Browsing by Subject "Transcriptome"

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  • Lund, Carina; Yellapragada, Venkatram; Vuoristo, Sanna; Balboa, Diego; Trova, Sara; Allet, Cecile; Eskici, Nazli; Pulli, Kristiina; Giacobini, Paolo; Tuuri, Timo; Raivio, Taneli (2020)
    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons provide a fundamental signal for the onset of puberty and subsequent reproductive functions by secretion of gonadotropin-releasing hormone. Their disrupted development or function leads to congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (CHH). To model the development of human GnRH neurons, we generated a stable GNRH1-TdTomato reporter cell line in human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) using CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing. RNA-sequencing of the reporter clone, differentiated into GnRH neurons by dual SMAD inhibition and FGF8 treatment, revealed 6461 differentially expressed genes between progenitors and GnRH neurons. Expression of the transcription factor ISL1, one of the top 50 most upregulated genes in the TdTomato-expressing GnRH neurons, was confirmed in 10.5 gestational week-old human fetal GnRH neurons. Among the differentially expressed genes, we detected 15 genes that are implicated in CHH and several genes that are implicated in human puberty timing. Finally, FGF8 treatment in the neuronal progenitor pool led to upregulation of 37 genes expressed both in progenitors and in TdTomato-expressing GnRH neurons, which suggests upstream regulation of these genes by FGF8 signaling during GnRH neuron differentiation. These results illustrate how hPSC-derived human GnRH neuron transcriptomic analysis can be utilized to dissect signaling pathways and gene regulatory networks involved in human GnRH neuron development.This article has an associated First Person interview with the first author of the paper.
  • Oghenekaro, Abbot O.; Raffaello, Tommaso; Kovalchuk, Andriy; Asiegbu, Fred O. (2016)
    Background: The basidiomycete Rigidoporus microporus is a fungus that causes the white rot disease of the tropical rubber tree, Hevea brasiliensis, the major source of commercial natural rubber. Besides its lifestyle as a pathogen, the fungus is known to switch to saprotrophic growth on wood with the ability to degrade both lignin and cellulose. There is almost no genomic or transcriptomic information on the saprotrophic abilities of this fungus. In this study, we present the fungal transcriptomic profiles during saprotrophic growth on rubber wood. Results: A total of 266.6 million RNA-Seq reads were generated from six libraries of the fungus growing either on rubber wood or without wood. De novo assembly produced 34, 518 unigenes with an average length of 217(bp. Annotation of unigenes using public databases; GenBank, Swiss-Prot, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG), Cluster of Orthologous Groups (COG) and Gene Ontology (GO) produced 25, 880 annotated unigenes. Transcriptomic profiling analysis revealed that the fungus expressed over 300 genes encoding lignocellulolytic enzymes. Among these, 175 genes were up-regulated in rubber wood. These include three members of the glycoside hydrolase family 43, as well as various glycosyl transferases, carbohydrate esterases and polysaccharide lyases. A large number of oxidoreductases which includes nine manganese peroxidases were also significantly up-regulated in rubber wood. Several genes involved in fatty acid metabolism and degradation as well as natural rubber degradation were expressed in the transcriptome. Four genes (acyl-CoA synthetase, enoyl-CoA hydratase, 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase and acyl-CoA acetyltransferase) potentially involved in rubber latex degradation pathway were also induced. A number of ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters and hydrophobin genes were significantly expressed in the transcriptome during saprotrophic growth. Some genes related to energy metabolism were also induced. Conclusions: The analysed data gives an insight into the activation of lignocellulose breakdown machinery of R. microporus. This study also revealed genes with relevance in antibiotic metabolism (e.g. cephalosporin esterase) as well as those with potential applications in fatty acid degradation. This is the first study on the transcriptomic analysis of R. microporus on rubber wood and should serve as a pioneering resource for future studies of the fungus at the genomic or transcriptomic level.
