Browsing by Subject "Transition"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-13 of 13
  • Danielsson, Maria; Lammi, Anelma; Siitonen, Simo; Ollgren, Jukka; Pylkkänen, Liisa; Vasankari, Tuula (BioMed Central, 2019)
    Abstract Background The consumption of tobacco products has evolved to include more complex combinations of different products. We investigated the tobacco habits of a representative population of young Finnish male conscripts in order to evaluate the prevalence of dual use of cigarettes and snus as well as the transition from one tobacco product to another. In addition, we evaluated the correlation between the level of education and the use of cigarettes and snus. Methods A questionnaire-based survey was carried out in three out of 17 garrisons among conscripts during their first week of service in 2014. A total of 1971 male conscripts were selected by simple random sampling of the 9013 males in the selected garrisons. Of them 1916 participated and filled in the questionnaire. The response rate was 97.2%. The questionnaire consisted of 25 questions including age, gender, basic education, use of tobacco products as well as questions assessing nicotine dependency. Results The amount of dual users of cigarettes and snus was 21%. There was a higher probability of dual use of cigarettes and snus among smokers compared to snus users (p < 0.001). One third (35%) of former smokers reported daily snus use and over 40% of the former snus users smoked daily. One third (34%) of the participants reported snus usage and 14% of the study subjects used snus daily. 40% of the study population were smokers and over 25% smoked daily. Of the participants with basic educational background 57% smoked daily (p < 0.001), however, no association between snus and level of education was found (p = 0.69). Conclusions This study provides better understanding of the complex tobacco habits of young adult males. The simultaneous usage of multiple tobacco products as well as the high tendency to transition from one tobacco product to another should be taken into consideration when planning cessation interventions in health care settings and tobacco control policies at societal levels.
  • Danielsson, Maria; Lammi, Anelma; Siitonen, Simo; Ollgren, Jukka; Pylkkanen, Liisa; Vasankari, Tuula (2019)
    Background The consumption of tobacco products has evolved to include more complex combinations of different products. We investigated the tobacco habits of a representative population of young Finnish male conscripts in order to evaluate the prevalence of dual use of cigarettes and snus as well as the transition from one tobacco product to another. In addition, we evaluated the correlation between the level of education and the use of cigarettes and snus. Methods A questionnaire-based survey was carried out in three out of 17 garrisons among conscripts during their first week of service in 2014. A total of 1971 male conscripts were selected by simple random sampling of the 9013 males in the selected garrisons. Of them 1916 participated and filled in the questionnaire. The response rate was 97.2%. The questionnaire consisted of 25 questions including age, gender, basic education, use of tobacco products as well as questions assessing nicotine dependency. Results The amount of dual users of cigarettes and snus was 21%. There was a higher probability of dual use of cigarettes and snus among smokers compared to snus users (p <0.001). One third (35%) of former smokers reported daily snus use and over 40% of the former snus users smoked daily. One third (34%) of the participants reported snus usage and 14% of the study subjects used snus daily. 40% of the study population were smokers and over 25% smoked daily. Of the participants with basic educational background 57% smoked daily (p <0.001), however, no association between snus and level of education was found (p = 0.69). Conclusions This study provides better understanding of the complex tobacco habits of young adult males. The simultaneous usage of multiple tobacco products as well as the high tendency to transition from one tobacco product to another should be taken into consideration when planning cessation interventions in health care settings and tobacco control policies at societal levels.
  • Vainio, Annukka; Varho, Vilja; Tapio, Petri; Pulkka, Anna; Paloniemi, Riikka (2019)
    Achieving a sustainable energy transition is crucial for mitigating climate change. Citizens' acceptance of the transition is important for it to succeed. We explored citizens' images of the future energy forms and energy system in Finland, and the drivers of a sustainable energy transition. The data gathered with an online questionnaire targeting an adult population 17–75 years of age (N = 1012) were analysed with exploratory factor analysis and multiple linear regression. Four dimensions of future energy forms were identified: next-generation renewables, fossil energy, bioenergy, and established renewable vs. nuclear energy. Four dimensions of the future energy system were also identified: renewing the energy market, domestic power, small-scale producers, and consumer awareness. Five transition drivers were likewise identified: mainstreaming renewable energy, international actors, individual actions, changing values and economy, and emancipatory change. Mainstreaming renewable energy emerged as the key driver of transition, followed by individual actions. Generally, the sustainable energy transition was strongly supported by citizens' images, but different socio-economic groups preferred somewhat different images. Thus, the diversity of consumers' and citizens’ roles in the transition needs to be acknowledged and encouraged in legitimate national energy policies.
