Browsing by Subject "Tanzania"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-20 of 24
  • Vähäkangas, Auli Maria (2016)
    Tanzania’s first president Julius Nyerere’s Ujamaa (living together or living as one family) still extends its influence on Tanzanians’ understanding of communality. The era of Ujamaa socialism as a political system is now history, but some of its heritage still seems to influence how people in Tanzania regard family as well as community and how they act within their community. In this article I differentiate between Nyerere’s political Ujamaa and the traditional Tanzanian communality which was the model for Nyerere’s political program. I thus argue, that the Selian palliative care program could be seen as a present-day example of how Ujamaa — both in political and traditional forms — still influences communal life in Tanzania. The results of this study reveal that the Selian Hospice and Palliative Care Program uses dimensions of both traditional and political Ujamaa in order to protect the dignity of the dying patients. This is done subconsciously and eclectically. The term Ujamaa was not explicitly used in the data of this study. The Program seems to stress communality and social responsibility in general while clearly utilizing the values of both traditional and political Ujamaa all through its practices.
  • Lamberg, Essi (2021)
    Architecture and planning projects dominated Finnish-Tanzanian development cooperation in the 1970s. While few previous connections between Finland and sub-Saharan Africa existed, the adoption of international aid operations in Finnish foreign policy provided a pathway for architects and planners to partake in the nation-building endeavours of socialist Tanzania. Through archival analysis, this paper provides a comprehensive perspective into how a Finnish development cooperation agency and development employees (architects included) worked for the benefit of the implementation of Tanzanian socialist policy and aimed to advance regional development as well as to serve the purposes of ujamaa and the authoritarian one-party governance system. The Uhuru Corridor Regional Physical Plan (1975–1978) that followed became the first attempt at large-scale regional planning in Tanzania and attempted to establish regional planning as a solid part of state management. The paper suggests that within the framework of national planning, the difference between a development cooperation project and a planning project is obscure, and it demonstrates that basing research on the conceptual likenesses between planning and development can provide fruitful approaches to planning history.
  • Mesiäislehto, Virpi; Katsui, Hisayo; Sambaiga, Richard (2021)
    Despite at times having greater needs for sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services, adolescents with disabilities often face challenges when trying to access them. This inaccessibility is further exacerbated during female adolescence. The qualitative study examines how SRH services respond to the characteristics of Tanzanian adolescent females with disabilities. We used the method of empathy-based stories to investigate the perceptions of 136 adolescent females with disabilities of their access to SRH services in Tanzania. The study used thematic content analysis and the Levesque model of health care access was applied as an analytical framework. The results demonstrate that discrimination affects access at different phases of care-seeking, that affectionate behaviour of providers is a central enabler of access, and that for this population access relies on a collective effort. We propose that affection, as an enabler of access, is as an additional provider dimension of access to SRH services for adolescents with disabilities, serving as a "reasonable accommodation" to the health care systems in southern contexts and beyond.
  • Zilihona, I.J.E.; Niemelä, J.; Nummelin, M. (Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2004)
    The effects of river flow diversion on biodiversity were assessed using Coleoptera as an indicator group in three habitats of the Kihansi Gorge (Udzungwa Mountains, Tanzania), before and after commissioning of a hydropower plant. Data collected using sweep netting and pitfall traps showed that the effect of diversion of the river flow was site-specific, affecting particularly the spray habitat. Rarefaction analysis of both sweep netting and pitfall samples indicated that the expected richness of Coleoptera declined significantly in all habitats after commissioning of the power plant. Sweep netting and pitfall samples showed that the highest Shannon-Wiener diversity index value before the diversion of the river flow was in the spray zone, but the index value decreased after diversion. Changes in the other two habitats were less prominent. Analysis of variance using diversity index values from five pitfall samples in each habitat type before and after commissioning indicated that there were no statistically significant differences in the diversity index between the two sampling periods or among the three habitat types. Renkonen's similarity index between habitats showed that pitfall samples had higher similarity (87%) than did samples from sweep netting (69%). It is suggested that for mitigation purposes, artificial spray systems, which have been installed in other wetlands of the Kihansi Gorge, also be installed to cover the whole Lower Wetland in which this study was undertaken. In order to maintain overall biodiversity in the Kihansi Gorge, it is suggested that the ecosystem conservation approach be prioritised.
