Browsing by Subject "Tau protein"

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  • COMACARE Study Groups; Humaloja, Jaana J; Lähde, Marika; Ashton, Nicholas J.; Reinikainen, Matti; Hästbacka, Johanna; Jakkula, Pekka; Friberg, Hans; Cronberg, Tobias; Pettilä, Ville; Blennow, Kaj; Zetterberg, Henrik; Skrifvars, Markus; Koskue, Talvikki; Loisa, Pekka (2022)
    Aim: To determine the ability of serum glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAp) and tau protein to predict neurological outcome after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). Methods: We measured plasma concentrations of GFAp and tau of patients included in the previously published COMACARE trial (NCT02698917) on intensive care unit admission and at 24, 48, and 72 h after OHCA, and compared them to neuron specific enolase (NSE). NSE concentrations were determined already during the original trial. We defined unfavourable outcome as a cerebral performance category (CPC) score of 3-5 six months after OHCA. We determined the prognostic accuracy of GFAp and tau using the receiver operating characteristic curve and area under the curve (AUROC). Results: Overall, 39/112 (35%) patients had unfavourable outcomes. Over time, both markers were evidently higher in the unfavourable outcome group (p < 0.001). At 48 h, the median (interquartile range) GFAp concentration was 1514 (886-4995) in the unfavourable versus 238 (135-463) pg/ ml in the favourable outcome group (p < 0.001). The corresponding tau concentrations were 99.6 (14.5-352) and 3.0 (2.2-4.8) pg/ml (p < 0.001). AUROCs at 48 and 72 h were 0.91 (95% confidence interval 0.85-0.97) and 0.91 (0.85-0.96) for GFAp and 0.93 (0.86-0.99) and 0.95 (0.89-1.00) for tau. Corresponding AUROCs for NSE were 0.86 (0.79-0.94) and 0.90 (0.82-0.97). The difference between the prognostic accuracies of GFAp or tau and NSE were not statistically significant. Conclusions: At 48 and 72 h, serum both GFAp and tau demonstrated excellent accuracy in predicting outcomes after OHCA but were not superior to NSE. Clinical trial registration: NCT02698917 (
  • Svarcbahs, Reinis; Julku, Ulrika; Kilpelainen, Tommi; Kyyrö, Mirva; Jäntti, Maria; Myohänen, Timo T. (2019)
    Changes in prolyl oligopeptidase (PREP) expression levels, protein distribution, and activity correlate with aging and are reported in many neurodegenerative conditions. Together with decreased neuropeptide levels observed in aging and neurodegeneration, and PREP's ability to cleave only small peptides, PREP was identified as a druggable target. Known PREP non-enzymatic functions were disregarded or attributed to PREP enzymatic activity, and several potent small molecule PREP inhibitors were developed during early stages of PREP research. These showed a lot of potential but with variable results in experimental memory models, however, the initial excitement was short-lived and all of the clinical trials were discontinued in either Phase I or II clinical trials for unknown reasons. Recently, PREP's ability to form protein-protein interactions, alter cell proliferation and autophagy has gained more attention than earlier recognized catalytical activity. Of new findings, particularly the aggregation of alpha-synuclein (aSyn) that is seen in the presence of PREP is especially interesting because PREP inhibitors are capable of altering aSyn-PREP interaction in a manner that reduces the aSyn dimerization process. Therefore, it is possible that PREP inhibitors that are altering interactions could have different characteristics than those aimed for strong inhibition of catalytic activity. Moreover, PREP co-localization with aSyn, tau, and amyloid-beta hints to PREP's possible role not only in the synucleinopathies but in other neurodegenerative diseases as well. This commentary will focus on less well-acknowledged non-enzymatic functions of PREP that may provide a better approach for the development of PREP inhibitors for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders.