Browsing by Subject "Temperament"

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  • Kaukonen, Riikka; Lehto, Elviira; Ray, Carola; Vepsäläinen, Henna; Nissinen, Kaija; Korkalo, Liisa; Koivusilta, Leena; Sajaniemi, Nina; Erkkola, Maijaliisa; Roos, Eva (2019)
    Although evidence exists of the association between children's temperament and weight, only few studies have examined how temperament is associated with actual food consumption among preschoolers. We examined concurrent associations between children's temperament and the consumption of different foods, and investigated whether the association between children's temperament and vegetable consumption is mediated by vegetable-related parenting practices. We utilized the data from the cross-sectional DAGIS study of 864 preschool children aged between three to six and their families, conducted between 2015 and 2016 in Finland. The parents reported their children's temperament, food consumption, and their vegetable-related parenting practices. Adjusted logistic regression analyses found positive associations between surgency and vegetable consumption as well as between effortful control and vegetable consumption. Both associations were mediated by one examined vegetable-related parenting practice: enhanced availability and autonomy support. No associations were found between children's negative affectivity and food consumption or vegetable-related parenting practices. In conclusion, children's temperament may be an important factor behind food-related parenting practices and children's diet. However, further longitudinal research and research covering different food-related parenting practices and home environment factors is necessary to better understand the complex associations between temperament and food consumption among young children.
  • Leppänen, Marja H.; Sääksjärvi, Katri; Vepsäläinen, Henna; Ray, Carola; Hiltunen, Pauliina; Koivusilta, Leena; Erkkola, Maijaliisa; Sajaniemi, Nina; Roos, Eva (2020)
    Screen time is increasing rapidly in young children. The aim of this study was to examine associations of long-term stress and temperament with screen time in Finnish preschool children and the moderating role of socioeconomic status. Cross-sectional DAGIS data were utilized. Long-term stress was assessed using hair cortisol concentration, indicating values of the past 2 months. Temperament was reported by the parents using the Children's Behavior Questionnaire (the Very Short Form), and three broad temperament dimensions were constructed: surgency, negative affectivity, and effortful control. Screen time was reported by the parents over 7 days. The highest education level in the household was used as an indicator of socioeconomic status. In total, 779 children (mean age, 4.7 +/- 0.9 years, 52% boys) were included in the study. Of the temperament dimensions, a higher effortful control was associated with less screen time (B = - 6.70, p = 0.002). There was no evidence for an association between hair cortisol concentration and screen time nor a moderating role of socioeconomic status in the associations (p > 0.05). Conclusion: Our findings indicate that preschool children with a higher score in effortful control had less screen time. Because effortful control reflects general self-regulatory abilities, promoting these skills may be effective in reducing screen time in young children.What is Known: center dot Screen time has increased rapidly during the last decades, and higher screen time has been linked with numerous adverse health consequences in children. center dot There are no previous studies investigating associations of long-term stress and temperament with screen time in young children.What is New: center dot Of the temperament dimensions, effortful control was associated with higher screen time in preschool children, but there was no association found between long-term stress and screen time. center dot Since effortful control reflects general self-regulatory abilities, promoting these skills may be effective in reducing screen time in young children.
  • Sääksjärvi, Katri; Lehto, Elviira; Lehto, Reetta; Suhonen, Eira; Leppänen, Marja; Michels, Nathalie; Saha, Mari; Ray, Carola; Vepsäläinen, Henna; Pajulahti, Riikka; Heiman-Lindh, Anu; Sainio, Taina; Erkkola, Maijaliisa; Roos, Eva; Sajaniemi, Nina (2021)
    Associations between hair cortisol concentration (HCC), diurnal salivary cortisol (sCort) and alpha-amylase (sAA), and temperament dimensions were examined among 3-6-year-old Finnish children (n = 833). Children's hair samples were collected at preschool, while parents collected five saliva samples from children during one weekend day and completed a questionnaire assessing child's temperament dimensions i.e. surgency, negative affectivity, and effortful control (HCC, n = 677; AUCg of sAA, n = 380; AUCg of sCort, n = 302; temperament dimensions, n = 751). In linear regression analysis, diurnal sCort associated positively with HCC, the association persisting after adjustments (beta 0.31, 95% CI 0.20-0.42). In logistic regression analysis, increasing scores in effortful control associated with higher likelihood of having high HCC (OR 1.47, 95% CI 1.07-2.03), the association slightly attenuating to non-significant after adjustments. Otherwise, no clear indication for associations between temperament and stress-related biomarkers were found.