  • Björk, Maija (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    Tutkielman tavoitteena on selvittää, mitä erilaisia funktioita koodinvaihdolla on tansanialaisissa blogeissa. Aineisto koostuu 55 blogikirjoituksesta, jotka on kerätty viidestä eri blogista aikaväliltä 2014–2016. Tutkielmassa tutkitaan koodinvaihtoa swahilin ja englannin välillä. Tutkimuksessa tarkastellaan koodinvaihdon funktioita tansanialaisissa blogeissa ja verrataan niitä Gumperzin esittämiin funktioihin, joita esiintyy konversationaalisessa koodinvaihdossa. Hypoteesina on, että koodinvaihdon funktiot blogeissa ja puheessa ovat hyvin saman tyyppisiä, sillä kielenkäyttö blogikirjoituksissa on spontaania ja puheenomaista. Tutkielman teoriaosuudessa käsitellään koodinvaihdon terminologiaa ja tutustutaan erilaisiin lähestymistapoihin koodinvaihdon tutkimuksessa. Teoriaosuudessa perehdytään myös Gumperzin koodinvaihdon funktioihin, joita sovelletaan aineistoa analysoidessa. Lisäksi tutustutaan kielenkäyttöön internetissä ja erityisesti blogeissa. Tutkimuksessa havaitaan, että viisi kuudesta Gumperzin konversationaalisen koodinvaihdon funktiosta esiintyy myös aineistona käytetyissä blogikirjoituksissa. Näiden lisäksi aineistosta löydetään myös neljä uutta funktiota. Lisäksi analyysissa käsitellään yleisiä havaintoja koodinvaihdosta blogeissa sekä esitellään funktioiden lisäksi muita syitä koodinvaihdon esiintymiselle tansanialaisissa blogeissa. Tutkimuksen tulokset osoittavat, että koodinvaihto puheessa ja blogeissa on monin tavoin samanlaista, mutta myös eroja näiden kahden genren väliltä löytyy. Ainoastaan yhtä Gumperzin esittämistä funktioista ei esiinny blogikirjoituksissa blogien ja puheen eriävien ominaisuuksien vuoksi. Aineistosta löydettävät uudet funktiot ovat: tärkeiden seikkojen korostaminen (emphasis), lyhempien sanojen ja rakenteiden suosiminen (speech economy), tiettyyn ryhmään kuulumisen ilmaiseminen (expressing fellowship) ja tunteiden ilmaiseminen (expressing emotions).
  • Nilsson, Eva (2008)
    Denna pro gradu -avhandlings främsta målsättning är att analysera och förklara förhållandet mellan två centrala utvecklingsparadigm - det neoliberala och mänskliga paradigmet. Analysen baserar sig på en fallstudie av FN:s Millenniemål i Tanzania. Millenniemålen är ett konkret resultat av det mänskliga utvecklingsparadigmet och utgör därför ett intressant forskningsobjekt för denna studie. Utgångspunkten är att det neoliberala utvecklingsparadigmet har dominerat biståndssamarbetet sedan början av 1980-talet, men att det mänskliga paradigmet som varit dess alternativ, nu verkar ha tagit en starkare roll åtminstone i den offentliga debatten. Vilken roll dessa mål sedan fått i praktiskt biståndssamarbete på lokal nivå och huruvida det mänskliga utvecklingsparadigmet förstärkts genom att dessa mål har lanserats, är centrala frågor för denna studie. I denna avhandling utgår jag ifrån att de olika paradigmen och deras uppkomst baserar sig på historiska trender inom utvecklingsteorier. De neoliberala och mänskliga utvecklingsparadigmen är normativa paradigm som stöds av Världsbanken respektive FN. De är direkt kopplade till biståndssamarbetet, som är en normativ, politisk process. Analysen av dessa paradigms roller görs ur en neo-Gramsciansk referensram. Den neo-Gramscianska teorin om hegemoni ger analytiska redskap att förklara de maktrelationer som definierar paradigmens roller. Det neoliberala paradigmet representerar intellektuell hegemoni medan det mänskliga paradigmet utgör en mot-hegemonisk kraft till den. Avhandlingens främsta slutsats är att det mänskliga utvecklingsparadigmets roll är fortfarande svag jämfört med det neoliberala paradigmet. Jag hävdar att det neoliberala paradigmet har lyckats absorbera de centrala dragen av det mänskliga paradigmet för sin egen nytta. Detta innebär att FN och Millenniemålen inte idag representerar ett alternativ till neoliberal utveckling, utan legitimerar den i stället. Millenniemålens roll har förblivit främst retorisk, medan neoliberala reformer har fortskridit i Tanzania. När den offentliga diskussionen fokuserar sig på Millenniemålen, finns det en risk att biståndssamarbetes verkliga substans blir i skymundan. Samtidigt framstår FN:s roll i att skapa världsomfattande utvecklingsnormer som relativt svag. Avhandlingen är gjord med kvalitativa metoder. En central del av forskningsmaterialet består av intervjuer som gjorts i Tanzania under sommaren 2007. Förutom dessa intervjuer, har Tanzanias två fattigdomsstrategier (poverty reduction strategies) analyserats.
