Browsing by Subject "Traumatic brain injury"

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  • CENTER-TBI Investigators; van Veen, Ernest; van der Jagt, Mathieu; Cnossen, Maryse C.; Maas, Andrew I. R.; de Beaufort, Inez D.; Menon, David K.; Citerio, Giuseppe; Stocchetti, Nino; Rietdijk, Wim J. R.; van Dijck, Jeroen T. J. M.; Kompanje, Erwin J. O.; Raj, Rahul (2018)
    BackgroundWe aimed to investigate the extent of the agreement on practices around brain death and postmortem organ donation.MethodsInvestigators from 67 Collaborative European NeuroTrauma Effectiveness Research in Traumatic Brain Injury (CENTER-TBI) study centers completed several questionnaires (response rate: 99%).ResultsRegarding practices around brain death, we found agreement on the clinical evaluation (prerequisites and neurological assessment) for brain death determination (BDD) in 100% of the centers. However, ancillary tests were required for BDD in 64% of the centers. BDD for nondonor patients was deemed mandatory in 18% of the centers before withdrawing life-sustaining measures (LSM). Also, practices around postmortem organ donation varied. Organ donation after circulatory arrest was forbidden in 45% of the centers. When withdrawal of LSM was contemplated, in 67% of centers the patients with a ventricular drain in situ had this removed, either sometimes or all of the time.ConclusionsThis study showed both agreement and some regional differences regarding practices around brain death and postmortem organ donation. We hope our results help quantify and understand potential differences, and provide impetus for current dialogs toward further harmonization of practices around brain death and postmortem organ donation.
  • Raj, R.; Bendel, S.; Reinikainen, M.; Hoppu, S.; Laitio, R.; Ala-Kokko, T.; Curtze, S.; Skrifvars, M. B. (2018)
    Background: Neurocritical illness is a growing healthcare problem with profound socioeconomic effects. We assessed differences in healthcare costs and long-term outcome for different forms of neurocritical illnesses treated in the intensive care unit (ICU). Methods: We used the prospective Finnish Intensive Care Consortium database to identify all adult patients treated for traumatic brain injury (TBI), intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and acute ischemic stroke (AIS) at university hospital ICUs in Finland during 2003-2013. Outcome variables were one-year mortality and permanent disability. Total healthcare costs included the index university hospital costs, rehabilitation hospital costs and social security costs up to one year. All costs were converted to euros based on the 2013 currency rate. Results: In total 7044 patients were included (44% with TBI, 13% with ICH, 27% with SAH, 16% with AIS). In comparison to TBI, ICH was associated with the highest risk of death and permanent disability (OR 2.6, 95% CI 2.1-3.2 and OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.4-2.1), followed by AIS (OR 1.9, 95% CI 15-23 and OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.3-1.8) and SAH (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.5-2.1 and OR 0. 8, 95% CI 0.6-0.9), after adjusting for severity of illness. SAH was associated with the highest mean total costs ((sic)51,906) followed by ICH ((sic)47,661), TBI ((sic)43,916) and AIS ((sic)39222). Cost per independent survivor was lower for TBI ((sic)58,497) and SAH ((sic)96,369) compared to AIS ((sic)104,374) and ICH ((sic)178,071). Conclusion: Neurocritical illnesses are costly and resource-demanding diseases associated with poor outcomes. Intensive care of patients with TBI or SAH more commonly result in independent survivors and is associated with lower total treatments costs compared to ICH and AIS.
  • Tapper, Julius (Helsingfors universitet, 2015)
    The role of decompressive craniectomy as a cure in traumatic brain injuries has been widely been discussed. Therefore our aim was to assess the independent effect of decompressive craniectomy the outcome and mortality of the patient. We conducted an open-cohort retrospective study on adult blunt TBI patients. Patients were divided into three groups; conservative treatment, acute craniotomy and mass lesion evacuation (craniotomy) and decompressive craniectomy. Outcome was assessed using Glasgow Outcome Scale and overall mortality six months after the operation. The adjusted multivariate analysis did not show an independent association between decompressive craniectomy and mortality. Decompressive craniectomy prooved to be an independent risk factor for poor neurological outcome with an OR of 3.06. In conclusion, operating TBI patients with decompressive craniectomy was found to be a life-saving intervention for patients who in other cases were destined to die. For stronger evidence this subject needs more research of a prospective type.
  • Wong, Carlton (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Meningeal lymphatics vessels (mLVs), the recently characterized lymphatics in the central nervous system (CNS), provide a link between the adaptive immune system and the CNS. mLVs could be important for the activation of T cell-mediated adaptive immune response, by draining antigens from the brain to the deep cervical lymph nodes, where they are presented to T cells. In traumatic brain injury (TBI), we hypothesized that the activation of self-reactive T cells (i.e., T cells able to recognize self, brain-derived antigens and promote an immune reaction), possibly underlies the pathogenesis of the disease. In order to test this hypothesis and to decipher the specific role of mLVs in the modulation of T cell-mediated neuro-immune response after TBI, we ablated the existing mLVs in adult male C57BL/6OlaJ mice (with the use of the AAV-mVEGFR3 1-4 Ig vector), induced TBI with controlled cortical impact, and examined the motor function of the mice and the activation of different T cell populations in the brain, as well as in the secondary lymphoid (spleen and lymph nodes – LNs) and non-lymphoid organs (meninges). Our data showed that the T cell-mediated adaptive neuro-immune response in TBI was unaffected by the depletion of mLVs. Our results, however, are preliminary, due to the limited sample size used in this study, which reduces the statistical power and restricts our ability to conclude for the effect of mLV depletion on TBI recovery.
