Browsing by Subject "Training"

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  • Tamminen, Henna; Kujala, Teija; Näätänen, Risto; Peltola, Maija S. (2021)
    Cognitive decline is evident in the elderly and it affects speech perception and foreign language learning. A listen-and-repeat training with a challenging speech sound contrast was earlier found to be effective in young monolingual adults and even in advanced L2 university students at the attentive and pre-attentive levels. This study investigates foreign language speech perception in the elderly with the same protocol used with the young adults. Training effects were measured with attentive behavioural measures (N = 9) and with electroencephalography measuring the pre-attentive mismatch negativity (MMN) response (N = 10). Training was effective in identification, but not in discrimination and there were no changes in the MMN. The most attention demanding perceptual functions which benefit from experience-based linguistic knowledge were facilitated through training, whereas pre-attentive processing was unaffected. The elderly would probably benefit from different training types compared to younger adults.
  • Gralla, Erica; Goentzel, Jarrod (2015)
    Journal of Humanitarian Logistics and Supply Chain Management
  • Huotarinen, Antti; Niemela, Mika; Jahromi, Behnam Rezai (2017)
    BACKGROUND: Residents' lives are hectic-it is hard to find a place and time for training basic and advanced microsurgical skills. Surgical instruments and sutures can be purchased (or loaned from another department), but the most expensive and space-occupying device is the microscope. In developing countries, microscopes are used where they are needed most, in operating rooms. Furthermore, a conventional microscope is not portable. For all of these reasons, the availability of microscopes for training microsurgery is limited. METHOD: We used a coffee cup and smartphone (CCS) as a training device instead of a microscope. The coffee cup was the base, and the smartphone functioned to magnify, illuminate, and visualize objects. We measured 2 residents' performance on end-to-end artificial bypass before and after 5 days of CCS-based training. RESULTS: We were able to quickly set up the environment for practicing microsurgical skills in any surrounding. After 5 days of training with CCS we could see significant development of microsurgical performance with a conventional microscope as well. The learning curve was dependent on baseline performance. CONCLUSION: CCS is efficient, mobile, and easy to set up. Even though our smartphone-based training was in 2 dimensions, we could improve our microsurgical performance with conventional microscopes, which have 3-dimensional capability. CCS also provides an easy method to record one's microsurgical training. CCS improved both of the subjects' microsurgical performance, making it a good alternative for a traditional microscope.
  • Allen, Ann Marie; Kovács, Gyöngyi; Masini, Andrea; Vaillancourt, Alain; Van Wassenhove, Luk (2013)
    Journal of Humanitarian Logistics and Supply Chain Management
  • Vehmanen, L.; Sievänen, H.; Kellokumpu-Lehtinen, P.; Nikander, R.; Huovinen, R.; Ruohola, J.; Penttinen, H.M.; Utriainen, M.; Tokola, K.; Blomqvist, C.; Saarto, T. (2021)
    A 12-month exercise program reversibly prevented hip bone loss in premenopausal women with early breast cancer. The bone-protective effect was maintained for 2 years after the end of the program but was lost thereafter. Purpose Breast cancer survivors are at an increased risk for osteoporosis and fracture. This 5-year follow-up of a randomized impact exercise intervention trial evaluated the maintenance of training effects on bone among breast cancer patients. Methods Five hundred seventy-three early breast cancer patients aged 35-68 years and treated with adjuvant therapy were allocated into a 12-month exercise program or a control group. Four hundred forty-four patients (77%) were included in the 5-year analysis. The exercise intervention comprised weekly supervised step aerobics, circuit exercises, and home training. Areal bone mineral density (aBMD) was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Physical activity was estimated in metabolic equivalent (MET) hours per week and physical performance assessed by 2-km walking and figure-8 running tests. Results In premenopausal patients, the 12-month exercise program maintained femoral neck (FN) and total hip (TH) aBMD for 3 years, but the protective effect was lost thereafter. The mean FN aBMD change in the exercise and control groups was - 0.2% and - 1.5% 1 year, - 1.1% and - 2.1% 3 years and - 3.3% versus - 2.4% 5 years after the beginning of the intervention, respectively. Lumbar spine (LS) bone loss was not prevented in premenopausal women and no training effects on aBMD were seen in postmenopausal women. The main confounding element of the study was the unexpected rise in physical activity among patients in the control group. The physical performance improved among premenopausal women in the exercise group compared with the controls. Conclusion The 12-month exercise program prevented FN and TH bone loss in premenopausal breast cancer patients for 3 years. The bone-protective effect was reversible and lost thereafter.