  • Vandenbroucke, Loren; Verschueren, Karine; Desoete, Annemie; Aunio, Pirjo; Ghesquiere, Pol; Baeyens, Dieter (2018)
    Working memory is important for a variety of life domains,. including for children's school functioning. As such, it is crucial to understand its development, antecedents and consequences. The current study investigates the development of different working memory components (phonological loop, visuospatial sketchpad, central executive), the influence of different aspects of the teacher-student relationship (closeness, conflict, dependency) and its predictive value for academic achievement (reading, spelling, mathematics) across the transition from kindergarten to first grade. The sample consisted of 107 kindergarten children. Working memory tasks were administered at the end of kindergarten and first grade. Teachers reported on teacher-student relationship quality in the middle of first grade. Standardized tests were used to assess academic achievement at the end of first grade. Results indicate moderate to large increases in the phonological loop and visuospatial sketchpad and large gains in the central executive. Dependency of the student towards the teacher significantly predicted visuospatial sketchpad performance at the end of first grade. Reading was significantly predicted by the visuospatial sketchpad and phonological loop in kindergarten, while for spelling the visuospatial sketchpad was important. Finally, mathematics was predicted by performance on the phonological loop and the visuospatial sketchpad. The current study indicates the importance of the affective quality of the teacher-student relationship for working memory performance, which in turn is important for academic achievement. It is therefore critical to attend to the early detection and prevention or intervention of working memory problems in the classroom in order to prevent future academic problems. Additionally, maintaining a positive relationship with students and encouraging their independent exploration may be important when preventing such problems, complementary to cognitive or other types of training and intervention.
  • Suominen, Kaarina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    The role of Vietnam in Finnish Development Policy changed in the beginning of the 21st century as Vietnam “graduated” from a low-income country status to a lower middle-income country. While this has justified reduction of ODA or a complete aid exit, Finland, like other donors has clearly interest in maintaining and strengthening ‘post aid’ relationships with Vietnam. But what does this shift to post-aid relations or “transition” actually mean in the specific context? In this thesis, the complex phenomenon of transition is looked through different theoretical lenses of international relations and development studies. The main research questions concern the dimensions of transition: what has been the transition environment in Vietnam and how the transition process has changed the relations between Finland and Vietnam. Furthermore, I look at what aims, expectations and justifications have been around the transition process. Thus, it is a study on the process in which state-to-state relations move from the position of one side giving grant-based bilateral assistance to the enhancement of a new kind of partnership as well as a dive into contemporary Finnish development policy. In a temporal scale, the research is confined to the period of transition, which is officially stated to be between the years 2016-2020 but as the process has started long ago, focus is around the year 2010, the year Vietnam “graduated”. Central areas of focus in the research are the role of middle income countries in contemporary development policy as well as different justifications for transitions. The research did not focus on a dichotomous thinking on whether development cooperation was seen as good or bad, but was aimed at looking at the negotiation between the actors and views from both sides. I look at the collected data from the point of view of both the materialist theories, mostly the realist school without forgetting the appeal of ideal approaches, thus pluralist and constructivist points of view. The empirical foundation of the study is based on archival and document data on the relations between Finland and Vietnam, focusing especially on the transition period. The data includes among others the official transition strategy as well as minutes and ambassador’s statements. I complement the document data with thematic interviews conducted in Hanoi with practitioners of the transition. In the study, it was found out that the decision to end aid to Vietnam seems to have been a sum of many developments, but especially a Finnish political decision. Finnish development policy has been directed by the official statements and guidelines in which