  • Arkkila, Juuso; Suominen, Auli; Nolvi, Saara; Rantavuori, Kari; Karlsson, Hasse; Karlsson, Linnea; Lahti, Satu (2022)
    We evaluated associations between dental anxiety and four temperament dimensions: effortful control, extraversion/surgency, negative affect and orienting sensitivity among 2558 parents in the FinnBrain Birth Cohort Study. Dental anxiety was measured with the Modified Dental Anxiety Scale, and temperament with the Adult Temperament Questionnaire. Associations between dental anxiety and temperament dimensions were modelled using linear and logistic (cut-off >= 19 for high dental anxiety) regression analyses adjusting for general anxiety and depressive symptoms, age and education. In women and men, dental anxiety was positively associated with negative affect (women beta = 1.10; 95%CI 1.06-1.15; men beta = 1.11; 95%CI 1.05-1.18) and negatively associated with effortful control (women beta = 0.95; 95% CI0.92-0.99, men beta = 0.90; 95% CI 0.85-0.95). In women, extraversion/surgency was also positively associated with dental anxiety (beta = 1.04; 95%CI 1.00-1.08). For high dental anxiety, negative affect in women (OR = 2.00; 95%CI 1.31-3.06) and men (OR = 5.21; 95%CI 1.72-15.83) and for extraversion/surgency in women (OR = 1.50; 95%CI 1.01-1.47) associated positively with dental anxiety, but for effortful control, the association was not statistically significant. Dentists should understand that temperament dimensions affect the risk for dental anxiety more strongly than general anxiety or depressive symptoms. Dimensions negative affect and extraversion/surgency may increase and effortful control decrease the risk.
  • Toffol, Elena; Rantalainen, Ville; Lahti-Pulkkinen, Marius; Girchenko, Polina; Lahti, Jari; Tuovinen, Soile; Lipsanen, Jari; Villa, Pia M.; Laivuori, Hannele; Hämäläinen, Esa; Kajantie, Eero; Räikkönen, Katri (2019)
    Whether infant regulatory behavior problems already in the first month of life indicate an increased risk of childhood neurobehavioral problems, and whether maternal depression in the postpartum and early childhood underpins these associations remain unclear. Altogether, 2049-2364 mothers from the Prediction and Prevention of Pre-eclampsia and Intrauterine Growth Restriction (PREDO) study completed the Neonatal Perception Inventory on regulatory behavior problems at the infant's age of 15.6 days (SD 3.2, range 1-30), the Infant Behavior Questionnaire-Revised on temperament at 6.5 months (SD 0.9, range 4.2-12.4), and the Ages and Stages Questionnaire-3 on developmental milestones and the Child Behavior Checklist on behavioral problems at 3.5 years (SD 0.7, range 1.9-6.0). Maternal depressive symptoms were measured by the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (infancy follow-ups) and Beck Depression Inventory-II (childhood follow-up). Father-rated infant temperament and paternal depressive symptoms were also available (n = 1474). Higher levels of infant regulatory behavior problems predicted higher levels of mother- and father-rated negative affectivity temperament (0.13 SD units per SD unit, 95% confidence interval 0.09-0.17; and 0.09, 0.04-0.14, respectively), lower levels of mother-rated orienting/regulation temperament (- 0.09, - 0.13 to - 0.05) and problem-solving skills (- 0.12, - 0.21 to - 0.04), and higher levels of Externalizing (0.07, 0.03-0.11) and Total behavioral problems (0.07, 0.03-0.11). Regulatory behaviors partially mediated the effect of maternal depressive symptoms. Regulatory behavior problems already during the first month of life predict neurobehavioral outcomes, and partially mediate the effect of maternal depressive symptoms. Our study may inform design of interventions aimed at timely prevention in children at risk.