  • Katayama, Shintaro; Skoog, Tiina; Söderhäll, Cilla; Einarsdottir, Elisabet; Krjutskov, Kaarel; Kere, Juha (2019)
    Background Standard RNAseq methods using bulk RNA and recent single-cell RNAseq methods use DNA barcodes to identify samples and cells, and the barcoded cDNAs are pooled into a library pool before high throughput sequencing. In cases of single-cell and low-input RNAseq methods, the library is further amplified by PCR after the pooling. Preparation of hundreds or more samples for a large study often requires multiple library pools. However, sometimes correlation between expression profiles among the libraries is low and batch effect biases make integration of data between library pools difficult. Results We investigated 166 technical replicates in 14 RNAseq libraries made using the STRT method. The patterns of the library biases differed by genes, and uneven library yields were associated with library biases. The former bias was corrected using the NBGLM-LBC algorithm, which we present in the current study. The latter bias could not be corrected directly, but could be solved by omitting libraries with particularly low yields. A simulation experiment suggested that the library bias correction using NBGLM-LBC requires a consistent sample layout. The NBGLM-LBC correction method was applied to an expression profile for a cohort study of childhood acute respiratory illness, and the library biases were resolved. Conclusions The R source code for the library bias correction named NBGLM-LBC is available at and . This method is applicable to correct the library biases in various studies that use highly multiplexed sequencing-based profiling methods with a consistent sample layout with samples to be compared (e.g., "cases" and "controls") equally distributed in each library.
  • Katayama, Shintaro; Skoog, Tiina; Söderhäll, Cilla; Einarsdottir, Elisabet; Krjutškov, Kaarel; Kere, Juha (BioMed Central, 2019)
    Abstract Background Standard RNAseq methods using bulk RNA and recent single-cell RNAseq methods use DNA barcodes to identify samples and cells, and the barcoded cDNAs are pooled into a library pool before high throughput sequencing. In cases of single-cell and low-input RNAseq methods, the library is further amplified by PCR after the pooling. Preparation of hundreds or more samples for a large study often requires multiple library pools. However, sometimes correlation between expression profiles among the libraries is low and batch effect biases make integration of data between library pools difficult. Results We investigated 166 technical replicates in 14 RNAseq libraries made using the STRT method. The patterns of the library biases differed by genes, and uneven library yields were associated with library biases. The former bias was corrected using the NBGLM-LBC algorithm, which we present in the current study. The latter bias could not be corrected directly, but could be solved by omitting libraries with particularly low yields. A simulation experiment suggested that the library bias correction using NBGLM-LBC requires a consistent sample layout. The NBGLM-LBC correction method was applied to an expression profile for a cohort study of childhood acute respiratory illness, and the library biases were resolved. Conclusions The R source code for the library bias correction named NBGLM-LBC is available at https://shka.github.io/NBGLM-LBC and https://shka.bitbucket.io/NBGLM-LBC . This method is applicable to correct the library biases in various studies that use highly multiplexed sequencing-based profiling methods with a consistent sample layout with samples to be compared (e.g., “cases” and “controls”) equally distributed in each library.
  • eQTLGen Consortium (2018)
    Understanding the difference in genetic regulation of gene expression between brain and blood is important for discovering genes for brain-related traits and disorders. Here, we estimate the correlation of genetic effects at the top-associated cis-expression or -DNA methylation (DNAm) quantitative trait loci (cis-eQTLs or cis-mQTLs) between brain and blood (r b ). Using publicly available data, we find that genetic effects at the top cis-eQTLs or mQTLs are highly correlated between independent brain and blood samples (r b = 0.70 for cis-eQTLs and r ^ b = 0.78 for cis-mQTLs). Using meta-analyzed brain cis-eQTL/mQTL data (n = 526 to 1194), we identify 61 genes and 167 DNAm sites associated with four brain-related phenotypes, most of which are a subset of the discoveries (97 genes and 295 DNAm sites) using data from blood with larger sample sizes (n = 1980 to 14,115). Our results demonstrate the gain of power in gene discovery for brain-related phenotypes using blood cis-eQTL/mQTL data with large sample sizes. © 2018 The Author(s).
