa B signalling pathway and amelioration of ER stress. MANF also increased the proliferation of primary human beta cells twofold when TGF-beta signalling was inhibited (p <0.01). Our studies show that exogenous MANF protein can provide protection to human beta cells against death induced by inflammatory stress. The antiapoptotic and mitogenic properties of MANF make it a potential therapeutic agent for beta cell protection.
  • Bull, Laura N.; Pawlikowska, Ludmila; Strautnieks, Sandra; Jankowska, Irena; Czubkowski, Piotr; Dodge, Jennifer L.; Emerick, Karan; Wanty, Catherine; Wali, Sami; Blanchard, Samra; Lacaille, Florence; Byrne, Jane A.; van Eerde, Albertien M.; Kolho, Kaija-Leena; Houwen, Roderick; Lobritto, Steven; Hupertz, Vera; McClean, Patricia; Mieli-Vergani, Giorgina; Sokal, Etienne; Rosenthal, Philip; Whitington, Peter F.; Pawlowska, Joanna; Thompson, Richard J. (2018)
    Progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis (PFIC) with normal circulating gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase levels can result from mutations in the ATP8B1 gene (encoding familial intrahepatic cholestasis 1 [FIC1] deficiency) or the ABCB11 gene (bile salt export protein [BSEP] deficiency). We investigated the outcomes of partial external biliary diversion, ileal exclusion, and liver transplantation in these two conditions. We conducted a retrospective multicenter study of 42 patients with FIC1 deficiency (FIC1 patients) and 60 patients with BSEP deficiency (BSEP patients) who had undergone one or more surgical procedures (57 diversions, 6 exclusions, and 57 transplants). For surgeries performed prior to transplantation, BSEP patients were divided into two groups, BSEP-common (bearing common missense mutations D482G or E297G, with likely residual function) and BSEP-other. We evaluated clinical and biochemical outcomes in these patients. Overall, diversion improved biochemical parameters, pruritus, and growth, with substantial variation in individual response. BSEP-common or FIC1 patients survived longer after diversion without developing cirrhosis, being listed for or undergoing liver transplantation, or dying, compared to BSEP-other patients. Transplantation resolved cholestasis in all groups. However, FIC1 patients commonly developed hepatic steatosis, diarrhea, and/or pancreatic disease after transplant accompanied by biochemical abnormalities and often had continued poor growth. In BSEP patients with impaired growth, this generally improved after transplantation. Conclusion: Diversion can improve clinical and biochemical status in FIC1 and BSEP deficiencies, but outcomes differ depending on genetic etiology. For many patients, particularly BSEP-other, diversion is not a permanent solution and transplantation is required. Although transplantation resolves cholestasis in patients with FIC1 and BSEP deficiencies, the overall outcome remains unsatisfactory in many FIC1 patients; this is mainly due to extrahepatic manifestations.
  • Hjort, Rebecka; Ahlqvist, Emma; Carlsson, Per-Ola; Grill, Valdemar; Groop, Leif; Martinell, Mats; Rasouli, Bahareh; Rosengren, Anders; Tuomi, Tiinamaija; Asvold, Bjorn Olav; Carlsson, Sofia (2018)
    Aims/hypothesis Excessive weight is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes, but its role in the promotion of autoimmune diabetes is not clear. We investigated the risk of latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA) in relation to overweight/obesity in two large population-based studies. Methods Analyses were based on incident cases of LADA (n = 425) and type 2 diabetes (n = 1420), and 1704 randomly selected control participants from a Swedish case-control study and prospective data from the Norwegian HUNT Study including 147 people with LADA and 1,012,957 person-years of follow-up (1984-2008). We present adjusted ORs and HRs with 95% CI. Results In the Swedish data, obesity was associated with an increased risk of LADA (OR 2.93, 95% CI 2.17, 3.97), which was even stronger for type 2 diabetes (OR 18.88, 95% CI 14.29, 24.94). The association was stronger in LADA with low GAD antibody (GADA; Conclusions/interpretation Overweight/obesity is associated with increased risk of LADA, particularly when in combination with FHD. These findings support the hypothesis that, even in the presence of autoimmunity, factors linked to insulin resistance, such as excessive weight, could promote onset of diabetes.