  • Grunnet, Louise Groth; Hjort, Line; Minja, Daniel Thomas; Msemo, Omari Abdul; Moller, Sofie Lykke; Prasad, Rashmi B.; Groop, Leif; Lusingu, John; Nielsen, Birgitte Bruun; Schmiegelow, Christentze; Bygbjerg, Ib Christian; Christensen, Dirk Lund (2020)
    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with poor pregnancy outcomes and increased long-term risk of metabolic diseases for both mother and child. In Tanzania, GDM prevalence increased from 0% in 1991 to 19.5% in 2016. Anaemia has been proposed to precipitate the pathogenesis of GDM. We aimed to examine the prevalence of GDM in a rural area of Tanzania with a high prevalence of anaemia and to examine a potential association between haemoglobin concentration and blood glucose during pregnancy. The participants were included in a population-based preconception, pregnancy and birth cohort study. In total, 538 women were followed during pregnancy and scheduled for an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) at week 32-34 of gestation. Gestational diabetes mellitus was diagnosed according to the WHO 2013 guidelines. Out of 392 women screened, 39% (95% CI: 34.2-44.1) had GDM, the majority of whom (94.1%) were diagnosed based solely on the fasting blood sample from the OGTT. No associations were observed between haemoglobin or ferritin and glucose measurements during pregnancy. A very high prevalence of GDM was found in rural Tanzania. In view of the laborious, costly and inconvenient OGTT, alternative methods such as fasting blood glucose should be considered when screening for GDM in low- and middle-income countries.
  • Ochieng, Robert M.; Arts, Bas; Brockhaus, Maria; Visseren-Hamakers, Ingrid J. (2018)
    Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries (REDD+) has opened up a new global discussion on forest monitoring and carbon accounting in developing countries. We analyze and compare the extent to which the concept of measurement, reporting, and verification (MRV) for REDD+ has become institutionalized in terms of new policy discourses, actors, resources, and rules in Indonesia, Peru, and Tanzania. To do so, we draw on discursive institutionalism and the policy arrangement approach. A qualitative scale that distinguishes between "shallow" institutionalization on the one end, and "deep" institutionalization on the other, is developed to structure the analysis and comparison. Results show that in all countries MRV has become institutionalized in new or revised aims, scope, and strategies for forest monitoring, and development of new agencies and mobilization of new actors and resources. New legislations to anchor forest monitoring in law and procedures to institutionalize the roles of the various agencies are being developed. Nevertheless, the extent to which MRV has been institutionalized varies across countries, with Indonesia experiencing "deep" institutionalization, Peru "shallow-intermediate" institutionalization, and Tanzania "intermediate-deep" institutionalization. We explore possible reasons for and consequences of differences in extent of institutionalization of MRV across countries.
  • Koljonen, Kauko (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1983)
  • Gwagilo, Paul (Helsingfors universitet, 2014)
    Non-wood forest products (NWFPs) are one of the major sources of food and income for rural populations in Tanzania. A survey was conducted to assess the economic importance of non-wood forest products in the study area. The study was carried out in two villages; Shebomeza and Mkwakwani in Muheza and Korogwe districts, from 12th to 25th July, 2013. A structured questionnaire was used to gather data from the respondents. A total of sixty-four respondents were chosen based on their involvement in NWFP practices. The most important NWFPs are fodder, honey, beeswax, cloves, cinnamon, nuts, fruits, medicinal plants and aromatic herbs. There was statistical significance in household income difference of respondents from the two villages and in respondents with different farm sizes. No statistically significant differences were found due to income differences of respondents with different age classes and respondents with respect to different number of livestock. This study also analyzed the most important NWFPs in the study area, the frequency of collection, purpose for collection and income generating potential. Factors affecting peoples’ perception of the economic importance of NWFPs have been discussed as well as their impact on consumption and income generation. Opportunities and constraints within the supply chain have been identified and suggestions have been put forward on how local community can easily utilize the supply chain for their benefit.
