Browsing by Subject "Toll-like receptor"

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  • Kylmä, Anna Kaisa; Tolvanen, Tuomas Aleksi; Carpén, Timo; Haglund, Caj; Mäkitie, Antti; Mattila, Petri S.; Grenman, Reidar; Jouhi, Lauri; Sorsa, Timo; Lehtonen, Sanna; Hagström, Jaana (2020)
    In oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC), the expression pattern of toll-like receptors (TLRs), in comparison between human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive and -negative tumors differs. TLRs control innate immune responses by activating, among others, the nuclear factor-κΒ (NF-κΒ) signaling pathway. Elevated NF-κΒ activity is detectable in several cancers and regulates cancer development and progression. We studied TLR5 expression in 143 unselected consecutive OPSCC tumors, and its relation to HPV-DNA and p16 status, clinicopathological parameters, and patient outcome, and studied TLR5 stimulation and consecutive NF-κB cascade activation in vitro in two human OPSCC cell lines and immortalized human keratinocytes (HaCat). Clinicopathological data came from hospital registries, and TLR5 immunoexpression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Flagellin served to stimulate TLR5 in cultured cells, followed by analysis of the activity of the NF-κB signaling cascade with In-Cell Western for IκΒ and p-IκΒ. High TLR5 expression was associated with poor disease-specific survival in HPV-positive OPSCC, which typically shows low TLR5 immunoexpression. High TLR5 immunoexpression was more common in HPV-negative OPSCC, known for its less-favorable prognosis. In vitro, we detected NF-κΒ cascade activation in the HPV-positive OPSCC cell line and in HaCat cells, but not in the HPV-negative OPSCC cell line. Our results suggest that elevated TLR5 immunoexpression may be related to reduced NF-κΒ activity in HPV-negative OPSCC. The possible prognosis-worsening mechanisms among these high-risk OPSCC patients however, require further evaluation.
  • Ruuskanen, Miia; Leivo, Ilmo; Minn, Heikki; Vahlberg, Tero; Haglund, Caj; Hagström, Jaana; Irjala, Heikki (2019)
    BackgroundNasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a malignant disease with an enigmatic etiology. NPC associates with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and human papillomaviruses (HPVs), while immunological factors also play a role in carcinogenesis. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are pattern recognition receptors that participate in the immunological defence against pathogens, but their functions are also linked to cancer.MethodsIn our whole population-based study, we retrieved 150 Finnish NPC cases and studied their tumour samples for TLR1, TLR2, TLR4, TLR5, TLR7, and TLR9 expressions by immunohistochemistry, and for the presence of EBV and high-risk HPVs with EBV RNA and HPV E6/E7 mRNA in situ hybridizations. In addition, we analyzed the TLR expression patterns according to age, tumour histology, EBV/HPV status, and outcome.ResultsWe found that all TLRs studied were highly expressed in NPC. Viral status of the tumours varied, and 62% of them were EBV-positive, 14% HPV-positive, and 24% virus-negative. The tumours with strong TLR2(nucl) or TLR5 expression were mostly virus-negative or HPV-positive keratinizing squamous cell carcinomas, and the patients with these tumours were significantly older than those with mild or negative TLR2(nucl)/TLR5 expression. In Kaplan-Meier analysis, the patients with strong TLR5 expression had worse survival compared to the patients with negative or mild TLR5 expression, but the results were linked to other patient and tumour characteristics. In multivariable-adjusted Cox regression analysis, the patients with positive TLR7 tumour expression had better overall survival than those with no TLR7 expression. The 5-year overall survival rates according to TLR7 expression were 66% (mild), 52% (moderate or strong), and 22% (negative).ConclusionsTLRs are highly expressed in non-endemic NPC. Intensity of TLR2 and TLR5 expressions correlate with viral status, and TLR7 seems to be an independent prognostic factor of non-endemic NPC.
  • Ruuskanen, Miia; Leivo, Ilmo; Minn, Heikki; Vahlberg, Tero; Haglund, Caj; Hagström, Jaana; Irjala, Heikki (BioMed Central, 2019)
    Abstract Background Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a malignant disease with an enigmatic etiology. NPC associates with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and human papillomaviruses (HPVs), while immunological factors also play a role in carcinogenesis. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are pattern recognition receptors that participate in the immunological defence against pathogens, but their functions are also linked to cancer. Methods In our whole population-based study, we retrieved 150 Finnish NPC cases and studied their tumour samples for TLR1, TLR2, TLR4, TLR5, TLR7, and TLR9 expressions by immunohistochemistry, and for the presence of EBV and high-risk HPVs with EBV RNA and HPV E6/E7 mRNA in situ hybridizations. In addition, we analyzed the TLR expression patterns according to age, tumour histology, EBV/HPV status, and outcome. Results We found that all TLRs studied were highly expressed in NPC. Viral status of the tumours varied, and 62% of them were EBV-positive, 14% HPV-positive, and 24% virus-negative. The tumours with strong TLR2nucl or TLR5 expression were mostly virus-negative or HPV-positive keratinizing squamous cell carcinomas, and the patients with these tumours were significantly older than those with mild or negative TLR2nucl/TLR5 expression. In Kaplan-Meier analysis, the patients with strong TLR5 expression had worse survival compared to the patients with negative or mild TLR5 expression, but the results were linked to other patient and tumour characteristics. In multivariable-adjusted Cox regression analysis, the patients with positive TLR7 tumour expression had better overall survival than those with no TLR7 expression. The 5-year overall survival rates according to TLR7 expression were 66% (mild), 52% (moderate or strong), and 22% (negative). Conclusions TLRs are highly expressed in non-endemic NPC. Intensity of TLR2 and TLR5 expressions correlate with viral status, and TLR7 seems to be an independent prognostic factor of non-endemic NPC.
