Browsing by Subject "Temporal trends"

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  • Lehti, T. E.; Öhman, H.; Knuutila, M.; Kautiainen, H.; Karppinen, H.; Tilvis, R.; Strandberg, T.; Pitkälä, K. H. (2021)
    Background Changes in older people's symptoms across recent decades have not been investigated. Aims We analyzed temporal trends in symptom burden by comparing data from independent, cross-sectional cohorts retrieved in 1989, 1999, 2009, and 2019. Furthermore, we compared the association between symptom burden and psychological wellbeing (PWB) in older men and women. Methods The Helsinki Aging Study recruited a random sample of people aged 75, 80, and 85 in 1989, and random samples aged 75, 80, 85, 90, and 95 in 1999, 2009, and 2019 (four study waves). Altogether, 6263 community-dwelling people answered the questions concerning symptoms in the questionnaire surveys. The symptoms inquired in all study waves were dizziness, back pain, joint pain, chest pain, shortness of breath, and loss of appetite. Symptom burden was calculated according to the number of symptoms and their frequency (score range: 0-6). PWB and the Charlson comorbidity index were calculated. Results Symptom burden decreased in both men and women aged 75 and 80 from 1989 to 2019. Changes in cohorts aged 85 + were nonsignificant. There was a significant difference in symptom burden between men and women in all ages with men having fewer symptoms. PWB decreased with increasing symptom burden. Men had greater PWB than women up to severe levels of symptom burden. Conclusions Symptom burden decreased from 1989 to 2019 in cohorts aged 75-80, whereas changes remained nonsignificant in cohorts aged 85 +. To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine temporal trends in symptom burden.
  • Salminen, Karoliina; Willman, Mirjami; Kautiainen, Hannu; Pitkälä, Kaisu; Roitto, Hanna-Maria; Suominen, Merja (2021)
    Background & aims: The temporal trends in protein and other nutrient intakes among older long-term care residents have not been studied. The aim of this study was to explore the changes in energy, protein, and other nutrient intakes between 2007 and 2017-8 in two cross-sectional samples of older longterm care residents in the Helsinki metropolitan area. We also studied how the residents' disability and stage of cognition modified the association between observation year and protein intake (g/body weight kg). Methods: Two cross-sectional samples were collected in 2007 (n = 350) and 2017-8 (n = 476) in longterm care settings. Residents' nutrient intake was determined by a one-or two-day food record. Residents' disability was determined by the Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) "personal care" question and stage of cognition was determined by the CDR "memory" item. Results: There was no significant difference in energy intake between the observation years. Carbohydrates, total protein, and protein (g/body weight kg) intakes were significantly lower in 2017-8 than in 2007. Fat intake was higher in 2017-8 than in 2007. In 2017-8, the intake of some vitamins and minerals was lower (thiamine, calcium) but some higher (vitamins A, D, C, E) compared to 2007. Residents' disability (p = 0.049) and observation year (p = 0.037) were significantly associated with protein intake (g/body weight kg), but the interaction was not significant (p = 0.35). Furthermore, residents' stage of cognition was not associated with protein intake (p = 0.22) but observation year was (p < 0.001). The interaction was not significant (p = 0.30). Conclusions: Whereas the energy intake remained at the same level in the observation years, the ratio of macronutrient intake changed in an unfavorable way. The intake of protein and some vitamins were lower whereas the relative proportion of fat was higher in 2017-8 compared to 2007. As long-term care residents become more disabled in the future, more attention should be paid to diet quality. 0 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
  • Vigouroux, Guillaume; Kari, Elina; Beltrán-Abaunza, José M.; Uotila, Petteri; Yuan, Dekui; Destouni, Georgia (2021)
    Coastal eutrophication is a major environmental issue worldwide. In the Baltic Sea, eutrophication affects both the coastal waters and the open sea. Various policy frameworks aim to hinder its progress but eutrophicationrelevant water quality variables, such as chlorophyll-a concentrations, still exhibit opposite temporal trends in various Baltic Sea marine and coastal waters. In this study, we investigate the temporal-trend linkages of measured water quality variables and their various anthropogenic, climatic and hydrospheric drivers over the period 1990-2020 with focus on the Swedish coastal waters and related marine basins in the Baltic Sea. We find that it is necessary to distinguish more and less isolated coastal waters, based on their water exchanges with the open sea, to capture different coastal eutrophication dynamics. In less isolated coastal waters, eutrophication is primarily related to nitrogen concentrations, while it is more related to phosphorus concentrations in more isolated coastal waters. In the open sea, trends in eutrophication conditions correlate best with trends in climatic and hydrospheric drivers, like wind speed and water salinity, respectively. In the coastal waters, driver signals are more mixed, with considerable influences from anthropogenic land-based nutrient loads and sea ice cover duration. Summer chlorophyll-a concentration in the open sea stands out as a main change driver of summer chlorophyll-a concentration in less isolated coastal waters. Overall, coastal waters are a melting pot of driver influences over various scales, from local land-based drivers to large-scale total catchment and open sea conditions. The latter in turn depend on long-term integration of pathway-dependent influences from the various coastal parts of the Baltic Sea and their land-based nutrient load drivers, combined with overarching climate conditions and internal feedback loops. As such, our results challenge any unidirectional local source-to-sea paradigm and emphasize a need for concerted local land-catchment and whole-sea measures for robust coastal eutrophication management. (c) 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http:// creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).