developmentalist justifications for ending bilateral development assistance have been highlighted. It is also a big step for both the donor as well as the receiver, as ending the funding also changes the power relations between the countries. The case of transition between Finland and Vietnam was chosen as the case represents a major transformation of the development relation, involves processes of negotiating and planning new initiatives. On the relations of Vietnam and Finland there can be found supporting evidence for all of the theoretical approaches. A change in the relations can be detected and the change has many justifications. Materialist interests were obvious, but even better the change might be explained by the fact that the decision and design for transitions was done in the developmentalist complex which was directed by how donors view Middle Income countries. Also three dimensions from the literature were identified in this case: the phasing out of ‘traditional’ development cooperation; phasing in of new forms of ODA-financed activities more focused on fostering bilateral relations based on mutual interests; and phasing in of new types of broader or broad-based non-ODA cooperation, be it political, commercial or scientific. Also, the issue of using ODA-funding for activities to promote broader bilateral cooperation and trade-interests were present. In the research, it was noted that how Vietnam has reacted to phenomenon of donors phasing out has been volatile. As a premise, it can be stated that the decision of ending aid has been adopted but reluctantly and that Finland’s attempt to transform the bilateral relationships with Vietnam proved to be challenging for a variety of reasons. On one hand, the Finnish transition was smoothened by the fact that many other donors had already phased out before Finland and it was found out that the decision to phase out quite late might be beneficial for Finland, On the other hand, the Vietnamese actors would not have opposed to the continuing of aid. Nevertheless, the government of Vietnam is clearly making autonomous plans on its future and the fear of aid dependency was not present. As a conclusion of the donor-recipient relation it can be stated that Finland has seemed to have had commercial and geopolitical interests involved in the transition process, but these interests were not the primary directing incentives in the transition process. This is much due to the strong ownership of Vietnam as well as the example of the donor community in Vietnam.
  • Kaihlanen, Anu-Marja; Elovainio, Marko; Haavisto, Elina; Salminen, Leena; Sinervo, Timo (2020)
    Background The shortage of nurses is a global issue, and turnover rates are especially high for newly graduated nurses. The transition from student to nurse is often described as challenging, and the final clinical practicum before graduation is suggested to be important in preparing graduating students for the transition. However, little is known about the actual relationships between the final clinical practicum, transition and turnover intentions. Objectives To examine whether the final clinical practicum experience is associated with the transition experience and turnover intentions of newly graduated nurses, and whether the transition experience mediates the potential relationship between the practicum and turnover intentions. Design Cross-sectional survey study. Settings The study was carried out in Finland (October–December 2018). Participants Registered nurses graduated within the past two years (n = 712). Methods A new survey instrument with five subscales was developed for measuring the final clinical practicum experience. Transition experience was measured on four scales that demonstrated the emotional, physical, socio-developmental and intellectual domains of the transition: Psychological distress, sleep quality, role conflict/ambiguity, perception of transition and educational preparation. Turnover intentions from job and profession were asked about with two questions. Structural equation modelling was used to explore the associations between the variables. The models were adjusted for multiple potential confounders. Results Final clinical practicum experience was associated with all domains of the transition experience and turnover intentions. The association between the practicum and turnover intentions was partly mediated by the emotional (psychological distress) and socio-developmental (role conflict and ambiguity) domains of the transition. Conclusions Our findings provide new evidence about the associations between the specific final clinical practicum dimensions and turnover intentions and the specific mechanisms linking this association. These results highlight the importance of final clinical practicums and suggest targets for improving nurses' transition processes during their first years in practice.
