Browsing by Subject "Time"

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  • Ryynänen, Toni; Heinonen, Visa (2021)
    Purpose Temporal consumption experiences have been conceptualised as universal, subjective or practice-based experiences. Little research, though, addresses such experiences in conjunction with the repeated and situational consumption events that bring them about. The purpose of this paper is to extend current knowledge by examining how the temporal and situational intertwine during consumption events. For this purpose, the concept of a consumption timecycle based on the research data is constructed. Design/methodology/approach The paper takes a longitudinal and researcher-led approach to study temporal consumption experiences. The data was collected through participant observations, video recordings and personal subjective introspections during three consecutive annual Nordic motorcycle consumer trade shows (2014-2016). The data was analysed using an interpretive approach. Findings The results demonstrate five temporalities that characterise a consumption timecycle as follows: emerging, core, intensifying, fading and idle-time temporalities. The features of these temporal experiences are presented in the conclusions section of the paper. Research limitations/implications Recalled temporal experiences are mediated experiences and they differ from lived experiences. The transferability or generalisability of the results might be limited, as the case is situated in the Nordic context. Originality/value The paper presents the novel concept of a consumption timecycle that extends current debates about consumer time. The consumption timecycle is contrasted with established temporal concepts in consumer and marketing research.
  • GBD 2019 LRI Collaborators; Kyu, Hmwe Hmwe; Vongpradith, Avina; Sirota, Sarah Brooke; Meretoja, Tuomo J.; Zhang, Zhi-Jiang (2022)
    Background The global burden of lower respiratory infections (LRIs) and corresponding risk factors in children older than 5 years and adults has not been studied as comprehensively as it has been in children younger than 5 years. We assessed the burden and trends of LRIs and risk factors across a groups by sex, for 204 countries and territories.Methods In this analysis of data for the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2019, we used dinician-diagnosed pneumonia or bronchiolitis as our case definition for LRIs. We included International Classification of Diseases 9th edition codes 079.6, 466-469, 470.0, 480-482.8, 483.0-483.9, 484.1-484.2, 484.6-484.7, and 487-489 and International Classification of Diseases 10th edition codes A48.1, A70, B97.4 B97.6, 109-115.8, J16 J16.9, J20-121.9, J91.0, P23.0 P23.4, and U04 U04.9. We used the Cause of Death Ensemble modelling strategy to analyse 23109 site-years of vital r *stration data, 825 site-years of sample vital registration data, 1766 site-years of verbal autopsy data, and 681 site-years of mortality surveillance data. We used DisMod-MR 2.1, a Bayesian metaregression tool, to analyse age sex-specific incidence and prevalence data identified via systematic reviews of the literature, population-based survey data, and daims and inpatient data. Additio y, we estimated age sex-specific LRI mortality that is attributable to the independent effects of 14 risk factors.Findings Globally, in 2019, we estimated that there were 257 million (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 240-275) LRI incident episodes in males and 232 million (217-248) in females. In the same year, LRIs accounted for 1.30 million (95% UI 1.18-1.42) male deaths and 1.20 million (1.07-1.33) female deaths. Age-standardised incidence and mortality rates were 1.17 times (95% UI 1.16-1.18) and 1.31 times (95% UI 1.23-1.41) greater in males than in fe es in 2019. Between 1990 and 2019, LRI incidence and mortality rates declined at different rates across age groups and an increase in LRI episodes and deaths was estimated among all adult age groups, with males aged 70 years and older having the highest increase in LRI episodes (126.0% [95% UI 121.4-131.1]) and deaths (100.0% [83.4-115.9]). During the same period, LRI episodes and deaths in children younger than 15 years were estimated to have decreased, and the greatest dedine was observed for LRI deaths in males younger than 5 years (-70.7% [-77.2 to 61.8]). The leading risk factors for LRI mortality varied across age groups and sex. More than half of global LRI deaths in children younger than 5 years were attributable to child wasting (population attributable fraction [PAF] 53.0% [95% UI 37.7-61.8] in males and 56.4% [40.7-65.1] in females), and more than a quarter of LRI deaths among those aged 5-14 years were attributable to household air pollution (PAF 26.0% [95% UI 16.6-35.5] for males and PAF 25.8% [16.3-35.4] for females). PAFs of male LRI deaths attributed to smoking were 20.4% (95% UI 15.4-25.2) in those aged 15-49 years, 305% (24.1-36. 9) in those aged 50-69 years, and 21.9% (16. 8-27. 3) in those aged 70 years and older. PAFs of female LRI deaths attributed to household air pollution were 21.1% (95% UI 14.5-27.9) in those aged 15-49 years and 18 " 2% (12.5-24.5) in those aged 50-69 years. For females aged 70 years and older, the leading risk factor, ambient particulate matter, was responsible for 11-7% (95% UI 8.2-15.8) of LRI deaths.Interpretation The patterns and progress in reducing the burden of LRIs and key risk factors for mortality varied across age groups and sexes. The progress seen in children you - than 5 years was dearly a result of targeted interventions, such as vaccination and reduction of exposure to risk factors. Similar interventions for other age groups could contribute to the achievement of multiple Sustainable Development Goals targets, induding promoting wellbeing at all ages and reducing health inequalities. Interventions, including addressing risk factors such as child wasting, smoking, ambient particulate matter pollution, and household air pollution, would prevent deaths and reduce health disparities.Copyright 2022 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.
