Browsing by Subject "Transcription factors"

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  • Scala, Giovanni; Federico, Antonio; Greco, Dario (2021)
    BackgroundThe investigation of molecular alterations associated with the conservation and variation of DNA methylation in eukaryotes is gaining interest in the biomedical research community. Among the different determinants of methylation stability, the DNA composition of the CpG surrounding regions has been shown to have a crucial role in the maintenance and establishment of methylation statuses. This aspect has been previously characterized in a quantitative manner by inspecting the nucleotidic composition in the region. Research in this field still lacks a qualitative perspective, linked to the identification of certain sequences (or DNA motifs) related to particular DNA methylation phenomena.ResultsHere we present a novel computational strategy based on short DNA motif discovery in order to characterize sequence patterns related to aberrant CpG methylation events. We provide our framework as a user-friendly, shiny-based application, CpGmotifs, to easily retrieve and characterize DNA patterns related to CpG methylation in the human genome. Our tool supports the functional interpretation of deregulated methylation events by predicting transcription factors binding sites (TFBS) encompassing the identified motifs.ConclusionsCpGmotifs is an open source software. Its source code is available on GitHub https://github.com/Greco-Lab/CpGmotifs and a ready-to-use docker image is provided on DockerHub at https://hub.docker.com/r/grecolab/cpgmotifs.
  • Scala, Giovanni; Federico, Antonio; Greco, Dario (BioMed Central, 2021)
    Abstract Background The investigation of molecular alterations associated with the conservation and variation of DNA methylation in eukaryotes is gaining interest in the biomedical research community. Among the different determinants of methylation stability, the DNA composition of the CpG surrounding regions has been shown to have a crucial role in the maintenance and establishment of methylation statuses. This aspect has been previously characterized in a quantitative manner by inspecting the nucleotidic composition in the region. Research in this field still lacks a qualitative perspective, linked to the identification of certain sequences (or DNA motifs) related to particular DNA methylation phenomena. Results Here we present a novel computational strategy based on short DNA motif discovery in order to characterize sequence patterns related to aberrant CpG methylation events. We provide our framework as a user-friendly, shiny-based application, CpGmotifs, to easily retrieve and characterize DNA patterns related to CpG methylation in the human genome. Our tool supports the functional interpretation of deregulated methylation events by predicting transcription factors binding sites (TFBS) encompassing the identified motifs. Conclusions CpGmotifs is an open source software. Its source code is available on GitHub https://github.com/Greco-Lab/CpGmotifs and a ready-to-use docker image is provided on DockerHub at https://hub.docker.com/r/grecolab/cpgmotifs .
  • Chroumpi, Tania; Martínez-Reyes, Natalia; Kun, Roland S.; Peng, Mao; Lipzen, Anna; Ng, Vivian; Tejomurthula, Sravanthi; Zhang, Yu; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Mäkelä, Miia R.; de Vries, Ronald P.; Garrigues, Sandra (2022)
    The current impetus towards a sustainable bio-based economy has accelerated research to better understand the mechanisms through which filamentous fungi convert plant biomass, a valuable feedstock for biotechnological applications. Several transcription factors have been reported to control the polysaccharide degradation and metabolism of the resulting sugars in fungi. However, little is known about their individual contributions, interactions and crosstalk. D-galactose is a hexose sugar present mainly in hemicellulose and pectin in plant biomass. Here, we study D-galactose conversion by Aspergillus niger and describe the involvement of the arabinanolytic and xylanolytic activators AraR and XlnR, in addition to the D-galactose-responsive regulator GalX. Our results deepen the understanding of the complexity of the filamentous fungal regulatory network for plant biomass degradation and sugar catabolism, and facilitate the generation of more efficient plant biomass-degrading strains for biotechnological applications.
  • Eggeling, Ralf (2018)
    The binding motifs of many transcription factors (TFs) comprise a higher degree of complexity than a single position weight matrix model permits. Additional complexity is typically taken into account either as intra-motif dependencies via more sophisticated probabilistic models or as heterogeneities via multiple weight matrices. However, both orthogonal approaches have limitations when learning from in vivo data where binding sites of other factors in close proximity can interfere with motif discovery for the protein of interest. In this work, we demonstrate how intra-motif complexity can, purely by analyzing the statistical properties of a given set of TF-binding sites, be distinguished from complexity arising from an intermix with motifs of co-binding TFs or other artifacts. In addition, we study the related question whether intra-motif complexity is represented more effectively by dependencies, heterogeneities or variants in between. Benchmarks demonstrate the effectiveness of both methods for their respective tasks and applications on motif discovery output from recent tools detect and correct many undesirable artifacts. These results further suggest that the prevalence of intra-motif dependencies may have been overestimated in previous studies on in vivo data and should thus be reassessed.
