Browsing by Subject "Traumatic brain injury (MeSH)"

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  • Pakkanen, Toni; Kamarainen, Antti; Huhtala, Heini; Silfvast, Tom; Nurmi, Jouni; Virkkunen, Ilkka; Yli-Hankala, Arvi (2017)
    Background: After traumatic brain injury (TBI), hypotension, hypoxia and hypercapnia have been shown to result in secondary brain injury that can lead to increased mortality and disability. Effective prehospital assessment and treatment by emergency medical service (EMS) is considered essential for favourable outcome. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a physician-staffed helicopter emergency medical service (HEMS) in the treatment of TBI patients. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study. Prehospital data from two periods were collected: before (EMS group) and after (HEMS group) the implementation of a physician-staffed HEMS. Unconscious prehospital patients due to severe TBI were included in the study. Unconsciousness was defined as a Glasgow coma scale (GCS) score Results: Data from 181 patients in the EMS group and 85 patients in the HEMS group were available for neurological outcome analyses. The baseline characteristics and the first recorded vital signs of the two cohorts were similar. Good neurological outcome was more frequent in the HEMS group; 42% of the HEMS managed patients and 28% (p = 0.022) of the EMS managed patients had a good neurological recovery. The airway was more frequently secured in the HEMS group (p <0.001). On arrival at the emergency department, the patients in the HEMS group were less often hypoxic (p = 0.024). In univariate analysis HEMS period, lower age and secured airway were associated with good neurological outcome. Conclusion: The introduction of a physician-staffed HEMS unit resulted in decreased incidence of prehospital hypoxia and increased the number of secured airways. This may have contributed to the observed improved neurological outcome during the HEMS period.
  • Pakkanen, Toni; Nurmi, Jouni; Huhtala, Heini; Silfvast, Tom (BioMed Central, 2019)
    Abstract Background Patients with isolated traumatic brain injury (TBI) are likely to benefit from effective prehospital care to prevent secondary brain injury. Only a few studies have focused on the impact of advanced interventions in TBI patients by prehospital physicians. The primary end-point of this study was to assess the possible effect of an on-scene anaesthetist on mortality of TBI patients. A secondary end-point was the neurological outcome of these patients. Methods Patients with severe TBI (defined as a head injury resulting in a Glasgow Coma Score of ≤8) from 2005 to 2010 and 2012–2015 in two study locations were determined. Isolated TBI patients transported directly from the accident scene to the university hospital were included. A modified six-month Glasgow Outcome Score (GOS) was defined as death, unfavourable outcome (GOS 2–3) and favourable outcome (GOS 4–5) and used to assess the neurological outcomes. Binary logistic regression analysis was used to predict mortality and good neurological outcome. The following prognostic variables for TBI were available in the prehospital setting: age, on-scene GCS, hypoxia and hypotension. As per the hypothesis that treatment provided by an on-scene anaesthetist would be beneficial to TBI outcomes, physician was added as a potential predictive factor with regard to the prognosis. Results The mortality data for 651 patients and neurological outcome data for 634 patients were available for primary and secondary analysis. In the primary analysis higher age (OR 1.06 CI 1.05–1.07), lower on-scene GCS (OR 0.85 CI 0.79–0.92) and the unavailability of an on-scene anaesthetist (OR 1.89 CI 1.20–2.94) were associated with higher mortality together with hypotension (OR 3.92 CI 1.08–14.23). In the secondary analysis lower age (OR 0.95 CI 0.94–0.96), a higher on-scene GCS (OR 1.21 CI 1.20–1.30) and the presence of an on-scene anaesthetist (OR 1.75 CI 1.09–2.80) were demonstrated to be associated with good patient outcomes while hypotension (OR 0.19 CI 0.04–0.82) was associated with poor outcome. Conclusion Prehospital on-scene anaesthetist treating severe TBI patients is associated with lower mortality and better neurological outcome.
  • Pakkanen, Toni; Nurmi, Jouni; Huhtala, Heini; Silfvast, Tom (2019)
    Background: Patients with isolated traumatic brain injury (TBI) are likely to benefit from effective prehospital care to prevent secondary brain injury. Only a few studies have focused on the impact of advanced interventions in TBI patients by prehospital physicians. The primary end-point of this study was to assess the possible effect of an on-scene anaesthetist on mortality of TBI patients. A secondary end-point was the neurological outcome of these patients. Methods: Patients with severe TBI (defined as a head injury resulting in a Glasgow Coma Score of Results: The mortality data for 651 patients and neurological outcome data for 634 patients were available for primary and secondary analysis. In the primary analysis higher age (OR 1.06 CI 1.05-1.07), lower on-scene GCS (OR 0.85 CI 0.79-0.92) and the unavailability of an on-scene anaesthetist (OR 1.89 CI 1.20-2.94) were associated with higher mortality together with hypotension (OR 3.92 CI 1.08-14.23). In the secondary analysis lower age (OR 0.95 CI 0.94-0.96), a higher on-scene GCS (OR 1.21 CI 1.20-1.30) and the presence of an on-scene anaesthetist (OR 1.75 CI 1.09-2.80) were demonstrated to be associated with good patient outcomes while hypotension (OR 0.19 CI 0.04-0.82) was associated with poor outcome. Conclusion: Prehospital on-scene anaesthetist treating severe TBI patients is associated with lower mortality and better neurological outcome.