Browsing by Subject "Tobacco"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-7 of 7
  • Danielsson, Maria; Lammi, Anelma; Siitonen, Simo; Ollgren, Jukka; Pylkkanen, Liisa; Vasankari, Tuula (2019)
    Background The consumption of tobacco products has evolved to include more complex combinations of different products. We investigated the tobacco habits of a representative population of young Finnish male conscripts in order to evaluate the prevalence of dual use of cigarettes and snus as well as the transition from one tobacco product to another. In addition, we evaluated the correlation between the level of education and the use of cigarettes and snus. Methods A questionnaire-based survey was carried out in three out of 17 garrisons among conscripts during their first week of service in 2014. A total of 1971 male conscripts were selected by simple random sampling of the 9013 males in the selected garrisons. Of them 1916 participated and filled in the questionnaire. The response rate was 97.2%. The questionnaire consisted of 25 questions including age, gender, basic education, use of tobacco products as well as questions assessing nicotine dependency. Results The amount of dual users of cigarettes and snus was 21%. There was a higher probability of dual use of cigarettes and snus among smokers compared to snus users (p <0.001). One third (35%) of former smokers reported daily snus use and over 40% of the former snus users smoked daily. One third (34%) of the participants reported snus usage and 14% of the study subjects used snus daily. 40% of the study population were smokers and over 25% smoked daily. Of the participants with basic educational background 57% smoked daily (p <0.001), however, no association between snus and level of education was found (p = 0.69). Conclusions This study provides better understanding of the complex tobacco habits of young adult males. The simultaneous usage of multiple tobacco products as well as the high tendency to transition from one tobacco product to another should be taken into consideration when planning cessation interventions in health care settings and tobacco control policies at societal levels.
  • Danielsson, Maria; Lammi, Anelma; Siitonen, Simo; Ollgren, Jukka; Pylkkänen, Liisa; Vasankari, Tuula (BioMed Central, 2019)
    Abstract Background The consumption of tobacco products has evolved to include more complex combinations of different products. We investigated the tobacco habits of a representative population of young Finnish male conscripts in order to evaluate the prevalence of dual use of cigarettes and snus as well as the transition from one tobacco product to another. In addition, we evaluated the correlation between the level of education and the use of cigarettes and snus. Methods A questionnaire-based survey was carried out in three out of 17 garrisons among conscripts during their first week of service in 2014. A total of 1971 male conscripts were selected by simple random sampling of the 9013 males in the selected garrisons. Of them 1916 participated and filled in the questionnaire. The response rate was 97.2%. The questionnaire consisted of 25 questions including age, gender, basic education, use of tobacco products as well as questions assessing nicotine dependency. Results The amount of dual users of cigarettes and snus was 21%. There was a higher probability of dual use of cigarettes and snus among smokers compared to snus users (p < 0.001). One third (35%) of former smokers reported daily snus use and over 40% of the former snus users smoked daily. One third (34%) of the participants reported snus usage and 14% of the study subjects used snus daily. 40% of the study population were smokers and over 25% smoked daily. Of the participants with basic educational background 57% smoked daily (p < 0.001), however, no association between snus and level of education was found (p = 0.69). Conclusions This study provides better understanding of the complex tobacco habits of young adult males. The simultaneous usage of multiple tobacco products as well as the high tendency to transition from one tobacco product to another should be taken into consideration when planning cessation interventions in health care settings and tobacco control policies at societal levels.
  • Korhonen, Tellervo; Sihvola, Elina; Latvala, Antti; Dick, Danielle M.; Pulkkinen, Lea; Nurnberger, John; Rose, Richard J.; Kaprio, Jaakko (2018)
    Background: Developmental relationships between tobacco use and suicide-related behaviors (SRB) remain unclear. Our objective was to investigate the longitudinal associations of tobacco use in adolescence and SRB in adulthood. Methods: Using a prospective design, we examined whether tobacco use in adolescence is associated with SRB (intentional self-injury, suicide ideation) in young adulthood in a population-based sample of 1330 twins (626 males, 704 females). The baseline and follow-up data were collected by professionally administered semi-structured poly-diagnostic interviews at ages 14 and 22, respectively. Results: After adjusting for multiple potential confounders, those who reported early-onset of regular tobacco use had a significantly increased risk for intentional self-injury, such as cutting or burning, at age 22 (adjusted odds ratio[AOR] 4.57, 95% CI 1.93-10.8) in comparison to those who had not at all initiated tobacco use. Also, daily cigarette smoking at baseline was associated with future intentional self-injury (AOR 4.45, 95% CI 2.04-9.70). Early-onset tobacco use was associated with suicidal ideation in females (AOR 3.69, 95% CI 1.56-8.72) but not in males. Considering any SRB, baseline daily smokers (AOR 2.13, 95% CI 1.12-4.07) and females with early onset of regular tobacco use (AOR 3.97, 95% CI 1.73-9.13) had an increased likelihood. Within-family analyses among twin pairs discordant for exposure and outcome controlling for familial confounds showed similar, albeit statistically non-significant, associations. Conclusion: Early-onset tobacco use in adolescence is longitudinally associated with SRB (intentional self-injury and/or suicide ideation) in young adulthood, particularly among females. Further investigation may reveal whether this association has implications for prevention of SRB in adolescence and young adulthood.