  • Saarinen, Aino; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Hietala, Jarmo; Dobewall, Henrik; Lavonius, Veikka; Raitakari, Olli; Kähönen, Mika; Sormunen, Elina; Lehtimäki, Terho; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa (2022)
    A strong genetic background for psychoses is well-established. Most individuals with a high genetic risk for schizophrenia, however, do not develop the disorder. We investigated whether individuals, who have a high genetic risk for schizophrenia but no non-affective psychotic disorders, are predisposed to develop milder forms of deviant thinking in terms of magical thinking. Participants came from the population-based Young Finns Study (n = 1292). The polygenic risk score for schizophrenia (PRS) was calculated on the basis of the most recent genome-wide association study (GWAS). Psychiatric diagnoses over the lifespan were collected up to 2017 from the registry of hospital care. Magical thinking was evaluated with the Spiritual Acceptance Scale (e.g., beliefs in telepathy, miracles, mystical events, or sixth sense) of the Temperament and Character Inventory in 1997, 2001, and 2012 (participants were 20-50-year-olds). We found that, among those who did not develop non-affective psychotic disorders, high PRS predicted higher magical thinking in adulthood (p = 0.001). Further, PRS predicted different developmental courses: a low PRS predicted a steady decrease in magical thinking from age 20 to 50 years, while in individuals with high PRS the decrease in magical thinking ceased in middle age so that their level of magical thinking remained higher than expected for that age. These findings remained when controlling for sex, childhood family environment, and adulthood socioeconomic factors. In conclusion, if high PRS does not lead to a non-affective psychotic disorder, it predicts milder forms of deviant thinking such as elevated magical thinking in adulthood, especially in middle age. The finding enhances our understanding of different outcomes of high genetic psychosis risk.
  • Kajanoja, Jani; Nolvi, Saara; Kantojärvi, Katri; Karlsson, Linnea; Paunio, Tiina; Karlsson, Hasse (2022)
    Introduction: Maternal prenatal stress may have long-term adverse consequences for child development. Accumulating evidence shows that the oxytocin-receptor genotype may play a role in differential susceptibility to early-life adversity, but no studies have examined whether this moderation extends to the prenatal stress exposures. Methods: In the FinnBrain Birth Cohort Study, a sample of 1173 mother-child dyads were examined. We studied the possible moderating effect of the cumulative effect of infant oxytocin-receptor risk genotypes (rs53576GG and rs2254298A) in the association between maternal prenatal stress, and infant negative reactivity and emerging self-regulation at 6 months of age. Results: The number of OTr risk genotypes moderated the association between maternal prenatal anxiety and infant self-regulation, implying a cumulative effect of genotype, although effects sizes were small. In infants with two risk genotypes, a negative association between prenatal anxiety and self-regulation was observed, whereas in infants with one or no risk genotypes, the association between maternal prenatal anxiety and temperament was non-significant. Conclusion: Oxytocin-receptor genotype may moderate the association of maternal stress during pregnancy and child social-emotional development. Possible mechanisms for this moderation effect are discussed. Further studies with a more comprehensive polygenic approach are needed to confirm these results.
  • Rawlings, Anna; Tapola, Anna; Niemivirta, Markku (2017)
    Although temperament and motivation both reflect individual differences in what is perceived as rewarding or threatening, and what is to be approached and what avoided, respectively, we know rather little about how they are connected in educational settings. In this study, we examined how different aspects of temperament (reward and punishment sensitivities) predict the goals students seek to achieve in relation to learning and performance. In Study 1, four dimensions describing students’ temperament (sensitivity to punishment, intraindividual reward sensitivity, interindividual reward sensitivity, and positive expressiveness) were uncovered, and in Study 2, these were used to predict students’ achievement goal orientations (mastery-intrinsic, mastery-extrinsic, performance-approach, performance-avoidance, and avoidance). The results of exploratory structural equation modeling revealed significant predictions on all achievement goal orientations. In line with theoretical assumptions, sensitivity to punishment was predictive of performance orientations, intraindividual reward sensitivity of mastery orientations, and interindividual reward sensitivity of performance- and avoidance orientations. Positive expressiveness only had weak negative effects on performance orientations. The findings suggest that the goals and outcomes students seek to attain in an educational context are partly dictated by their sensitivity to different environmental cues and the kinds of affective and behavioral responses these typically incite.