  • Knip, Mikael; Selvenius, Jenni; Siljander, Heli; Veijola, Riitta (2017)
    Type 1 diabetes is an immune-mediated disease leading to almost total beta cell destruction and permanent exogenous insulin dependency. The appearance of clinical symptoms is preceded by an asymptomatic preclinical period, the duration of which is highly individual. The emergence of diabetes-associated autoantibodies into the peripheral circulation is the first detectable sign of beta cell autoimmunity. If type 1 diabetes is diagnosed in childhood the preclinical period lasts for an average of 2.5-3 years, but clinical symptoms may in some cases appear within a few months or be delayed for more than 20 years. In this issue of Diabetologia, Bonifacio and colleagues (doi:) suggest that asymptomatic beta cell autoimmunity should be considered as a pathological and diagnostic entity. Although such a strategy may have some positive consequences, it might also have serious drawbacks. To label an asymptomatic child that may have 10-20 years of a healthy life ahead of him/her as a patient will most likely affect both the life of the family and the child. Therefore, we think that one should not adapt the new diagnosis before the psychological consequences of such a strategy have been assessed. Instead, since metabolic abnormalities precede the appearance of clinical symptoms of type 1 diabetes, analysis of a combination of immunological and metabolic markers will provide better insight into the likelihood of progression to clinical disease, with a shorter 'sickness' period.
  • Freyermuth, Fernande; Rau, Frederique; Kokunai, Yosuke; Linke, Thomas; Sellier, Chantal; Nakamori, Masayuki; Kino, Yoshihiro; Arandel, Ludovic; Jollet, Arnaud; Thibault, Christelle; Philipps, Muriel; Vicaire, Serge; Jost, Bernard; Udd, Bjarne; Day, John W.; Duboc, Denis; Wahbi, Karim; Matsumura, Tsuyoshi; Fujimura, Harutoshi; Mochizuki, Hideki; Deryckere, Francois; Kimura, Takashi; Nukina, Nobuyuki; Ishiura, Shoichi; Lacroix, Vincent; Campan-Fournier, Amandine; Navratil, Vincent; Chautard, Emilie; Auboeuf, Didier; Horie, Minoru; Imoto, Keiji; Lee, Kuang-Yung; Swanson, Maurice S.; Lopez de Munain, Adolfo; Inada, Shin; Itoh, Hideki; Nakazawa, Kazuo; Ashihara, Takashi; Wang, Eric; Zimmer, Thomas; Furling, Denis; Takahashi, Masanori P.; Charlet-Berguerand, Nicolas (2016)
    Myotonic dystrophy (DM) is caused by the expression of mutant RNAs containing expanded CUG repeats that sequester muscleblind-like (MBNL) proteins, leading to alternative splicing changes. Cardiac alterations, characterized by conduction delays and arrhythmia, are the second most common cause of death in DM. Using RNA sequencing, here we identify novel splicing alterations in DM heart samples, including a switch from adult exon 6B towards fetal exon 6A in the cardiac sodium channel, SCN5A. We find that MBNL1 regulates alternative splicing of SCN5A mRNA and that the splicing variant of SCN5A produced in DM presents a reduced excitability compared with the control adult isoform. Importantly, reproducing splicing alteration of Scn5a in mice is sufficient to promote heart arrhythmia and cardiac-conduction delay, two predominant features of myotonic dystrophy. In conclusion, misregulation of the alternative splicing of SCN5A may contribute to a subset of the cardiac dysfunctions observed in myotonic dystrophy.
  • Raevuori, Anu; Haukka, Jari; Vaarala, Outi; Suvisaari, Jaana M.; Gissler, Mika; Grainger, Marjut; Linna, Milla S.; Suokas, Jaana T. (2014)