Browsing by Subject "Translation studies"

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  • Torvikoski, Maiju (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    My Pro Gradu thesis concentrates on how to translate the English word please into Finnish. As in the Finnish language there is no unambiguous translation for please, the results are diverse. This thesis is based on a Bachelor’s thesis I made in 2012, but this time the scope is wider; whereas my Bachelor’s was about how to translate please in television subtitles, this study compares subtitles to literature translations. In other words, the basis for this study is to a) find as many Finnish translations for please as possible, b) categorize the findings based on their core meaning, and c) explore whether or not there are differences between television subtitles and literature translations. The material was collected in summer 2015 using the first five seasons of Sex and the City the television series and three books by Sex and the City author Candace Bushnell. One of the books is the basis for the television series. The material, i.e. the please-words, were collected by using information technology as help. The collection of the data started from the literature. I used three books by Bushnell: Sex and the City, 2000, Lipstick Jungle, 2005, and One Fifth Avenue, 2008. I downloaded all the three books on an electronic reading device and used its search activity to locate each please-word with their contexts. I typed those findings in a word document, after which I looked for their Finnish equivalents manually from the Finnish translations of the books. Once that was done, I moved onto the television series. As the five seasons of Sex and the City included more than 33 hours of audiovisual material, I used Sex and the City -internet page, onto which all the lines from each episode were collected. By using the search activity, I was able to locate all the please-words and their contexts from all the five seasons. I wrote down the time stamps of each please-word and then looked for how each please was translated into Finnish on the DVDs. As the result of my analysis, 39 different translations for please were found. I categorized those findings in 14 different groups, the representatives of which share the same core meaning. The categories were the following, starting from most common one: 1. Omission of the translation; 2. Conditional; 3. Interrogative; 4. Disbelief and irritation; 5. Ole kiltti; 6. Kiitos; 7. the morpheme -han/hän 8. Ole hyvä; 9. Teitittely; 10. Nyt; 11. Pyytää; 12. Vain; 13. Please; 14. Miscellaneous. There were remarkable differences between the literature translations and the subtitles. The most significant difference was the omission of the translation: in the literature the translation for please was left out much more rarely than in the subtitles. The most likely reason for such a phenomenon was the time and space limits that come with subtitles. In the literature translations there was also a lot more variation (even) within one category: for example, there were remarkably more ways (6) of expressing disbelief and irritation in the literature than in the subtitles. It is obvious that more limited variation in the subtitles is due to the limits of time and the number of characters that can be fitted to the screen at once. The goal of this study was to find out in how many different ways please translates into Finnish in both television series and in literature. The study gives out a preliminary idea of the versatility of the Finnish translations of please. Further studies could examine for example children’s literature, as for kids of the 2000s the word please is a lot more familiar than it was for those born in the previous century.
  • Määttä, Simo Kalervo; Ylikomi, Riitta; Puumala, Eeva (2019)
    This paper examines the prevention of vicarious traumatization in psychologically challenging situations that may occur in community and legal interpreting. The paper is based on a workshop organized at the XVI KäTu Symposium on Translation and Interpreting Studies at the University of Turku in April 2018. First, a brief overview of existing literature on psychological stress in community and legal interpreting is presented. Second, three cases representing psychologically difficult interpreter-mediated encounters are analysed. Third, the paper discusses the psychophysical background of traumatization and vicarious traumatization, as well as the role of empathy and agency in vicarious traumatization. To conclude, the paper lists techniques to prevent vicarious traumatization and argues that more interdisciplinary research is needed on psychological stress, compassion fatigue, and vicarious traumatization among community and legal interpreters.
  • Hirvonen, Maija Inkeri; Schmitt, Reinhold (2018)
    This paper deals with the interaction between blind and sighted persons and with the collaborative production of an audio description. Audio description means translating visual information into verbal descriptions for the visually impaired peo-ple. Based on video data, the cooperation of an audio description team – one blind and two sighted co-workers – is analysed using multimodal interaction methodol-ogy. The focus is on the involvement of the blind participant in the collaboration and interaction. The paper shows that blindness can be used as a resource for col-laboration and provides examples of managing interaction in a visually asymmet-rical situation. Being among the very few studies that deal with blind-sighted inter-action, the paper discusses aspects that develop the field of empirical interaction research by widening the perspectives of participation in the direction of inclusion.