  • CHD Exome Consortium; Consortium Genetics Smoking; EPIC-CVD Consortium; Understanding Soc Sci Grp; Brazel, David M.; Jiang, Yu; Hughey, Jordan M.; Loukola, Anu; Qaiser, Beenish; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kontto, Jukka; Perola, Markus; Dunning, Alison M. (2019)
    BACKGROUND: Smoking and alcohol use have been associated with common genetic variants in multiple loci. Rare variants within these loci hold promise in the identification of biological mechanisms in substance use. Exome arrays and genotype imputation can now efficiently genotype rare nonsynonymous and loss of function variants. Such variants are expected to have deleterious functional consequences and to contribute to disease risk. METHODS: We analyzed similar to 250,000 rare variants from 16 independent studies genotyped with exome arrays and augmented this dataset with imputed data from the UK Biobank. Associations were tested for five phenotypes: cigarettes per day, pack-years, smoking initiation, age of smoking initiation, and alcoholic drinks per week. We conducted stratified heritability analyses, single-variant tests, and gene-based burden tests of nonsynonymous/loss-of-function coding variants. We performed a novel fine-mapping analysis to winnow the number of putative causal variants within associated loci. RESULTS: Meta-analytic sample sizes ranged from 152,348 to 433,216, depending on the phenotype. Rare coding variation explained 1.1% to 2.2% of phenotypic variance, reflecting 11% to 18% of the total single nucleotide polymorphism heritability of these phenotypes. We identified 171 genome-wide associated loci across all phenotypes. Fine mapping identified putative causal variants with double base-pair resolution at 24 of these loci, and between three and 10 variants for 65 loci. Twenty loci contained rare coding variants in the 95% credible intervals. CONCLUSIONS: Rare coding variation significantly contributes to the heritability of smoking and alcohol use. Fine-mapping genome-wide association study loci identifies specific variants contributing to the biological etiology of substance use behavior.
  • Salaspuro, Mikko (2017)
    Ethanol is neither genotoxic nor mutagenic. Its first metabolite acetaldehyde, however, is a powerful local carcinogen. Point mutation in ALDH2 gene proves the causal relationship between acetaldehyde and upper digestive tract cancer in humans. Salivary acetaldehyde concentration and exposure time are the two major and quantifiable factors regulating the degree of local acetaldehyde exposure in the ideal target organ, oropharynx. Instant microbial acetaldehyde formation from alcohol represents >70% of total ethanol associated acetaldehyde exposure in the mouth. In the oropharynx and achlorhydric stomach acetaldehyde is not metabolized to safe products, instead in the presence of alcohol it accumulates in saliva and gastric juice in mutagenic concentrations. A common denominator in alcohol, tobacco and food associated upper digestive tract carcinogenesis is acetaldehyde. Epidemiological studies on upper GI tract cancer are biased, since they miss information on acetaldehyde exposure derived from alcohol and acetaldehyde present in 'non-alcoholic' beverages and food. (C) 2017 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
  • Sikorskaite, Sidona; Rajamaki, Minna-Liisa; Baniulis, Danas; Stanys, Vidmantas; Valkonen, Jari P. T. (2013)
  • Rashid, Mamunur (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Secondary metabolites are bioactive compounds that help the plant to adapt in different adverse environmental conditions but are not an essential part of plant developmental processes and also secondary metabolites have pharmaceutical value because of their antioxidant, anticancer, antibacterial and antifungal properties. Type-III polyketide synthases (PKSs) are a group of polyketide synthases that produce secondary metabolites with diverse biological activities in plants. The main objective was to localize the PKSs G2PS1, G2PS2, FvCHS2-1, HlVPS into the peroxisomes for synthesizing secondary metabolites in plants. The experiment was performed by amplifying the genes with specific Px-targeting signal. Then the genes cloned into destination vector pEAQ-HT-DEST1. The plasmid constructs were transformed to Agrobacterium tumefaciens and agro-infiltrated to Nicotiana benthamiana and Petunia hybrida leaf tissue. Western blotting results revealed that all proteins were expressed in infiltrated leaves of both tobacco and petunia but HPLC chromatograms showed that only the protein FvCHS2-1 produced novel peaks for metabolites in tobacco.