Browsing by Subject "Taenia saginata"

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  • Yli-Hynnilä, Anna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Taenia saginata on ihmisen suolistoloinen, jonka väli-isäntänä toimii nauta tai muu märehtijä. Väli-isännän lihaksiin asettuvaa larvaa kustutaan nimellä Cysticercus bovis, ja lihaksissaan kystikerkuksia kantava nauta sairastaa kystikerkoosia. T. saginataa esiintyy maailmanlaajuisesti. Ihminen voi saada tartunnan syömällä huonosti kypsennettyä tai raakaa elinvoimaisia kystikerkuksia sisältävää lihaa. Ihmisellä ohutsuolessa asustava T. saginata aiheuttaa harvoin oireita, ja ihmisellä tartunta on harvinainen. Mato voi kuitenkin aiheuttaa epämääräisiä vatsavaivoja ja psyykkistä kuormitusta. Lisäksi T. saginatan ihmiskantajat ovat naudalle tartunnan lähde. Tartunnan saanut nauta on usein ihmisen tavoin oireeton, eikä sitä pidetä suurena uhkana elintarviketurvallisuudelle, mutta se aiheuttaa taloudellisia menetyksiä liha-alalla vakuutusten, ruhojen arvon vähenemisen, hylkäysten, kylmäkäsitttelyn sekä ylimääräisen käsittelyn vuoksi. Kystikerkoosia torjutaan lain määrittelemällä lihantarkastuksella. Joulukuussa voimaan astuneessa Komission täytäntöönpanoasetuksessa 2019/627 määritellään, ettei poskiviiltojen tekeminen post mortem -tarkastuksessa ole pakollista, jos C. boviksen esiintyvyys on pienempi kuin yksi miljoonasta, esiintyvyys osoitettu 95 % varmuudella tai viimeisen 1–2 vuoden aikana teurastetuissa eläimissä ei ole havaittu yhtään tapausta. Jo nykyistä edeltänyt asetus (EY) 854/2004 sallii lihantarkastuksessa tehtävien viiltojen vähentämisen, mikäli serologisia testejä on käytetty tai tila on todettu vapaaksi kystikerkoosista. Tämä kirjallisuuskatsaus selvittää T. saginatan esiintyvyyttä sekä kartoittaa ja vertailee T. saginatan erilaisia havainnointimenetelmiä. Katsaus arvioi myös lihantarkastuksen toimivuutta kystikerksten löytämiseksi sekä esittelee kystikerkoosin riskitekijöitä. Kirjallisuuskatsaus tarjoaa tietoa, joka on hyödynnettävissä esimerkiksi lihantarkastuksen menetelmiä uudistettaessa ja riskiperusteista lihantarkastusta suunniteltaessa. Kystikerkoosin esiintyvyys on muun muassa serologisin menetelmin saatujen tulosten valossa merkittävästi suurempi kuin lihantarkastukseen nojaavat teurastamojen valvontaraportit osoittavat. Lainsäädäntöön perustuva lihantarkastus ei havaitse isoa osaa tartunnoista, joten tarkemmat menetelmät olisivat tarpeen. Esiintyvyys vaihtelee paljon eri maiden ja alueiden välillä riippuen eläintenpitokäytännöistä ja olosuhteista. ELISA-menetelmistä (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) Ag-ELISA-testi voisi olla Suomen oloissa toimiva testi, jos kystikerkoosin seurantaa tarvitaan. Koska kaupallisia testejä ei kuitenkaan vielä ole saatavilla ja kynnys niiden käyttöönottoon on todennäköisesti suuri, sydämen lisäviiltojen tekeminen voisi olla muutos, joka parantaisi lihantarkastuksen herkkyyttä. Teurastamojen voisi olla helpompi myös nykyisellään helpompi sopeutua niiden tekemiseen. Toisaalta suunta on päinvastainen uuden, lihantarkastusta keventävän asetuksen (EKN 2019/627) kanssa.