  • Karhu, S. Tuuli; Kinnunen, Sini M.; Tölli, Marja; Välimäki, Mika J.; Szabo, Zoltan; Talman, Virpi; Ruskoaho, Heikki (2020)
    Doxorubicin is a widely used anticancer drug that causes dose-related cardiotoxicity. The exact mechanisms of doxorubicin toxicity are still unclear, partly because most in vitro studies have evaluated the effects of short-term high-dose doxorubicin treatments. Here, we developed an in vitro model of long-term low-dose administration of doxorubicin utilizing human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs). Moreover, given that current strategies for prevention and management of doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity fail to prevent cancer patients developing heart failure, we also investigated whether the GATA4-targeted compound 3i-1000 has cardioprotective potential against doxorubicin toxicity both in vitro and in vivo. The final doxorubicin concentration used in the chronic toxicity model in vitro was chosen based on cell viability data evaluation. Exposure to doxorubicin at the concentrations of 1-3 mu M markedly reduced (60%) hiPSC-CM viability already within 48 h, while a 14-day treatment with 100 nM doxorubicin concentration induced only a modest 26% reduction in hiPCS-CM viability. Doxorubicin treatment also decreased DNA content in hiPSC-CMs. Interestingly, the compound 3i-1000 attenuated doxorubicin-induced increase in pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (proBNP) expression and caspase-3/7 activation in hiPSC-CMs. Moreover, treatment with 3i-1000 for 2 weeks (30 mg/kg/day, i.p.) inhibited doxorubicin cardiotoxicity by restoring left ventricular ejection fraction and fractional shortening in chronic in vivo rat model. In conclusion, the results demonstrate that long-term exposure of hiPSC-CMs can be utilized as an in vitro model of delayed doxorubicin-induced toxicity and provide in vitro and in vivo evidence that targeting GATA4 may be an effective strategy to counteract doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity.
  • Zeng, Zhen; Sun, Hui; Vainio, Eeva J.; Raffaello, Tommaso; Kovalchuk, Andriy; Morin, Emmanuelle; Duplessis, Sebastien; Asiegbu, Fred O. (2018)
    Background: Heterobasidion parviporum is an economically most important fungal forest pathogen in northern Europe, causing root and butt rot disease of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.). The mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis and virulence of this species remain elusive. No reference genome to facilitate functional analysis is available for this species. Results: To better understand the virulence factor at both phenotypic and genomic level, we characterized 15 H. parviporum isolates originating from different locations across Finland for virulence, vegetative growth, sporulation and saprotrophic wood decay. Wood decay capability and latitude of fungal origins exerted interactive effects on their virulence and appeared important for H. parviporum virulence. We sequenced the most virulent isolate, the first full genome sequences of H. parviporum as a reference genome, and re-sequenced the remaining 14 H. parviporum isolates. Genome-wide alignments and intrinsic polymorphism analysis showed that these isolates exhibited overall high genomic similarity with an average of at least 96% nucleotide identity when compared to the reference, yet had remarkable intra-specific level of polymorphism with a bias for CpG to TpG mutations. Reads mapping coverage analysis enabled the classification of all predicted genes into five groups and uncovered two genomic regions exclusively present in the reference with putative contribution to its higher virulence. Genes enriched for copy number variations (deletions and duplications) and nucleotide polymorphism were involved in oxidation-reduction processes and encoding domains relevant to transcription factors. Some secreted protein coding genes based on the genome-wide selection pressure, or the presence of variants were proposed as potential virulence candidates. Conclusion: Our study reported on the first reference genome sequence for this Norway spruce pathogen (H. parviporum). Comparative genomics analysis gave insight into the overall genomic variation among this fungal species and also facilitated the identification of several secreted protein coding genes as putative virulence factors for the further functional analysis. We also analyzed and identified phenotypic traits potentially linked to its virulence.