  • Kylmä, Anna Kaisa; Jouhi, Lauri; Mohamed, Hesham; Randen-Brady, Reija; Mäkitie, Antti; Atula, Timo; Haglund, Caj; Sorsa, Timo; Hagström, Jaana (2020)
    Objectives: In oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC), toll-like receptors (TLR) 5 and 7 associate with the tumor's human papilloma virus (HPV) status (Jouhi et al., 2017). TLR 2, on the other hand, has been linked to head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), and to oral carcinogenesis (Farnebo et al., 2015; Binder Gallimidi et al., 2015). Here we investigated the presence of TLR 2 and 4 in HPV-positive and HPV-negative OPSCC, and their relationship to opportunistic oral pathogen Treponema denticola chymotrypsin-like protease (Td-CTLP) immunoexpression, clinical parameters, and patient outcome. Materials and methods: Clinicopathological data of 198 unselected consecutive OPSCC patients came from hospital registries. Immunoexpression of TLRs 2 and 4 we evaluated by immunohistochemistry, and earlier in this patient series we studied immunoexpression of Td-CTLP and HPV DNA, HPV mRNA, and p16 status. Results: Immunoexpression of both TLRs 2 and 4 showed a significant association with HPV-status. Strong expression was associated with HPV-positivity and mild expression with HPV-negativity. Patients with strong TLR 2 immunoexpression in the HPV negative subgroup had significantly poorer 5-year DSS (58%) than did patients with mild TLR 2 expression (77%), and strong TLR 2 immunoexpression remained as an independent factor linked to increased disease mortality in the multivariable setting (P = 0.019). No association existed between TLR 2 or 4 and Td-CTLP expression. Conclusion: Our results support the role of TLR 2 receptor as a possible target for development of therapeutics as earlier proposed (Farnebo et al., 2015). The involvement of Td and other oral pathogens in carcinogenesis of OPSCC, remains open and calls for further study.
  • Jouhi, Lauri; Mohamed, Hesham; Makitie, Antti; Remes, Satu Maria; Haglund, Caj; Atula, Timo; Hagstrom, Jaana (2017)
    A large subset of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (OPSCCs) is associated with HPV infection and has better outcome than non-viral-related tumors. Various malignancies also carry a role for TLRs, key activators of inflammation and innate immunity. We examined the expression of TLRs in OPSCC, and their association with HPV status and treatment outcome. TLR 5, 7, 9, and p16 were studied by immunohistochemistry and HPV status was detected with in situ hybridization in 202 tumors of consecutively treated OPSCC patients using tissue microarray method. The relations between TLR expression and HPV status, p16 expression, clinicopathological factors, and survival were analyzed. TLR 5, 7, and 9 expression patterns differed between HPV-positive and -negative tumors, and they were statistically significantly associated with history of smoking, heavy drinking, tumor site, grade, size (T), metastasis (N), and stage. Moreover, in HPV-positive tumors the expression of TLR 5 and 7 correlated with tumor recurrence. After adjustment, among HPV-positive OPSCC patients, high TLR 5 and low TLR 7 expression were associated with poor disease-specific survival. Our results indicate that TLR 5 and 7 may have a role in the prognostication of HPV-positive OPSCC, however, further studies are needed to clarify the comprehensive role of these TLRs in OPSCC.
  • Vorkapic, Emina; Lundberg, Anna M.; Mayranpaa, Mikko I.; Eriksson, Per; Wagsater, Dick (2015)
    Objective: Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is characterized by inflammation, loss of smooth muscle cells (SMCs), and degradation of the extracellular matrix in the vessel wall. Innate immune receptors such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs) were recently shown to regulate immunological processes leading to the formation and progression of atherosclerotic plaques as well as to other cardiovascular pathologies. Our aim was to investigate whether blockage of TLR signaling, under the control of TIR domain-containing adaptor protein including IFN-beta (TRIF), could inhibit the inflammatory response and AAA development in mice. Results: In human AAA, an increased TLR3 and TLR4 expression in association with macrophages and T lymphocytes was demonstrated with immunohistochemical analysis. Angiotensin (Ang) II-induced aneurysm formation was significantly reduced by 30% in ApoE(-/-)Trif(-/-) mice compared to ApoE(-/-) mice. Morphologically, AngII-infused ApoE(-/-)Trif(-/-) mice had a more intact cellular and extracellular matrix while ApoE(-/-) mice infused with AngII displayed an increased medial thickness associated with aortic dissection, thrombus formation, and a more disorganized vessel wall. Gene expression analysis of the abdominal aorta revealed a profound decrease of the inflammatory genes CD68 (P <0.05), CD11b (P <0.05), and TNF-alpha (P <0.05) and the protease gene MMP-12 (P <0.01) in ApoE(-/-)Trif(-/-) mice compared to ApoE(-/-) mice infused with AngII. Conclusion: Our results suggest that signaling through TRIF is important for the inflammatory response of AngII-induced AAA and that blockage of the TRIF pathway reduces vascular inflammation and protects against AAA formation. (C) 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.