  • Ikonen, Anne-Mari (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    This study assesses the key factors affecting the resilience of young single mothers in Arusha region, Tanzania. The average age of childbearing in Tanzania remains low. Many socioeconomic difficulties such as poverty, lack of education and sexual- and reproductive services have an impact why many Tanzanian girls give birth during adolescence. Young single mothers often face many challenges in coping with pregnancy and motherhood due to the discrimination they face. This research is based on 22 semi-structured interviews that were conducted with young single mothers, who had given birth between 15 and 20 years old in Arusha region, Tanzania. The data was collected during one month visit to Meru at the end of 2017. The interviews were conducted in two locations. Half of the interviews were conducted in the villages of south-east of Meru and half in two women´s shelters in Arusha town. The interviews were supported by participant observation and informal conversations. The data was transcribed and analysed through qualitative content analysis. This study focuses on assessing the main factors that affect the resilience of young mothers during pregnancy and motherhood. Resilience is assessed through reproductive resilience framework. The meaning of resources (capitals) in the lives of single mothers was also assessed. Moreover, the social discourses regarding gender, sexuality and motherhood were examined in order to gain understanding of how they impact the experience of young single mothers. The findings show that social support operates as a protective factor in building resilience for the young single mothers. However, the findings show that young single mothers struggle to receive support during pregnancy. This is mainly because the negative social discourses regarding girl’s sexuality and pregnancy outside wedlock in Tanzania. The results show that young mothers face strong discrimination during pregnancy, both from their families, friends and community, which operated as a constraining factor for resilience. The discrimination had profound impact on of the resilience of the young mothers during pregnancy, as it often disrupted family relations and sometimes led to separation of the girl from her family. The shame of unmarried pregnancy diminished the support networks the young mothers had. Furthermore, the findings show that young mothers are able to receive more support during motherhood from their families and communities. Young mothers would no longer receive discrimination or verbal abuse in their communities. The findings show that the role of motherhood in the community is highly respect and therefore the young mothers were accepted in the community as any mothers. Motherhood itself operated as both protective and constraining factor for resilience. Becoming mother decreased the shame of unmarried pregnancy and raised the young mothers in highly valued positions of mothers in their societies. Some young mothers had managed to renegotiate their place in the family after the pregnancy experience and were again accepted in their families. Regardless of the financial challenges that young motherhood brought to the informants the mothers who had managed to keep their social support relations were showing positive adjustment to motherhood. Most young mothers embraced their roles as mothers, because it brought them value and made them acceptable members in their communities after the negative pregnancy experiences.