  • Luukkanen, J.; Kaivo-oja, J.; Vähäkari, N.; O’Mahony, T.; Korkeakoski, M.; Panula-Ontto, J.; Phonhalath, K.; Nanthavong, K.; Reincke, K.; Vehmas, J.; Hogarth, Nicholas (2019)
    A novel 'Sustainability Window' (SuWi) approach is applied for simultaneous analysis of the pillars of sustainable development; social, environmental and economic, of Lao PDR. This new method employs a variety of indicators for a comprehensive and holistic analysis of sustainable development and green inclusive economy. The analysis is grounded in the assumption that economic development is required for social development, but that simultaneously development needs to be guarded or limited to protect the environment that underpins it. As all three dimensions of sustainable development are interlinked, a comprehensive analysis requires an analytical approach that is simultaneous. The analyses provide information on minimum levels of economic development that are needed to fulfil social sustainability criteria, in tandem with the maximum economic development that avoids breaching environmental sustainability criteria. If actual economic growth lies between these minima and maxima, we can interpret that development is more sustainable with respect to the relationships embodied by the selected social and environmental indicators. The main source of data is the database of the Sustainable Society Index (SSI) developed by the Sustainable Society Foundation (SSF). The indicators used by SSI have been chosen for the Sustainability Window analysis as they can be used to assess both 'weak' and 'strong' interpretations of sustainability. Weak sustainability is defined operationally as no increase in the environmental or carbon emissions intensity of the economy, while strong sustainability is defined as no increase in absolute emissions. Further, a novel Environmental Efficiency Gap analysis has been included in the Sustainability Window. This provides information about the necessary improvement in GDP production efficiency with respect to environmental emissions. Sustainability Window combined with Environmental Efficiency Gap analysis, provides critical knowledge for planners and decision makers. It provides strategic indications of how to aim for social and environmental sustainability through economic investment and growth targets. These new methods can be used in transdisciplinary research of sustainable development and can also assist in national and regional comparisons. In the case of Lao PDR, the analysis needs to be broadened for more fundamental understanding of the gaps and weaknesses. SuWi can be used to assess the sustainable development needed to address the Sustainable Development Goals by 2030. The SuWi does not provide direct policy recommendations as such, but helps to inform decision makers about the direction of development pathways towards these key goals. (C) 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
  • Doulos, Andreas (2006)
    The aim of this thesis is to look at how the process of privatization of state property, and thus state industry, had an effect in the problematic political symbiosis of the Russian legislature and executive, which ended in October 1993 with the shelling of the Russian White House. In the attempt to understand and analyze the political developments of the late Soviet and nascent Russian state in the period between 1990-1993, the notion of the State is approached as a "melange of social organizations" seeking to control resources and promote their interests. The institutional framework that was set during Mikhail Gorbachev's attempt to reform the USSR, was inherited by Russia, without drafting a new constitution. The lack of a complete and applicable legal framework in the process of privatization that was launched on January 1st 1992 by the govrnment of President Yeltsin allowed some "social organizations" to grasp or retain control of prosperous state companies, in a process named euphemistically "insider privatization". Starting with Pareto's premise that revolutions are mainly a matter of elite change, it is concluded that in Russia, contrary to other transitional cases, the elites of the old regime managed to remain intact in the new political circumstances. Those elite groups that managed to take advantage of the new chances that a new free market environment offered, mainly through their ability to control key assets of the economy during the socialist times, mobilized themselves and contested the role of state power in the reform process. The group of former industrial directors preserved its strong networking from the previous socialist system and managed to achieve the goals it had set, without difficulties: preserve the control of the most important state enterprises and prevent outside investors from obtaining ownership of enterprises. The difficulties Russia faced during its transition were a result of non functioning democratic institutions, preventing effective rule. It was obvious that the problematic co-existence of President and Parliament was a result of the failure of the political elite to introduce a viable consensus and face demanding financial problems.
  • Lam, David P M; Martín-López, Berta; Wiek, Arnim; Bennett, Elena M; Frantzeskaki, Niki; Horcea-Milcu, Andra I; Lang, Daniel J (BioMed Central, 2020)
    Abstract Amplifying the impact of sustainability initiatives to foster transformations in urban and rural contexts, has received increasing attention in resilience, social innovation, and sustainability transitions research. We review the literature on amplification frameworks and propose an integrative typology of eight processes, which aim to increase the impact of such initiatives. The eight amplification processes are: stabilizing, speeding up, growing, replicating, transferring, spreading, scaling up, and scaling deep. We aggregated these processes into three categories: amplifying within, amplifying out, and amplifying beyond. This integrative typology aims to stimulate the debate on impact amplification from urban and rural sustainability initiatives across research areas to support sustainability transformations. We propose going beyond an understanding of amplification, which focuses only on the increase of numbers of sustainability initiatives, by considering how these initiatives create transformative change.