  • Utami, Kagistia Hana; Skotte, Nils H.; Colaco, Ana R.; Yusof, Nur Amirah Binte Mohammad; Sim, Bernice; Yeo, Xin Yi; Bae, Han-Gye; Garcia-Miralles, Marta; Radulescu, Carola I.; Chen, Qiyu; Chaldaiopoulou, Georgia; Liany, Herty; Nama, Srikanth; Peteri, Ulla-Kaisa A.; Sampath, Prabha; Castrén, Maija; Jung, Sangyong; Mann, Matthias; Pouladi, Mahmoud (2020)
    BACKGROUND: Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by epigenetic silencing of FMR1 and loss of FMRP expression. Efforts to understand the molecular underpinnings of the disease have been largely performed in rodent or nonisogenic settings. A detailed examination of the impact of FMRP loss on cellular processes and neuronal properties in the context of isogenic human neurons remains lacking. METHODS: Using CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)/Cas9 to introduce indels in exon 3 of FMR1, we generated an isogenic human pluripotent stem cell model of FXS that shows complete loss of FMRP expression. We generated neuronal cultures and performed genome-wide transcriptome and proteome profiling followed by functional validation of key dysregulated processes. We further analyzed neurodevelopmental and neuronal properties, including neurite length and neuronal activity, using multielectrode arrays and patch clamp electrophysiology. RESULTS: We showed that the transcriptome and proteome profiles of isogenic FMRP-deficient neurons demonstrate perturbations in synaptic transmission, neuron differentiation, cell proliferation and ion transmembrane transporter activity pathways, and autism spectrum disorder-associated gene sets. We uncovered key deficits in FMRP-deficient cells demonstrating abnormal neural rosette formation and neural progenitor cell proliferation. We further showed that FMRP-deficient neurons exhibit a number of additional phenotypic abnormalities, including neurite outgrowth and branching deficits and impaired electrophysiological network activity. These FMRP-deficient related impairments have also been validated in additional FXS patient-derived human-induced pluripotent stem cell neural cells. CONCLUSIONS: Using isogenic human pluripotent stem cells as a model to investigate the pathophysiology of FXS in human neurons, we reveal key neural abnormalities arising from the loss of FMRP.
  • Mysore, Raghavendra; Zhou, You; Sädevirta, Sanja; Savolainen-Peltonen, Hanna; Haridas, P. A. Nidhina; Soronen, Jarkko; Leivonen, Marja; Sarin, Antti-Pekka; Fischer-Posovszky, Pamela; Wabitsch, Martin; Yki-Jarvinen, Hannele; Olkkonen, Vesa M. (2016)
    We investigated the expression of miR-192* (miR-192-3p) in the visceral adipose tissue (VAT) of obese subjects and its function in cultured human adipocytes. This miRNA is a 3' arm derived from the same pre-miRNA as miR-192 (miR-192-5p) implicated in type 2 diabetes, liver disease and cancers, and is predicted to target key genes in lipid metabolism. In morbidly obese subjects undergoing bariatric surgery preceded by a very low calorie diet, miR-192* in VAT correlated negatively (r = -0.387; p = 0.046) with serum triglyceride (TG) and positively with high-density lipoprotein (HDL) concentration (r = 0.396; p = 0.041). In a less obese patient cohort, the miRNA correlated negatively with the body mass index (r = -0.537; p = 0.026). To characterize the function of miR-192*, we overexpressed it in cultured adipocytes and analyzed the expression of adipogenic differentiation markers as well as cellular TG content. Reduced TG and expression of the adipocyte marker proteins aP2 (adipocyte protein 2) and perilipin 1 were observed. The function of miR-192* was further investigated by transcriptomic profiling of adipocytes expressing this miRNA, revealing impacts on key lipogenic genes. A number of the mRNA alterations were validated by qPCR. Western analysis confirmed a marked reduction of the lipogenic enzyme SCD (stearoyl coenzyme A desaturase-1), the fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase ALDH3A2 (aldehyde dehydrogenase 3 family member A2) and the high-density lipoprotein receptor SCARB1 (scavenger receptor B, type I). SCD and ALDH3A2 were demonstrated to be direct targets of miR-192*. To conclude, the present data identify miR-192* as a novel controller of adipocyte differentiation and lipid homeostasis. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Hyvärinen, Kati; Tuomainen, Anita M.; Laitinen, Saara; Alfthan, Georg; Salminen, Irma; Leinonen, Maija; Saikku, Pekka; Kovanen, Petri T.; Jauhiainen, Matti; Pussinen, Pirkko J. (2013)
  • Linares, Nancy Coconi; Di Falco, Marcos; Benoit-Gelber, Isabelle; Gruben, Birgit S.; Peng, Mao; Tsang, Adrian; Mäkelä, Miia R.; de Vries, Ronald P. (2019)
    Guar gum consists mainly of galactomannan and constitutes the endosperm of guar seeds that acts as a reserve polysaccharide for germination. Due to its molecular structure and physical properties, this biopolymer has been considered as one of the most important and widely used gums in industry. However, for many of these applications this (hemi-) cellulosic structure needs to be modified or (partially) depolymerized in order to customize and improve its physicochemical properties. In this study, transcriptome, exoproteome and enzyme activity analyses were employed to decipher the complete enzymatic arsenal for guar gum depolymerization by Aspergillus niger. This multi-omic analysis revealed a set of 46 genes encoding carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes) responding to the presence of guar gum, including CAZymes not only with preferred activity towards galactomannan, but also towards (arabino-) xylan, cellulose, starch and pectin, likely due to trace components in guar gum. This demonstrates that the purity of substrates has a strong effect on the resulting enzyme mixture produced by A. niger and probably by other fungi as well, which has significant implications for the commercial production of fungal enzyme cocktails.
  • Prokopec, Stephenie D.; Viluksela, Matti; Miettinen, Hanna M.; Boutros, Paul C.; Pohjanvirta, Raimo (2020)
    In rats, direct exposure to TCDD causes myriad toxicities. Exposed rats experience hepatotoxicity, wasting syndrome and immune suppression, amongst others. "Inherited exposure", as occurs in the F3 generation of directly exposed F0 animals, has also been shown to cause toxicity: both male and female F3 rats demonstrate an increased incidence of adult onset disease, females also display reproductive abnormalities and increased incidence of ovarian diseases while males show increased incidence of kidney disease and an altered sperm epigenome. Here, we explore the hepatic transcriptomic profile of male and female F3 Sprague-Dawley rats bred through the paternal germ line from F0 dams exposed to a single dose of TCDD (0, 30, 100, 300 or 1000 ng/kg body weight) by oral gavage. We hypothesize that RNA transcripts with altered abundance in livers of unexposed F3 progeny of treated F0 Sprague-Dawley rats may result from epigenetic modifications to the genome. We further survey patterns of differential methylation within male F3 rat testis. Female F3 rats demonstrated more TCDD-mediated hepatic transcriptomic changes than males, with differences primarily in the lowest dose group. In testis from male F3 rats, multiple olfactory receptors displayed patterns of differential methylation. Hypermethylation of Egfr and Mc5r among testes from TCDD lineage rats was observed, but without corresponding changes in hepatic mRNA abundance. Further studies examining these differences in other tissue types are warranted.