  • Kukkamaa, Tiina (2007)
    Tutkimus tarkastelee paikallisten kansalaisjärjestöjen roolia nykypäivän Tansanian demokratisoitumisessa. Tansania on vahvasti riippuvainen ulkomaisesta kehitysyhteistyöstä ja tässä tutkimuksessa onkin keskeistä linkittää demokratisoitumisprosessi avunantajien tavoitteisiin, joita kuvataan niin sanotun donor narratiivin käsitteen avulla. Tämä narratiivi kuvaa kansalaisyhteiskunnan merkitystä kehitysmaiden demokratisoitumisessa. Tämä keskustelu linkittyy keskeisesti 2000-luvun kehitystrendeihin ja avunantajien vaikutukseen Tansanian kansalaisyhteiskunnan muotoutumisessa. Tutkimuksen tarkoitus on tarkastella kriittisesti kehitystrendien ja avunantajien toimien vaikutusta valtion ja kansalaisjärjestöjen suhteisiin sekä kansalaisjärjestöjen toimintaan Tansaniassa. Keskeisenä osana tutkimusta on länsimaisen kansalaisyhteiskunta-käsitteen tarkastelu Afrikan kontekstissa. Tutkimuksen aineisto on kerätty etnografisin menetelmin osallistuvaa havainnointia käyttäen. Tätä pääaineistoa täydentää haastatteluaineisto sekä erilaiset avunantajien ja kansalaisjärjestöjen tuottamat materiaalit sekä sanomalehtiaineisto. Aineiston tarkastelu jakautuu kolmeen päälukuun. Ensimmäinen tarkastelee Tansanian kansalaisyhteiskunnan muotoutumista historiallisesta perspektiivistä. Toinen kuvailee valtion ja kansalaisjärjestöjen suhteita keskittyen Tansanian kansalaisjärjestölaki-prosessiin sekä Haki Elimu -järjestön ongelmiin valtion kanssa. Lisäksi tarkastellaan kansalaisjärjestöjen roolin muuttumista 2000-luvun kehitystrendien ja köyhyydenvähentämisstrategioiden kontekstissa. Viimeinen aineistoluku tarkastelee lähemmin tansanialaisia kansalaisjärjestö-verkostoja sekä niiden toimintaa. 2000-luvun kehitystrendeihin kuuluvat köyhyydenvähentämistrategiat ja budjettiapu muokkaavat paikallista kansalaisyhteiskuntaa tarpeisiinsa ja avunantajien vaikutus paikallisen kansalaisjärjestökentän toiminnassa on huomattava. Kansalaisjärjestöjen rooli on muuttumassa sosiaalipalveluiden tuottamisesta poliittiseen vaikuttamiseen, mutta samalla niiden toiminta ei ole merkittävästi vaikuttanut paikallisiin valtasuhteisiin tai saanut aikaan poliittisen reformin aloitteita. Pikemminkin vahvat kansalaisjärjestöt pyritään valjastamaan mukaan meneillään oleviin prosesseihin ja avoin kriittinen keskustelu tukahdutetaan. Tutkimus toteaa, että tansanialaista kansalaisyhteiskuntaa tulisi tarkastella omista lähtökohdistaan käsin, eikä nojautua länsimaisen perinteen kansalaisyhteiskunta-käsitykseen, sillä tämä narratiivi ja sen toimeenpano on aiheuttanut huomattavia ongelmia muun muassa kansalaisjärjestöjen riippuvuuden vuoksi. Kansalaisjärjestöihin ei tulisi valmiiksi liittää määreitä kuten demokraattisuus, toiminta lähellä ruohonjuuritasoa ja läpinäkyvyys vaan niitä tulisi pikemminkin tarkastella toiminnan kautta ja etnografiset menetelmät antavat tähän haastattelututkimusta paremmat välineet. Nykyinen keskustelu kansalaisyhteiskunnasta usein idealisoi paikallisia järjestöjä ja niiden toimintaa.
  • Rahko, Juhani (Helsingfors universitet, 2012)
    Potatoes (Solanum tuberosum) are an important crop for the food security of developing countries, and farmed area of potatoes in those countries is expanding constantly. It would be important to solve the problems of potato production and distribution in Tanzania. The research problem of this thesis was to examine the value chain of potatoes in Tanzania and factors that prevent the industry’s development. Furthermore, the aim was to evaluate agricultural policies affecting potato value chain and illustrate the present state of potato production and marketing chain in contrast to other crops. The research was conducted by executing 14 semi-structured expert interviews in Tanzania in June 2011. In addition to this, two researchers answered in written form. The interviewees were researchers, agricultural extension officers, managers of nongovernmental organisations, dealers of agricultural market place, a agricultural project coordinator, and officials from the ministry of agriculture as well as from the ministry of trade and marketing. Theoretical framework in this thesis is based on structure-conduct-performance (SCP)-paradigm. Moreover, the basic conditions and public policy of the industry are to be found out. The results indicate that the government does not affect much to the operation nor the development of the potato value chain: potato is not the government priority in Tanzania. On the other hand, there are no straight policy measures or institutional barriers that are hindering the conditions of smallholders or other actors in the chain, either. Bad seed quality is most likely the biggest challenge on the production part. Difficulties to get loans and the lack of investments and farmers’ groups are hindering the production. The biggest infrastructural issue is poor road network in the countryside. As a suggestion based on the results is that two instances should be created: a national potato board and marketing centres in the villages. The prerequisite for those instances to be possible to establish and function well is the activity of the government. Especially to operate the market centers properly, it is important that the village leaders and farmers would be committed to its activities.