  • Siponkoski, Sini-Tuuli; Koskinen, Sanna; Laitinen, Sari; Holma, Milla; Ahlfors, Mirja; Jordan-Kilkki, Päivi; Ala-Kauhaluoma, Katja; Martinez Molina, Noelia; Melkas, Susanna; Laine, Matti; Ylinen, Aarne; Zasler, Nathan; Rantanen, Pekka; Lipsanen, Jari; Särkämö, Teppo (2021)
    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) causes deficits in executive function (EF), as well as problems in behavioural and emotional self-regulation. Neurological music therapy may aid these aspects of recovery. We performed a cross-over randomized controlled trial where 40 persons with moderate-severe TBI received a 3-month neurological music therapy intervention (2 times/week, 60 min/session), either during the first (AB, n = 20) or second (BA, n = 20) half of a 6-month follow-up period. The evidence from this RCT previously demonstrated that music therapy enhanced general EF and set shifting. In the current study, outcome was assessed with self-report and caregiver-report questionnaires performed at baseline, 3-month, 6-month, and 18-month stages. The results showed that the self-reported Behavioural Regulation Index of the Behaviour Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF-A) improved more in the AB than BA group from baseline to 3-month stage and the effect was maintained in the 6-month follow-up. No changes in mood or quality of life questionnaires were observed. However, a qualitative content analysis of the feedback revealed that many participants experienced the intervention as helpful in terms of emotional well-being and activity. Our results suggest that music therapy has a positive effect on everyday behavioural regulation skills after TBI.
  • Raj, Rahul; Siironen, Jari; Kivisaari, Riku; Kuisma, Markku; Brinck, Tuomas; Lappalainen, Jaakko; Skrifvars, Markus B. (2013)
  • CENTER-TBI Participants Investigat; Böhm, Julia K.; Maegele, Marc; Palotie, Aarno; Pirinen, Matti; Ripatti, Samuli; Piippo-Karjalainen, Anna; Raj, Rahul (2021)
    Background Trauma-induced coagulopathy in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with high rates of complications, unfavourable outcomes and mortality. The mechanism of the development of TBI-associated coagulopathy is poorly understood. Methods This analysis, embedded in the prospective, multi-centred, observational Collaborative European NeuroTrauma Effectiveness Research in Traumatic Brain Injury (CENTER-TBI) study, aimed to characterise the coagulopathy of TBI. Emphasis was placed on the acute phase following TBI, primary on subgroups of patients with abnormal coagulation profile within 4 h of admission, and the impact of pre-injury anticoagulant and/or antiplatelet therapy. In order to minimise confounding factors, patients with isolated TBI (iTBI) (n = 598) were selected for this analysis. Results Haemostatic disorders were observed in approximately 20% of iTBI patients. In a subgroup analysis, patients with pre-injury anticoagulant and/or antiplatelet therapy had a twice exacerbated coagulation profile as likely as those without premedication. This was in turn associated with increased rates of mortality and unfavourable outcome post-injury. A multivariate analysis of iTBI patients without pre-injury anticoagulant therapy identified several independent risk factors for coagulopathy which were present at hospital admission. Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) less than or equal to 8, base excess (BE) less than or equal to - 6, hypothermia and hypotension increased risk significantly. Conclusion Consideration of these factors enables early prediction and risk stratification of acute coagulopathy after TBI, thus guiding clinical management.
  • CENTER-TBI Participants Investigat; Voormolen, Daphne C.; Polinder, Suzanne; von Steinbuechel, Nicole; Haagsma, Juanita A.; Palotie, Aarno; Piippo-Karjalainen, Anna; Pirinen, Matti; Raj, Rahul; Ripatti, Samuli (2020)
    Purpose The Quality of Life after Brain Injury overall scale (QOLIBRI-OS) measures health-related quality of life (HRQoL) after traumatic brain injury (TBI). The aim of this study was to derive value sets for the QOLIBRI-OS in three European countries, which will allow calculation of utility scores for TBI health states. Methods A QOLIBRI-OS value set was derived by using discrete choice experiments (DCEs) and visual analogue scales (VAS) in general population samples from the Netherlands, United Kingdom and Italy. A three-stage procedure was used: (1) A selection of health states, covering the entire spectrum of severity, was defined; (2) General population samples performed the health state valuation task using a web-based survey with three VAS questions and an at random selection of sixteen DCEs; (3) DCEs were analysed using a conditional logistic regression and were then anchored on the VAS data. Utility scores for QOLIBRI-OS health states were generated resulting in estimates for all potential health states. Results The questionnaire was completed by 13,623 respondents. The biggest weight increase for all attributes is seen from "slightly" to "not at all satisfied", resulting in the largest impact on HRQoL. "Not at all satisfied with how brain is working" should receive the greatest weight in utility calculations in all three countries. Conclusion By transforming the QOLIBRI-OS into utility scores, we enabled the application in economic evaluations and in summary measures of population health, which may be used to inform decision-makers on the best interventions and strategies for TBI patients.