  • Huotari, Lea M K; Määttä, Simo Kalervo (Société Néophilologique de Helsinki, 2019)
    Mémoires de la société néophilologique de Helsinki
    L’article se propose d’étudier le lien entre empathie et changement de point de vue à travers le changement de sujet grammatical en traduction littéraire finnois-français-finnois. L’analyse se concentre sur trois exemples de représentation écrite du discours direct où le sujet change entre le texte source et son texte cible. La première partie de cet article définit les notions de point de vue et d’empathie en se basant sur la littérature existante dans trois domaines distincts : la traductologie, la narratologie et la linguistique. Elle montre en outre pourquoi le sujet grammatical représente un objet d’étude privilégié pour mettre au jour le changement de point de vue. L’analyse du changement de sujet en traduction faite en deuxième partie de l’article s’appuie sur ces trois approches. La troisième partie fait le lien entre le changement de point de vue observé dans les exemples analysés et la notion d’empathisation. L’analyse de ce lien montre la complexité des rapports entre point de vue et empathie lorsque l’objet d’étude est la traduction de textes littéraires.
  • INTER 
    Hartama-Heinonen, Ritva; Kukkonen, Pirjo (University of Helsinki, Nordica /Department of Finnish, Finno-Ugrian and Scandinavian Studies, Swedish Translation Studies, 2013)
    Acta Translatologica Helsingiensia (ATH) Vol. 2
  • Määttä, Simo K.; Puumala, Eeva; Ylikomi, Riitta (2021)
    This article analyzes three video-recorded asylum interviews, their written records and the corresponding decisions by the Finnish Immigration Service. The goal is to identify the causes and consequences of vulnerability in instances that are particularly important when assessing whether the asylum seeker has a well-grounded fear of persecution. A combination of linguistic, psychological and epistemic perspectives on vulnerability shows that these three dimensions are closely intertwined in asylum interviews. Linguistic vulnerability is linked for the most part to interpreting, whereas psychological vulnerability stems from the difficulty in recounting traumatic experiences. Both linguistic and psychological vulnerabilities are central forces that also lead to epistemic vulnerability. Epistemic vulnerability, we claim, gives rise to certain practices within the asylum procedure, which again represents the materialization of the discourses of reporting, truth and credibility.
  • Koponen, Maarit; Sulubacak, Umut; Vitikainen, Kaisa; Tiedemann, Jörg (European Association for Machine Translation, 2020)
    This paper presents a user evaluation of machine translation and post-editing for TV subtitles. Based on a process study where 12 professional subtitlers translated and post-edited subtitles, we compare effort in terms of task time and number of keystrokes. We also discuss examples of specific subtitling features like condensation, and how these features may have affected the post-editing results. In addition to overall MT quality, segmentation and timing of the subtitles are found to be important issues to be addressed in future work.
  • Määttä, Simo K. (Editorial Comares, 2019)
  • Määttä, Simo Kalervo; Wiklund, Satu Mari-Anna (2019)
    This article focuses on open class repair initiators in an asylum screening interview (duration 2:22:15) in Finland, telephone-interpreted between Finnish, language spoken by the officer, and French, language used by the asylum seeker. An open class repair initiator indicates that the entire turn is regarded as problematic and/or that the nature of the problem or the problematic element are not clear. This type of repair initiator indicates that the listener has not heard the turn, has not understood it, or wants to give the impression of not having heard or understood it. Studying this type of repair initiators allows emitting hypotheses concerning the causes of problems of understanding and misunderstandings occurring in telephone-interpreted institutional interaction and to describe the strategies of resolution of these problematic situations. Methodologically, this study falls within the framework of Conversation Analysis, combined with insights form Interpreting Studies and Critical Sociolinguistics.
  • Määttä, Simo K. (2020)
    This paper analyzes the translation of five child protection assessments and decisions from Finnish into English. Translators of such text have to make difficult decisions in relation to the linguistic resources of the end users, namely the child’s parents or custodians, because it is impossible for the translator to assess their linguistic resources. Therefore, it is difficult to strike a balance between an accurate translation and a pragmatically felicitous translation. Besides, these texts are typically translated by community interpreters who have no formal training in translation. A total of 18 examples of translation problems related to terminology, nominalization, passive constructions, and speech representation were analyzed by mobilizing different linguistic theories related to each category. The results show that the target texts present several accommodation strategies aimed at rendering the translations more accessible. Thus, terms are explained or glossed, and terms, grammatical constructions, and complex forms of reported speech are simplified. More awareness-raising among different stakeholders is needed in order to produce translations that really empower migrant communities.