  • Saarilahti, Martti; Ole-Meiludie, R. E. L. (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1987)
  • Rams Beltrán, Elisabet (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Small-scale commercial tree plantations are considerably increasing in the Southern Highlands of Tanzania, and offer an alternative to large-scale plantations to reduce the increasing gap in supply and demand of roundwood. Currently, some donor-funded incentive schemes are taking place in the area to provide extension to farmers. This extension aims to develop rural areas by engaging farmers to plant and sustainably manage commercial tree plantations. Application of silvicultural activities up to the standards is essential for the profitability and productivity of commercial tree plantations. This study aims to characterize and analyze the factors influencing silvicultural management of smallholder tree plantations; in order to find the possible issues, which are currently hindering a better success of tree-planting initiatives. The research took place in twelve different villages, in the districts of Ludewa, Njombe, Makete and Mufindi. Data was collected through semi-structured questionnaires at household level and field surveys to cross-check the information given by the farmers. A total of 114 farmers were interviewed and 44 smallholder plantations were surveyed. Complete and adequate silvicultural management was generally low. However, nearly all farmers believed that their woodlots performed well. The results indicate that current silvicultural management satisfied most of the farmers since markets existed also for lower quality wood, and farmers were able to only allocate some of their labour for silvicultural management (tree planting was a secondary livelihood option for them). However, the current level of management did not provide higher quality wood required for industrial purposes. The management applied differed between woodlots of the same household and between seasons. External support from an incentive scheme (e.g. free/subsidized seedlings and extension), participation in tree-growers’ associations and favorable attitudes, influenced positively the level of certain management activities applied (i.e. site preparation, weeding and firebreaks). The age of the farmer, the number of household members, the number of children at school, the total household land area, and the number of years planting trees; also had an effect on the level of silvicultural management. The results suggest that training and technical advice given to farmers on silvicultural management should be more consistent, detailed (i.e. timing, frequency and intensity of activities) and dependent on the climatic conditions and the site characteristics of the tree plantations. To conclude, the creation and development of networks (such as farmers’ groups and company-community partnerships) aiming to provide support to farmers beyond tree-planting schemes is likely to offer the most long-term positive outcomes in smallholder commercial tree planting. Ultimately, for extension to be most successful it must be relevant to farmers’ needs. Farmers receiving extension and extension providers should share similar goals – i.e. extension should target to a specific group of farmers. Accordingly, it is advisable to consider if the extension for rural development can have the same target group and provide the same incentives as the extension for commercial tree planting.
  • Saarilahti, M.; Bakena, E.; Mboya, G.; Minja, T.; Ngerageze, T.; Ntahompagaze, J. (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1987)
  • Quist, Liina-Maija (2010)
    This thesis is about narrative construction of corruption in Tanzanian public health care. The objective of the study is to discuss Tanzanian patients’ group narratives about corruption, which describe corruption as a predatory transaction between a predator state and citizen victims. The study is based on ethnographic fieldwork among rural Makonde in the Mtwara Region of South-Eastern Tanzania. The major part of the research material consists of narratives collected during group interviews. The study argues that patients make use of a folk narrative genre to discuss corruption. The narratives of the study consist of personal and shared narratives which highlight the participants’ collective tendency to represent corruption as a predatory transaction. Applying Ian Hacking’s idea of “making people” through speech and action, the study argues that beside scientific (e.g. Bayart 2009, Blundo et al. 2006) and Tanzanian public discourse about corruption which “make corruption” as a predatory transaction between a predator state and citizen victims, also the study’s participants make corruption in a similar way. Moreover, using the genre this way to make sense and debate the social world of public health care resembles the use of vampire stories and their victims, told in Central and Eastern Africa during and after colonialism (White 2000). The narratives mediate confusion and concern that relate to questions of money, poverty and relations between citizens and state officials. Through the narratives, the participants also question Tanzanian post-colonial health care policies of cost-sharing and express their concerns about a severe lack of resources. Unlike the writings of Bayart (2009), Bayart et al. (1999), Blundo et al. (2006) and Olivier de Sardan (1999), these narratives do not give reason to suggest that culture or “socio-cultural logics” would be focal for understanding corruption in Africa. Instead, they can be interpreted as ordinary people’s means to explicate and question the post-colonial Tanzanian state and its incapacity to meet the needs of its people.