  • Hevossaari, Kari (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Lääkärin hyvät vuorovaikutustaidot hyödyttävät sekä potilasta että lääkäriä itseään. Ne ovat samanarvoiset kliinisten kädentaitojen ja lääketieteellisen tiedon kanssa. Hyvät vuorovaikutustaidot omaavien lääkärien potilaat saavat parempaa hoitoa ja lisäksi nämä lääkärit voivat itsekin paremmin. Muutos asenteissa vuorovaikutustaitoja kohtaan on viimeisten vuosikymmenien aikana ollut suuri. Niistä on tullut osa niitä perustaitoja, joita valmistuvien lääkärien oletetaan hallitsevan. Samanaikaisesti vuorovaikutustaitojen opetusta osana lääkärien peruskoulutusta on kehitetty ja lisätty. Vuorovaikutustaitojen opetusta on mahdollista purkaa eri osa-alueisiin, mutta mikään yksittäinen opetusmenetelmä ei ole osoittautunut ylivoimaiseksi. Tärkeintä on tarkoin suunniteltu, järjestelmällinen ja monipuolinen koulutus, joka alkaa lääketieteen opintojen alussa ja jatkuu valmistumiseen asti. Opetuksen tulisi koskettaa kaikkia lääketieteen erikoisaloja ja opitut taidot on tärkeää kyetä integroimaan osaksi oikeita kliinisiä potilaskontakteja. Opiskelijoiden edistymistä täytyy seurata opintojen aikana, antaa heille palautetta ja tarjota heille mahdollisuuksia keskustella oppimastaan. Opiskelijat suhtautuvat vuorovaikutuskoulutukseen pääosin myönteisesti. Opettajien omien vuorovaikutustaitojen tulee olla hyvät ja heidän asenteensa näiden taitojen oppimista kannustavaa. Vuorovaikutuskoulutuksen eri menetelmien ja niiden tehon tutkiminen on tärkeää. Tutkimuksesta saatavaa tietoa tulee aktiivisesti levittää niin opiskelijoille kuin opettajillekin. Vuorovaikutuskoulutusta tulee säännöllisesti päivittää, koska yhteiskunta, yleinen arvomaailma sekä käyttäytymisnormit lääkärien ympärillä ovat jatkuvassa muutoksessa.
  • Kumar, Abhishek; Finley, Benjamin John; Braud, Tristan; Tarkoma, Sasu; Hui, Pan (2021)
    Artificial intelligence shows promise for solving many practical societal problems in areas such as healthcare and transportation. However, the current mechanisms for AI model diffusion such as Github code repositories, academic project webpages, and commercial AI marketplaces have some limitations; for example, a lack of monetization methods, model traceability, and model auditabilty. In this work, we sketch guidelines for a new AI diffusion method based on a decentralized online marketplace. We consider the technical, economic, and regulatory aspects of such a marketplace including a discussion of solutions for problems in these areas. Finally, we include a comparative analysis of several current AI marketplaces that are already available or in development. We find that most of these marketplaces are centralized commercial marketplaces with relatively few models.
