Browsing by Subject "Trade-off"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-6 of 6
  • Kisdi, Eva (2015)
    Evolutionary singularities are central to the adaptive dynamics of evolving traits. The evolutionary singularities are strongly affected by the shape of any trade-off functions a model assumes, yet the trade-off functions are often chosen in an ad hoc manner, which may unjustifiably constrain the evolutionary dynamics exhibited by the model. To avoid this problem, critical function analysis has been used to find a trade-off function that yields a certain evolutionary singularity such as an evolutionary branching point. Here I extend this method to multiple trade-offs parameterized with a scalar strategy. I show that the trade-off functions can be chosen such that an arbitrary point in the viability domain of the trait space is a singularity of an arbitrary type, provided (next to certain non-degeneracy conditions) that the model has at least two environmental feedback variables and at least as many trade-offs as feedback variables. The proof is constructive, i.e., it provides an algorithm to find trade-off functions that yield the desired singularity. I illustrate the construction of trade-offs with an example where the virulence of a pathogen evolves in a small ecosystem of a host, its pathogen, a predator that attacks the host and an alternative prey of the predator.
  • Matthies, Brent D.; Kalliokoski, Tuomo; Eyvindson, Kyle; Honkela, Nina; Hukkinen, Janne I.; Kuusinen, Nea J.; Räisänen, Petri; Valsta, Lauri T. (2016)
    Socially inefficient payment for ecosystem services (PES) schemes result when adverse shifts in the provisioning of other ecosystem services (ES) or overpayment to service providers occur. To address these inefficiencies, a holistic evaluation of trade-offs between services should be conducted in parallel with determining land owners' service provisioning preferences. Recent evidence also suggests that nudging stakeholders' preferences could be a useful policy design tool to address global change challenges. Forest owners' landscape management preferences were nudged to determine the impact on the social efficiency of PES schemes for biodiversity conservation and climate change mitigation in Finland. ES indicators for biodiversity conservation, carbon storage, and the albedo effect were included with traditional provisioning services (i.e. timber) and bioenergy to assess the consequent intra-service trade-offs. Synergies in provisioning of regulating services were identified, but were found to be more efficient when the management objective is for biodiversity conservation rather than climate change regulation. Nudging led to marginal gains in service provisioning above the baseline management and above neutral owner preferences, and increased aggregate service provisioning. This demonstrates the importance of considering intra-service trade-offs and that nudging could be an important tool for designing efficient PES schemes. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Örmälä-Odegrip, Anni-Maria; Ojala, Ville; Hiltunen, Teppo; Zhang, Ji; Bamford, Jaana K. H.; Laakso, Jouni (2015)
    Background: Consumer-resource interactions constitute one of the most common types of interspecific antagonistic interaction. In natural communities, complex species interactions are likely to affect the outcomes of reciprocal co-evolution between consumers and their resource species. Individuals face multiple enemies simultaneously, and consequently they need to adapt to several different types of enemy pressures. In this study, we assessed how protist predation affects the susceptibility of bacterial populations to infection by viral parasites, and whether there is an associated cost of defence on the competitive ability of the bacteria. As a study system we used Serratia marcescens and its lytic bacteriophage, along with two bacteriovorous protists with distinct feeding modes: Tetrahymena thermophila (particle feeder) and Acanthamoeba castellanii (surface feeder). The results were further confirmed with another study system with Pseudomonas and Tetrahymena thermophila. Results: We found that selection by protist predators lowered the susceptibility to infections by lytic phages in Serratia and Pseudomonas. In Serratia, concurrent selection by phages and protists led to lowered susceptibility to phage infections and this effect was independent from whether the bacteria shared a co-evolutionary history with the phage population or not. Bacteria that had evolved with phages were overall more susceptible to phage infection (compared to bacteria with history with multiple enemies) but they were less vulnerable to the phages they had co-evolved with than ancestral phages. Selection by bacterial enemies was costly in general and was seen as a lowered fitness in absence of phages, measured as a biomass yield. Conclusions: Our results show the significance of multiple species interactions on pairwise consumer-resource interaction, and suggest potential overlap in defending against predatory and parasitic enemies in microbial consumer-resource communities. Ultimately, our results could have larger scale effects on eco-evolutionary community dynamics.
  • Stucki, Dimitri; Freitak, Dalial; Bos, Nick; Sundstrom, Liselotte (2019)
    Organisms are simultaneously exposed to multiple stresses, which requires regulation of the resistance to each stress. Starvation is one of the most severe stresses organisms encounter, yet nutritional state is also one of the most crucial conditions on which other stress resistances depend. Concomitantly, organisms often deploy lower immune defenses when deprived of resources. This indicates that the investment into starvation resistance and immune defenses is likely to be subject to trade-offs. Here, we investigated the impact of starvation and oral exposure to bacteria on survival and gene expression in the ant Formica exsecta. Of the three bacteria used in this study, only Serratia marcescens increased the mortality of the ants, whereas exposure to Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas entomophila alleviated the effects of starvation. Both exposure to bacteria and starvation induced changes in gene expression, but in different directions depending on the species of bacteria used, as well as on the nutritional state of the ants.
  • Kosolobov, Dmitry (2017)
    The longest common extension problem is to preprocess a given string of length n into a data structure that uses S(n) bits on top of the input and answers in T(n) time the queries LCE(i, j) computing the length of the longest string that occurs at both positions i and j in the input. We prove that the trade-off S (n)T (n) = (it logn) holds in the non-uniform cell-probe model provided that the input string is read-only, each letter occupies a separate memory cell, S(n) = Omega(n), and the size of the input alphabet is at least 2(8inverted right perpendicularS(n)/ninverted left perpendicular). It is known that this trade-off is tight. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.