  • Pham, Christie; Desmarais, Eric; Jones, Victoria; French, Brian F. F.; Wang, Zhengyan; Putnam, Samuel; Casalin, Sara; Linhares, Maria Beatriz Martins; Lecannelier, Felipe; Tuovinen, Soile; Heinonen, Kati; Raikkönen, Katri; Montirosso, Rosario; Giusti, Lorenzo; Park, Seong-Yeon; Han, Sae-Young; Lee, Eun Gyoung; Huitron, Blanca; de Weerth, Carolina; Beijers, Roseriet; Majdandzic, Mirjana; Gonzalez-Salinas, Carmen; Acar, Ibrahim; Slobodskaya, Helena; Kozlova, Elena; Ahmetoglu, Emine; Benga, Oana; Gartstein, Maria A. A. (2022)
    ObjectivesThe present study examined parental sleep-supporting practices during toddlerhood in relation to temperament across 14 cultures. We hypothesized that passive sleep-supporting techniques (e.g., talking, cuddling), but not active techniques (e.g., walking, doing an activity together), would be associated with less challenging temperament profiles: higher Surgency (SUR) and Effortful Control (EC) and lower Negative Emotionality (NE), with fine-grained dimensions exhibiting relationships consistent with their overarching factors (e.g., parallel passive sleep-supporting approach effects for dimensions of NE). MethodsCaregivers (N = 841) across 14 cultures (M = 61 families per site) reported toddler (between 17 and 40 months of age; 52% male) temperament and sleep-supporting activities. Utilizing linear multilevel regression models and group-mean centering procedures, we assessed the role of between- and within-cultural variance in sleep-supporting practices in relation to temperament. ResultsBoth within-and between-culture differences in passive sleep-supporting techniques were associated with temperament attributes, (e.g., lower NE at the between-culture level; higher within-culture EC). For active techniques only within-culture effects were significant (e.g., demonstrating a positive association with NE). Adding sleep-supporting behaviors to the regression models accounted for significantly more between-culture temperament variance than child age and gender alone. ConclusionHypotheses were largely supported. Findings suggest parental sleep practices could be potential targets for interventions to mitigate risk posed by challenging temperament profiles (e.g., reducing active techniques that are associated with greater distress proneness and NE).
  • Tölli, Pekka (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Objectives: Cognitive abilities are highly heritable, but several other factors beyond genes also influence the realization of one’s genetic potential. The role of temperament potentially modifying the association between genes and actualized cognitive performance is not well understood. This study examined whether temperament is associated with cognitive performance and whether it modifies an association between genetic cognitive potential and cognitive test performance. Methods: The participants (n = 1,571, 56% female, 35-50 years) were from the population-based Young Finns Study. Temperament was assessed four times (1997, 2001, 2007, and 2012) with the Temperament and Character Inventory’s four dimensions: Novelty Seeking, Harm Avoidance, Reward Dependence and Persistence. Polygenic scores were calculated based on GWA studies to measure the genetic potential for cognitive performance. Cognitive performance was assessed in 2012 with four CANTAB tests: Visual memory, Reaction Time, Sustained Attention and Spatial Working Memory. Results: Temperament did not modify the realization of genetic potential for cognitive performance but had main effects on the performance: High Persistence was associated with higher visual memory, low Harm Avoidance with higher overall cognitive and reaction time performance, while Novelty Seeking and Reward Dependence had insignificant associations. Harm Avoidance’s subscale high Anticipatory Worry was associated with lower overall cognitive and visual memory performance and high Fatigability with lower reaction time and lower sustained attention performance. High Shyness with Strangers preceded higher visual memory performance. High Fear of Uncertainty was associated with lower visual memory, but higher sustained attention performance. Conclusions: Temperament does not seem to give an advantage or hindrance for an individual to realize their genetic potential for cognitive performance. High Persistence appears beneficial for cognitive performance, whereas high Harm Avoidance is detrimental in certain tasks but beneficial in others.