  • Kinfe, Thomas M.; Asif, Maria; Chakravarthy, Krishnan V.; Deer, Timothy R.; Kramer, Jeffery M.; Yearwood, Thomas L.; Hurlemann, Rene; Hussain, Muhammad Sajid; Motameny, Susanne; Wagle, Prerana; Nürnberg, Peter; Gravius, Sascha; Randau, Thomas; Gravius, Nadine; Chaudhry, Shafqat R.; Muhammad, Sajjad (2019)
    BackgroundIn our recent clinical trial, increased peripheral concentrations of pro-inflammatory molecular mediators were determined in complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) patients. After 3months adjunctive unilateral, selective L4 dorsal root ganglion stimulation (L4-DRG(STIM)), significantly decreased serum IL-10 and increased saliva oxytocin levels were assessed along with an improved pain and functional state. The current study extended molecular profiling towards gene expression analysis of genes known to be involved in the gonadotropin releasing hormone receptor and neuroinflammatory (cytokines/chemokines) signaling pathways.MethodsBlood samples were collected from 12 CRPS patients for whole-transcriptome profiling in order to assay 18,845 inflammation-associated genes from frozen blood at baseline and after 3months L4-DRG(STIM) using PANTHER pathway enrichment analysis tool.ResultsPathway enrichment analyses tools (GOrilla and PANTHER) showed predominant involvement of inflammation mediated by chemokines/cytokines and gonadotropin releasing hormone receptor pathways. Further, screening of differentially regulated genes showed changes in innate immune response related genes. Transcriptomic analysis showed that 21 genes (predominantly immunoinflammatory) were significantly changed after L4-DRG(STIM). Seven genes including TLR1, FFAR2, IL1RAP, ILRN, C5, PKB and IL18 were down regulated and fourteen genes including CXCL2, CCL11, IL36G, CRP, SCGB1A1, IL-17F, TNFRSF4, PLA2G2A, CREB3L3, ADAMTS12, IL1F10, NOX1, CHIA and BDKRB1 were upregulated.ConclusionsIn our sub-group analysis of L4-DRG(STIM) treated CRPS patients, we found either upregulated or downregulated genes involved in immunoinflammatory circuits relevant for the pathophysiology of CRPS indicating a possible relation. However, large biobank-based approaches are recommended to establish genetic phenotyping as a quantitative outcome measure in CRPS patients.Trial registration The study protocol was registered at the 15.11.2016 on German Register for Clinical Trials (DRKS ID 00011267). https://www.drks.de/drks_web/navigate.do?navigationId=trial.HTML&TRIAL_ID=DRKS00011267
  • Kinfe, Thomas M; Asif, Maria; Chakravarthy, Krishnan V; Deer, Timothy R; Kramer, Jeffery M; Yearwood, Thomas L; Hurlemann, Rene; Hussain, Muhammad S; Motameny, Susanne; Wagle, Prerana; Nürnberg, Peter; Gravius, Sascha; Randau, Thomas; Gravius, Nadine; Chaudhry, Shafqat R; Muhammad, Sajjad (BioMed Central, 2019)
    Abstract Background In our recent clinical trial, increased peripheral concentrations of pro-inflammatory molecular mediators were determined in complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) patients. After 3 months adjunctive unilateral, selective L4 dorsal root ganglion stimulation (L4-DRGSTIM), significantly decreased serum IL-10 and increased saliva oxytocin levels were assessed along with an improved pain and functional state. The current study extended molecular profiling towards gene expression analysis of genes known to be involved in the gonadotropin releasing hormone receptor and neuroinflammatory (cytokines/chemokines) signaling pathways. Methods Blood samples were collected from 12 CRPS patients for whole-transcriptome profiling in order to assay 18,845 inflammation-associated genes from frozen blood at baseline and after 3 months L4-DRGSTIM using PANTHER™ pathway enrichment analysis tool. Results Pathway enrichment analyses tools (GOrilla™ and PANTHER™) showed predominant involvement of inflammation mediated by chemokines/cytokines and gonadotropin releasing hormone receptor pathways. Further, screening of differentially regulated genes showed changes in innate immune response related genes. Transcriptomic analysis showed that 21 genes (predominantly immunoinflammatory) were significantly changed after L4-DRGSTIM. Seven genes including TLR1, FFAR2, IL1RAP, ILRN, C5, PKB and IL18 were down regulated and fourteen genes including CXCL2, CCL11, IL36G, CRP, SCGB1A1, IL-17F, TNFRSF4, PLA2G2A, CREB3L3, ADAMTS12, IL1F10, NOX1, CHIA and BDKRB1 were upregulated. Conclusions In our sub-group analysis of L4-DRGSTIM treated CRPS patients, we found either upregulated or downregulated genes involved in immunoinflammatory circuits relevant for the pathophysiology of CRPS indicating a possible relation. However, large biobank-based approaches are recommended to establish genetic phenotyping as a quantitative outcome measure in CRPS patients. Trial registration The study protocol was registered at the 15.11.2016 on German Register for Clinical Trials (DRKS ID 00011267). https://www.drks.de/drks_web/navigate.do?navigationId=trial.HTML&TRIAL_ID=DRKS00011267