  • Trevisan, Chiara; Sotiraki, Smaragda; Laranjo-Gonzalez, Minerva; Dermauw, Veronique; Wang, Ziqi; Kaerssin, Age; Cvetkovikj, Aleksandar; Winkler, Andrea S.; Abraham, Annette; Bobic, Branko; Lassen, Brian; Cretu, Carmen Michaela; Vasile, Cozma; Arvanitis, Dimitris; Deksne, Gunita; Boro, Ilievski; Kucsera, Istvan; Karamon, Jacek; Stefanovska, Jovana; Koudela, Bretislav; Pavlova, Maja Jurhar; Varady, Marian; Pavlak, Marina; Sarkunas, Mindaugas; Kaminski, Miriam; Djurkovic-Djakovic, Olgica; Jokelainen, Pikka; Jan, Dagny Stojcevic; Schmidt, Veronika; Dakic, Zorica; Gabriel, Sarah; Dorny, Pierre; Devleesschauwer, Brecht (2018)
    Background: Taenia solium and Taenia saginata are food-borne parasites of global importance. In eastern Europe only fragmented information is available on the epidemiology of these zoonotic parasites in humans and animal populations. In particular for T. solium, on-going transmission is suspected. The aim of this systematic review was to collect the available data and describe the current knowledge on the epidemiology of T. solium and T. saginata in eastern Europe. Methods: Literature published in international databases from 1990 to 2017 was systematically reviewed. Furthermore, local sources and unpublished data from national databases were retrieved from local eastern European experts. The study area included 22 countries. Results: Researchers from 18 out of the 22 countries provided data from local and unpublished sources, while no contacts could be established with researchers from Belarus, Kosovo, Malta and Ukraine. Taeniosis and human cysticercosis cases were reported in 14 and 15 out of the 22 countries, respectively. Estonia, the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Lithuania, Moldova, Poland, Romania, Serbia, and Slovakia reported cases of porcine cysticercosis. Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Moldova, Poland, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, and Ukraine reported bovine cysticercosis. Conclusions: There is indication that taeniosis and cysticercosis are present across eastern Europe but information on the occurrence of T. solium and T. saginata across the region remains incomplete. Available data are scarce and species identification is in most cases absent. Given the public health impact of T. solium and the potential economic and trade implications due to T. saginata, notification of taeniosis and human cysticercosis should be implemented and surveillance and notification systems in animals should be improved.
  • Laranjo-Gonzalez, Minerva; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Trevisan, Chiara; Allepuz, Alberto; Sotiraki, Smaragda; Abraham, Annette; Afonso, Mariana Boaventura; Blocher, Joachim; Cardoso, Luis; Correia da Costa, Jose Manuel; Dorny, Pierre; Gabriel, Sarah; Gomes, Jacinto; Gomez-Morales, Maria Angeles; Jokelainen, Pikka; Kaminski, Miriam; Krt, Brane; Magnussen, Pascal; Robertson, Lucy J.; Schmidt, Veronika; Schmutzhard, Erich; Smit, G. Suzanne A.; Soba, Barbara; Stensvold, Christen Rune; Staric, Joze; Troell, Karin; Rataj, Aleksandra Vergles; Vieira-Pinto, Madalena; Vilhena, Manuela; Wardrop, Nicola Ann; Winkler, Andrea S.; Dermauw, Veronique (2017)
    Background: Taenia solium and Taenia saginata are zoonotic parasites of public health importance. Data on their occurrence in humans and animals in western Europe are incomplete and fragmented. In this study, we aimed to update the current knowledge on the epidemiology of these parasites in this region. Methods: We conducted a systematic review of scientific and grey literature published from 1990 to 2015 on the epidemiology of T. saginata and T. solium in humans and animals. Additionally, data about disease occurrence were actively sought by contacting local experts in the different countries. Results: Taeniosis cases were found in twelve out of eighteen countries in western Europe. No cases were identified in Iceland, Ireland, Luxembourg, Norway, Sweden and Switzerland. For Denmark, Netherlands, Portugal, Slovenia, Spain and the UK, annual taeniosis cases were reported and the number of detected cases per year ranged between 1 and 114. Detected prevalences ranged from 0.05 to 0.27%, whereas estimated prevalences ranged from 0.02 to 0.67%. Most taeniosis cases were reported as Taenia spp. or T. saginata, although T. solium was reported in Denmark, France, Italy, Spain, Slovenia, Portugal and the UK. Human cysticercosis cases were reported in all western European countries except for Iceland, with the highest number originating from Portugal and Spain. Most human cysticercosis cases were suspected to have acquired the infection outside western Europe. Cases of T. solium in pigs were found in Austria and Portugal, but only the two cases from Portugal were confirmed with molecular methods. Germany, Spain and Slovenia reported porcine cysticercosis, but made no Taenia species distinction. Bovine cysticercosis was detected in all countries except for Iceland, with a prevalence based on meat inspection of 0.0002-7.82%. Conclusions: Detection and reporting of taeniosis in western Europe should be improved. The existence of T. solium tapeworm carriers, of suspected autochthonous cases of human cysticercosis and the lack of confirmation of porcine cysticercosis cases deserve further attention. Suspected cases of T. solium in pigs should be confirmed by molecular methods. Both taeniosis and human cysticercosis should be notifiable and surveillance in animals should be improved.
  • Trevisan, Chiara; Sotiraki, Smaragda; Laranjo-González, Minerva; Dermauw, Veronique; Wang, Ziqi; Kärssin, Age; Cvetkovikj, Aleksandar; Winkler, Andrea S; Abraham, Annette; Bobić, Branko; Lassen, Brian; Cretu, Carmen M; Vasile, Cozma; Arvanitis, Dimitris; Deksne, Gunita; Boro, Ilievski; Kucsera, István; Karamon, Jacek; Stefanovska, Jovana; Koudela, Břetislav; Pavlova, Maja J; Varady, Marian; Pavlak, Marina; Šarkūnas, Mindaugas; Kaminski, Miriam; Djurković-Djaković, Olgica; Jokelainen, Pikka; Jan, Dagny S; Schmidt, Veronika; Dakić, Zorica; Gabriël, Sarah; Dorny, Pierre; Devleesschauwer, Brecht (BioMed Central, 2018)
    Abstract Background Taenia solium and Taenia saginata are food-borne parasites of global importance. In eastern Europe only fragmented information is available on the epidemiology of these zoonotic parasites in humans and animal populations. In particular for T. solium, on-going transmission is suspected. The aim of this systematic review was to collect the available data and describe the current knowledge on the epidemiology of T. solium and T. saginata in eastern Europe. Methods Literature published in international databases from 1990 to 2017 was systematically reviewed. Furthermore, local sources and unpublished data from national databases were retrieved from local eastern European experts. The study area included 22 countries. Results Researchers from 18 out of the 22 countries provided data from local and unpublished sources, while no contacts could be established with researchers from Belarus, Kosovo, Malta and Ukraine. Taeniosis and human cysticercosis cases were reported in 14 and 15 out of the 22 countries, respectively. Estonia, the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Lithuania, Moldova, Poland, Romania, Serbia, and Slovakia reported cases of porcine cysticercosis. Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Moldova, Poland, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, and Ukraine reported bovine cysticercosis. Conclusions There is indication that taeniosis and cysticercosis are present across eastern Europe but information on the occurrence of T. solium and T. saginata across the region remains incomplete. Available data are scarce and species identification is in most cases absent. Given the public health impact of T. solium and the potential economic and trade implications due to T. saginata, notification of taeniosis and human cysticercosis should be implemented and surveillance and notification systems in animals should be improved.
  • Laranjo-González, Minerva; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Trevisan, Chiara; Allepuz, Alberto; Sotiraki, Smaragda; Abraham, Annette; Afonso, Mariana B; Blocher, Joachim; Cardoso, Luís; Correia da Costa, José M; Dorny, Pierre; Gabriël, Sarah; Gomes, Jacinto; Gómez-Morales, María Á; Jokelainen, Pikka; Kaminski, Miriam; Krt, Brane; Magnussen, Pascal; Robertson, Lucy J; Schmidt, Veronika; Schmutzhard, Erich; Smit, G. S A; Šoba, Barbara; Stensvold, Christen R; Starič, Jože; Troell, Karin; Rataj, Aleksandra V; Vieira-Pinto, Madalena; Vilhena, Manuela; Wardrop, Nicola A; Winkler, Andrea S; Dermauw, Veronique (BioMed Central, 2017)
    Abstract Background Taenia solium and Taenia saginata are zoonotic parasites of public health importance. Data on their occurrence in humans and animals in western Europe are incomplete and fragmented. In this study, we aimed to update the current knowledge on the epidemiology of these parasites in this region. Methods We conducted a systematic review of scientific and grey literature published from 1990 to 2015 on the epidemiology of T. saginata and T. solium in humans and animals. Additionally, data about disease occurrence were actively sought by contacting local experts in the different countries. Results Taeniosis cases were found in twelve out of eighteen countries in western Europe. No cases were identified in Iceland, Ireland, Luxembourg, Norway, Sweden and Switzerland. For Denmark, Netherlands, Portugal, Slovenia, Spain and the UK, annual taeniosis cases were reported and the number of detected cases per year ranged between 1 and 114. Detected prevalences ranged from 0.05 to 0.27%, whereas estimated prevalences ranged from 0.02 to 0.67%. Most taeniosis cases were reported as Taenia spp. or T. saginata, although T. solium was reported in Denmark, France, Italy, Spain, Slovenia, Portugal and the UK. Human cysticercosis cases were reported in all western European countries except for Iceland, with the highest number originating from Portugal and Spain. Most human cysticercosis cases were suspected to have acquired the infection outside western Europe. Cases of T. solium in pigs were found in Austria and Portugal, but only the two cases from Portugal were confirmed with molecular methods. Germany, Spain and Slovenia reported porcine cysticercosis, but made no Taenia species distinction. Bovine cysticercosis was detected in all countries except for Iceland, with a prevalence based on meat inspection of 0.0002–7.82%. Conclusions Detection and reporting of taeniosis in western Europe should be improved. The existence of T. solium tapeworm carriers, of suspected autochthonous cases of human cysticercosis and the lack of confirmation of porcine cysticercosis cases deserve further attention. Suspected cases of T. solium in pigs should be confirmed by molecular methods. Both taeniosis and human cysticercosis should be notifiable and surveillance in animals should be improved.