  • Lipsanen, Jari; Elovainio, Marko; Hakulinen, Christian; Tremblay, Mark S.; Rovio, Suvi; Lagström, Hanna; Jaakkola, Johanna M.; Jula, Antti; Rönnemaa, Tapani; Viikari, Jorma; Niinikoski, Harri; Simell, Olli; Raitakari, Olli T.; Pahkala, Katja; Pulkki-Råback, Laura (2020)
    Background and objectives: Temperament may be associated with eating behaviors over the lifespan. This study examined the association of toddlerhood temperament with dietary behavior and dietary intervention outcomes across 18 years. Methods: The study comprised 660 children (52% boys) from The Special Turku Intervention Project (STRIP), which is a longitudinal randomized controlled trial from the age of 7 months until the age of 20 years (1990-2010). Temperament was assessed using Carey temperament scales when the participants were 2 years of age. Latent profile analysis yielded three temperament groups, which were called negative/low regulation (19% of the children), neutral/average regulation (52%) and positive/high regulation (28%). Dietary behavior was examined from 2 to 20 years of age using food records, which were converted into a diet score (mean= 15.7, SD 4.6). Mixed random-intercept growth curve analysis was the main analytic method. Results: Dietary behavior showed a significant quadratic U-shaped curve over time (B for quadratic association = 0.39, P<.001; B for linear association = 0.09, P = 0.58). Children in the negative/low regulation temperament group had a lower diet score (less healthy diet) across the 18 years compared to children in the neutral/average or in the positive/high regulation group. Temperament was not associated with the rate of change in diet over time. Temperament did not have any interactive effects with the intervention (F [2, 627], P = 0.72). Conclusion: Children with a temperament profile characterized by high negative mood, high irregularity and high intensity in emotion expression constitute a risk group for less healthy eating over the lifespan.
  • Viljaranta, Jaana; Aunola, Kaisa; Mullola, Sari; Luonua, Marjaana; Tuomas, Anne; Nurmi, Jan-Erik (2020)
    It has repeatedly been found that temperamental inhibition and low academic achievement are associated with each other: children with cautious and wary or shy behaviour are at risk for low academic achievement. Several suggestions about the mechanism behind this association have been made, these highlighting for example, the fewer learning opportunities of cautious and wary children and more negative interaction between teachers and inhibited children. However, the empirical studies about these mechanisms are rare and, thus, they have remained unclear. This study examined whether children's maths-related self-concept of ability acts as a mediator between their temperamental inhibition and maths performance. 156 children (M-age 7.25 years) were followed during the first grade of primary school. Children's temperamental inhibition was assessed in the beginning of Grade 1. Their maths performance was tested twice, in the beginning and at the end of Grade 1, and their self-concept of ability was measured at the end of Grade 1. The research question was analysed using structural equation modelling. The results showed that children's self-concept of ability did mediate the association between temperamental inhibition and maths performance at Grade 1: that more inhibited children feel they are less capable and competent in maths than less inhibited children, and this contributes to their poorer maths performance. The findings highlight that it is important for teachers and other practitioners to be aware of this effect of temperamental inhibition on self-concept and put effort on promoting positive views of children's competencies and abilities.
  • Dobewall, Henrik; Hakulinen, Christian; Pulkki-Raback, Laura; Seppälä, Ilkka; Lehtimäki, Terho; Raitakari, I. T.; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa; Hintsanen, Mirka (2018)
    The oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) may function as a "plasticity gene" that increases or decreases sociability in those individuals susceptible to growing up in a beneficial versus more adverse environment. This study used data from 2289 (55% female) participants from the ongoing prospective Young Finns Study. Maternal emotional warmth was assessed in 1980 when the participants were 3-18 years old. Participants' sociability temperament was measured at five follow-ups, from 1992 to 2012. Emotional warmth in childhood and OXTR genotype were not directly associated with temperamental sociability. We found a nominally significant gene environment interaction (p = .03) suggesting that participants with a genetic profile of rs1042778 T-allele and rs2254298 A-allele are affected high versus low emotional warmth, whereas homozygotes of both G-alleles are unaffected by the same environmental influence. Our findings should be, however, interpreted as a null result as the interaction effect did not survive correction for multiple testing.