  • Comittee Natl Advisors Paediat Neu; Craiu, Dana; Haataja, Leena; Hollody, Katalin; Catsman-Berrevoets, Coriene (2020)
    Background: Paediatric Neurology (PN) is a discipline focused on diagnosis, comprehensive management and research into diseases of the central and peripheral nervous system from fetal life to transition into adulthood. The European Paediatric Neurology Society first designed and published the European PN training programme in the European Paediatric Neurology Syllabus in 2002. This was important in gaining recognition for the sub-specialty from the European Academy of Paediatrics and the European Academy of Neurology and in 2003 PN was recognized as a sub-specialty of paediatrics and neurology by the Board of the European Union of Medical Specialties. In 2004, the EPNS founded the Committee of National Advisors (CNA) that comprised representatives from national Paediatric Neurology societies, in order to further enhance Europe wide standards in training and practice., The EPNS Training Advisory Board (TAB) offers nation specific advice/support to PN societies on developing training and care systems. In 2019, the 2nd revision of the Paediatric Neurology Syllabus was approved by the EPNS Board and CNA. We aim to give an overview of the training of Paediatric Neurology (PN) specialists (i.e. Paediatric Neurologists), the relevant professional bodies and the current practice of Paediatric Neurology in Europe, as defined geographically by the World Health Organization. Methods: A structured online data collection form was completed by CNA representatives from European countries. The data included training routes and structure of training, epidemiological data, nature of professional societies, organization of Paediatric Neurology care, research, academic life and recognition of the specialty. Results: Data was collected from 43 European countries of which 38 have a national PN Society. In 10 (6 European Union (EU) and 4 non-EU countries) PN is recognized as a core specialty. In 26 countries PN is recognized as a sub-specialty of Paediatrics, Neurology or both (15 EU-11 non-EU). PN is not recognized as a core or sub-specialty in 7 countries (4 EU and 3 non-EU). In 35 countries paediatric neurologists begin their training from Paediatrics, but in 19 countries PN training from Neurology is also possible or the preferred route. Training in PN differs, but in over 50% of countries the three main training modules named in the 2019 2nd revision of the European PN Syllabus (PN, Paediatrics and adult Neurology) are included. Many countries have already adapted their curriculum to the suggestions in the European PN syllabus. Conclusions: There is diversity among European countries in terms of professional organization and PN training. The European PN syllabus has had impact on the development of PN training throughout Europe, independent of duration of training or route from paediatrics or neurology. The syllabus provides a basis for the future development of PN training, the recognition of PN as a (sub) specialty in individual countries and for improving the care of children with neurological disorders in Europe. (c) 2020 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of European Paediatric Neurology Society.
  • Lamppu, Pauli J.; Laurila, Jouko; Finne-Soveri, Harriet; Laakkonen, Marja-Liisa; Kautiainen, Hannu; Pitkälä, Kaisu H. (2019)
    Key summary pointsAimWe present the design, intervention, baseline findings and feasibility of a randomized, controlled trial examining the effectiveness of staff training in palliative care on nursing home residents' hospitalizations and health-related quality-of-life.FindingsMost staff members participated in the training sessions and they gave good feedback. Our patient groups are fairly well balanced in their characteristics.MessageIf our further trial shows patient-related benefits, we will have a well-defined model for improving palliative care in nursing homes. AbstractPurposeWe aim to describe the design, educational intervention, baseline findings and feasibility of our training intervention. Our trial will aim to improve the residents' health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and to reduce unnecessary hospitalizations.MethodsWe recruited 340 residents from 20 nursing home wards in Helsinki, and they were randomized into intervention and control groups. At baseline, all the participants were assessed for demographics, medical history, medication, HRQOL, symptoms, hospitalizations, advance care plans, and proxies' satisfaction with care. The staff in the intervention wards were offered four 4-h educational sessions on the principles of palliative care (advance care planning, the adverse effects of hospitalizations, symptom management, communication, giving support to proxies and challenging situations). The sessions were based on constructive learning methods and patient cases.ResultsThe mean age of residents was 84years and 76% were women. The intervention and control groups did not differ with respect to demographics, terminal diseases, comorbidities, nutritional status, cognition or the use of palliative medication. However, the control residents were more likely to be bed-bound and to have a do-not-resuscitate order on their medical chart. Of about 180 staff members, 132 completed the educational intervention. The discussions in the training sessions were lively and the participants gave an overall rating of 4.6/5 for the education.ConclusionsWe have successfully randomized nursing home wards in this trial and completed staff training with very positive feedback. If our trial shows resident-related benefits, we will have a well-defined model for improving palliative care in nursing homes. The study was registered in the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry under the intervention code: ACTRN12617001040358.