  • Strona, Giovanni; Bradshaw, Corey J. A. (2022)
    Although theory identifies coextinctions as a main driver of biodiversity loss, their role at the planetary scale has yet to be estimated. We subjected a global model of interconnected terrestrial vertebrate food webs to future (2020-2100) climate and land-use changes. We predict a 17.6% (+/- 0.16% SE) average reduction of local verte-brate diversity globally by 2100, with coextinctions increasing the effect of primary extinctions by 184.2% (+/- 10.9% SE) on average under an intermediate emissions scenario. Communities will lose up to a half of ecological interactions, thus reducing trophic complexity, network connectance, and community resilience. The model reveals that the extreme toll of global change for vertebrate diversity might be of secondary importance com-pared to the damages to ecological network structure.
  • Isokuortti, Harri; Luoto, Teemu (2019)
    Tavallisin syy aivovammaan on kaatuminen ja suurin osa vammoista on lieviä. Alkuvaiheessa tärkeintä on sulkea pois vakavan vamman mahdollisuus. Tapahtumatiedot, löydökset ja oireet kirjataan huolellisesti. Olennaisia ovat tajunnan muutokset, muistiaukko ja kuvantamislöydökset. Akuuttivaiheessa ensisijainen kuvantamismuoto on pään tietokonetomografia. Sillä voidaan sulkea pois vakavat kallonsisäiset verenvuodot. Toipumista voidaan edistää oireenmukaisella hoidolla ja potilasohjauksella. Ennuste on hyvä, mutta toipumisen pitkittyessä erikoissairaanhoidon arvio on usein tarpeen.
  • Castellsague, Xavier; Paavonen, Jorma; Jaisamrarn, Unnop; Wheeler, Cosette M.; Skinner, S. Rachel; Lehtinen, Matti; Naud, Paulo; Chow, Song-Nan; Del Rosario-Raymundo, Maria Rowena; Teixeira, Julio C.; Palmroth, Johanna; de Carvalho, Newton S.; Germar, Maria Julieta V.; Peters, Klaus; Garland, Suzanne M.; Szarewski, Anne; Poppe, Willy A. J.; Romanowski, Barbara; Schwarz, Tino F.; Tjalma, Wiebren A. A.; Bosch, F. Xavier; Bozonnat, Marie-Cecile; Struyf, Frank; Dubin, Gary; Rosillon, Dominique; Baril, Laurence; HPV PATRICIA Study Grp (2014)
  • Eskin, Carmen (Helsingin yliopisto, 2023)
    Sir Terence David John Pratchett (1948–2015) was an English author and humourist, best known for his satirical, comedic, fantasy series Discworld — a book series consisting of 41 novels based within a fantasy world of the same name. In this thesis, I will examine the concept of death, dying and the afterlife as portrayed by Pratchett through his characterisation of personified death, whilst also examining the element of time, specifically the meaning of lifetime. The primary material for this thesis are five of the Discworld novels: Mort (1987), Reaper Man (1992), Soul Music (1994), Hogfather (1996) and Thief of Time (2001), collectively referred to as the Death novels. By conducting a close reading of each of the Death novels, I claim that Pratchett offers his own outlook on the concepts of death, dying and the afterlife through his character Death, and provides a unique perspective on the concept of time, specifically lifetime, within the five narratives. I argue that, through textually interwoven observations concluded by Death primarily, Pratchett conveys ideologies on the human condition and comments on certain societal dysfunctions pertaining to elements of Western society (e.g. Western history, religion, politics, culture and literature), in order to convey the idea that humans primarily waste lifetime when, in fact, it should be spent. The analysis of Death’s characterisation, including how Pratchett subtly and humorously criticises the entire human race through Death’s perception, is conducted with the use of intertextual, mimetic, archetypal and psychoanalytic literary criticism. In addition, I examine the physical quantity that is time — specifically how lifetime is measured, manipulated, stored and spent in the Discworld. Examining how the concepts of death, dying, the afterlife, and personified death are portrayed in real-world history, specifically religion, mythology, folklore and modern fiction will lay the groundwork for the analysis of Pratchett’s portrayal of these same concepts, as significant parallels can be drawn between both our real world and Pratchett’s fictional one. Through this study I demonstrate how Pratchett both guides his readers to reflect on how lifetime is spent in the real world, and attempts to soften our perceptions of death, dying and the afterlife, making the concept of death more palatable through his humorous character portrayal and narrative themes.
  • Li, Chenxi; Zhao, Yue; Li, Ziyue; Liu, Ling; Zhang, Xiuhui; Zheng, Jun; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Kulmala, Markku; Jiang, Jingkun; Cai, Runlong; Xiao, Huayun (2023)
    New particle formation (NPF) is one of the major contributors to atmospheric aerosol number concentrations. The initial step of NPF includes the formation and growth of small clusters, their evaporation and loss to pre-existing particles (characterized by the condensation sink, CS). In the polluted atmospheric boundary layer, the high environmental CS suppresses NPF and it can work synergistically with evaporation to further reduce the NPF rates. In this study, to quantitatively include CS into NPF analysis, we make simplifications to the cluster balance equations and develop approximate equations for the NPF rates in the presence of pre-existing particles, which are applicable to nucleation mechanisms that can be represented by a nonbranched nucleation pathway. The developed equations show that the proportion of clusters that finally lead to new particle formation is given by the cluster-specific ratio of growth rate/CS | evaporation rate | growth rate. As a result, the cumulative product of this ratio for all clusters in the nucleation pathway determines the NPF rates. By comparing with benchmark cluster dynamics simulations of sulfuric acid-dimethylamine and sulfuric acid-ammonia nucleation systems, the developed equations were confirmed to give good estimates of the NPF rates and approximately capture the dependency of NPF rates on CS and nucleating vapor concentrations. The CS dependency predicted by the developed equations shows larger deviations from the simulations when the cluster evaporation rates are high, i.e., when the underlying assumptions of the equations are not satisfied. The equations were also found to be in good agreement with atmospheric NPF rates measured in long-term field observations in urban Beijing.