  • Kaihlanen, Anu-Marja; Elovainio, Marko; Haavisto, Elina; Salminen, Leena; Sinervo, Timo (2020)
    The final clinical practicum before graduation prepares nursing students for the transition from a student to a nurse, but the essential elements of the final clinical practicum that enhance successful transition are not known. We examined the associations of five elements of the final clinical practicum with four indicators of the transition experience in new nurses. We also tested whether psychosocial work characteristics modified these associations. The study sample comprised 712 Finnish nurses who had graduated within the previous two years before the data collection (response rate: 18%). The data were collected using a questionnaire survey in 2018. The elements of the final clinical practicum included (1) the systematicness of the practicum, (2) teacher involvement, (3) the quality of supervision, (4) preparing for the demands of a nurses work and (5) being part of a professional team. Our results, based on linear regression analysis, showed that all the elements except the quality of supervision were associated with indicators of the transition experience (beta range: from 0.08 to 0.35). Job demands modified several of these associations. The findings of this study highlight the potential for well-implemented final clinical practicums to promote a smoother transition for new nurses.
  • Lam, David P.M.; Horcea-Milcu, Andra I.; Fischer, Joern; Peukert, Daniela; Lang, Daniel J. (2020)
    Transformational research frameworks provide understanding and guidance for fostering change towards sustainability. They comprise stages of system understanding, visioning and co-designing intervention strategies to foster change. Guidance and empirical examples for how to facilitate the process of co-designing intervention strategies in real-world contexts remain scarce, especially with regard to integrating local initiatives. We suggest three principles to facilitate the process of co-designing intervention strategies that integrate local initiatives: (1) Explore existing and envisioned initiatives fostering change towards the desired future; (2) Frame the intervention strategy to bridge the gap between the present state and desired future state(s), building on, strengthening and complementing existing initiatives; (3) Identify drivers, barriers and potential leverage points for how to accelerate progress towards sustainability. We illustrate our approach via a case study on sustainable development in Southern Transylvania. We conclude that our principles were useful in the case study, especially with regards to integrating initiatives, and could also be applied in other real-world contexts.
  • Lyytimäki, Jari; Assmuth, Timo; Paloniemi, Riikka; Pyysiäinen, Jarkko; Rantala, Salla; Rikkonen, Pasi; Tapio, Petri; Vainio, Annukka; Winquist, Erika (2021)
    Societal debates are often constructed through dichotomies influenced by various factors such as cognitive capabilities of individuals, culturally shaped valuation processes, underlying societal struggles for power and prestige, economic competition, technological changes or lock-ins and operation logic of the media and social media. Debates over emerging technologies of renewable energy provide an illustrative example of this polarisation. Based on national-level studies focusing on the development of the biogas sector in Finland, we identify ten pertinent dichotomies of renewable energy and discuss their implications for the transition towards a more sustainable energy system. The dichotomies include: producer vs. consumer, urban vs. rural, local vs. national, domestic vs. foreign, centralised vs. distributed, food vs. energy, environment vs. economy, traditional vs. innovative, long-term vs. short-term, and private vs. public. These diverse and deeply rooted dichotomies structure societal debate. In some cases they may encourage and guide critical thinking, but they may also hinder the renewing of the current energy behaviour and energy system. Societal capabilities that enable the bridging of different but inherently linked dichotomies are a key precondition of sustainable energy transition.
  • Häkkänen, P.; But, A.; Ketola, E.; Laatikainen, T. (2020)
    For targeted prevention and treatment of childhood obesity, primary health care needs methods to identify children potentially developing obesity. The objectives of this study were to examine transitions across weight categories and their association with psychosocial family- and school-related factors, data on which were retrieved from health records. This longitudinal cohort study comprised 507 Finnish children with overweight, identified from a random sample of 2000 sixth graders in Helsinki in 2013. We applied Markov multistate models to analyze the transition rates over six primary school years between BMI SDS categories of normal weight, overweight and obesity, as assessed by Finnish BMI-for-age reference, and to examine relations between transition rates and family- and school-related factors. Among 3116 pairs of consecutive growth measurements from 225 girls and 282 boys aged 6–14, 719 transitions from weight category to another occurred. The highest 1-year probabilities were 0.76 for girls to stay in overweight and 0.80 for boys to stay in obesity. Transitions from normal weight to overweight and from obesity to overweight were more probable than vice versa. Transitions from overweight into obesity were among girls associated with older age (HR 2.63) and divorced or single parents (HR 2.29), as well as among boys with experiences of crises (HR 2.40) and being bullied (HR 1.66). Factors identifiable in school health care and associated with the probability of transition towards obesity should be considered when planning individual support and intervention programs. © 2020 The Authors