  • Zeng, Zhen; Sun, Hui; Vainio, Eeva J.; Raffaello, Tommaso; Kovalchuk, Andriy; Morin, Emmanuelle; Duplessis, Sébastien; Asiegbu, Fred O. (BioMed Central, 2018)
    Abstract Background Heterobasidion parviporum is an economically most important fungal forest pathogen in northern Europe, causing root and butt rot disease of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.). The mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis and virulence of this species remain elusive. No reference genome to facilitate functional analysis is available for this species. Results To better understand the virulence factor at both phenotypic and genomic level, we characterized 15 H. parviporum isolates originating from different locations across Finland for virulence, vegetative growth, sporulation and saprotrophic wood decay. Wood decay capability and latitude of fungal origins exerted interactive effects on their virulence and appeared important for H. parviporum virulence. We sequenced the most virulent isolate, the first full genome sequences of H. parviporum as a reference genome, and re-sequenced the remaining 14 H. parviporum isolates. Genome-wide alignments and intrinsic polymorphism analysis showed that these isolates exhibited overall high genomic similarity with an average of at least 96% nucleotide identity when compared to the reference, yet had remarkable intra-specific level of polymorphism with a bias for CpG to TpG mutations. Reads mapping coverage analysis enabled the classification of all predicted genes into five groups and uncovered two genomic regions exclusively present in the reference with putative contribution to its higher virulence. Genes enriched for copy number variations (deletions and duplications) and nucleotide polymorphism were involved in oxidation-reduction processes and encoding domains relevant to transcription factors. Some secreted protein coding genes based on the genome-wide selection pressure, or the presence of variants were proposed as potential virulence candidates. Conclusion Our study reported on the first reference genome sequence for this Norway spruce pathogen (H. parviporum). Comparative genomics analysis gave insight into the overall genomic variation among this fungal species and also facilitated the identification of several secreted protein coding genes as putative virulence factors for the further functional analysis. We also analyzed and identified phenotypic traits potentially linked to its virulence.
  • Jha, Sawan Kumar; Rauniyar, Khusbu; Jeltsch, Michael (2018)
    While both blood and lymphatic vessels transport fluids and thus share many similarities, they also show functional and structural differences, which can be used to differentiate them. Specific visualization of lymphatic vessels has historically been and still is a pivot point in lymphatic research. Many of the proteins that are investigated by molecular biologists in lymphatic research have been defined as marker molecules, i.e. to visualize and distinguish lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) from other cell types, most notably from blood vascular endothelial cells (BECs) and cells of the hematopoietic lineage. Among the factors that drive the developmental differentiation of lymphatic structures from venous endothelium, Prospero homeobox protein 1 (PROX1) is the master transcriptional regulator. PROX1 maintains lymphatic identity also in the adult organism and thus is a universal LEC marker. Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-3 (VEGFR-3) is the major tyrosine kinase receptor that drives LEC proliferation and migration. The major activator for VEGFR-3 is vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C). However, before VEGF-C can signal, it needs to be proteolytically activated by an extracellular protein complex comprised of Collagen and calcium binding EGF domains 1 (CCBE1) protein and the protease A disintegrin and metallopeptidase with thrombospondin type 1 motif 3 (ADAMTS3). This minireview attempts to give an overview of these and a few other central proteins that scientific inquiry has linked specifically to the lymphatic vasculature. It is limited in scope to a brief description of their main functions, properties and developmental roles. (C) 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier GmbH.
  • Yoshihara, Masahito; Kirjanov, Ida; Nykänen, Sonja; Sokka, Joonas; Weltner, Jere; Lundin, Karolina; Gawriyski, Lisa; Jouhilahti, Eeva-Mari; Varjosalo, Markku; Tervaniemi, Mari H.; Otonkoski, Timo; Trokovic, Ras; Katayama, Shintaro; Vuoristo, Sanna; Kere, Juha (2022)
    Embryonic genome activation (EGA) is critical for embryonic development. However, our understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of human EGA is still incomplete. Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are an established model for studying developmental processes, but they resemble epiblast and are sub-optimal for modeling EGA. DUX4 regulates human EGA by inducing cleavage-stage-specific genes, while it also induces cell death. We report here that a short-pulsed expression of DUX4 in primed hESCs activates an EGA-like gene expression program in up to 17% of the cells, retaining cell viability. These DUX4-induced cells resembled eight-cell stage blastomeres and were named induced blastomere-like (iBM) cells. The iBM cells showed marked reduction of POU5F1 protein, as previously observed in mouse two-cell-like cells. Finally, the iBM cells were successfully enriched using an antibody against NaPi2b (SLC34A2), which is expressed in human blastomeres. The iBM cells provide an improved model system to study human EGA transcriptome.