  • CENTER-TB1 Investigators; van Wijk, Roel P. J.; van Dijck, Jeroen T. J. M.; Timmers, Marjolein; Palotie, Aarno; Piippo-Karjalainen, Anna; Pirinen, Matti; Raj, Rahul; Ripatti, Samuli (2020)
    Purpose: Enrolling traumatic brain injury (731) patients with an inability to provide informed consent in research is challenging. Alternatives to patient consent are not sufficiently embedded in European and national legislation, which allows procedural variation and bias. We aimed to quantify variations in informed consent policy and practice. Methods: Variation was explored in the CENTER-TBI study. Policies were reported by using a questionnaire and national legislation. Data on used informed consent procedures were available for 4498 patients from 57 centres across 17 European countries. Results: Variation in the use of informed consent procedures was found between and within EU member states. Proxy informed consent (N = 1377;64%) was the most frequently used type of consent in the ICU, followed by patient informed consent (N 426;20%) and deferred consent (N 334;16%). Deferred consent was only actively used in 15 centres (26%), although it was considered valid in 47 centres (82%). Conclusions: Alternatives to patient consent are essential for TBI research. While there seems to be concordance amongst national legislations, there is regional variability in institutional practices with respect to the use of different informed consent procedures. Variation could be caused by several reasons, including inconsistencies in clear legislation or knowledge of such legislation amongst researchers. (C) 2020 Published by Elsevier Inc.
  • Luostarinen, Teemu; Virta, Jyri; Satopää, Jarno; Bäcklund, Minna; Kivisaari, Riku; Korja, Miikka; Raj, Rahul (2020)
    Background To ensure adequate intensive care unit (ICU) capacity for SARS-CoV-2 patients, elective neurosurgery and neurosurgical ICU capacity were reduced. Further, the Finnish government enforced strict restrictions to reduce the spread. Our objective was to assess changes in ICU admissions and prognosis of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) during the Covid-19 pandemic. Methods Retrospective review of all consecutive patients with TBI and aneurysmal SAH admitted to the neurosurgical ICU in Helsinki from January to May of 2019 and the same months of 2020. The pre-pandemic time was defined as weeks 1-11, and the pandemic time was defined as weeks 12-22. The number of admissions and standardized mortality rates (SMRs) were compared to assess the effect of the Covid-19 pandemic on these. Standardized mortality rates were adjusted for case mix. Results Two hundred twenty-four patients were included (TBIn= 123, SAHn= 101). There were no notable differences in case mix between TBI and SAH patients admitted during the Covid-19 pandemic compared with before the pandemic. No notable difference in TBI or SAH ICU admissions during the pandemic was noted in comparison with early 2020 or 2019. SMRs were no higher during the pandemic than before. Conclusion In the area of Helsinki, Finland, there were no changes in the number of ICU admissions or in prognosis of patients with TBI or SAH during the Covid-19 pandemic.
  • CENTER-TBI Collaborators; Gravesteijn, Benjamin Y.; Nieboer, Daan; Ercole, Ari; Palotie, Aarno; Piippo-Karjalainen, Anna; Pirinen, Matti; Posti, Jussi P.; Raj, Rahul; Ripatti, Samuli; Tenovuo, Olli; Takala, Riikka (2020)
    Objective: We aimed to explore the added value of common machine learning (ML) algorithms for prediction of outcome for moderate and severe traumatic brain injury. Study Design and Setting: We performed logistic regression (LR), lasso regression, and ridge regression with key baseline predictors in the IMPACT-II database (15 studies, n = 11,022). ML algorithms included support vector machines, random forests, gradient boosting machines, and artificial neural networks and were trained using the same predictors. To assess generalizability of predictions, we performed internal, internal-external, and external validation on the recent CENTER-TBI study (patients with Glasgow Coma Scale Results: In the IMPACT-II database, 3,332/11,022 (30%) died and 5,233(48%) had unfavorable outcome (Glasgow Outcome Scale less than 4). In the CENTER-TBI study, 348/1,554(29%) died and 651(54%) had unfavorable outcome. Discrimination and calibration varied widely between the studies and less so between the studied algorithms. The mean area under the curve was 0.82 for mortality and 0.77 for unfavorable outcomes in the CENTER-TBI study. Conclusion: ML algorithms may not outperform traditional regression approaches in a low-dimensional setting for outcome prediction after moderate or severe traumatic brain injury. Similar to regression-based prediction models, ML algorithms should be rigorously validated to ensure applicability to new populations. (C) 2020 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc.
  • Raj, Rahul; Mikkonen, Era D.; Kivisaari, Riku; Skrifvars, Markus B.; Korja, Miikka; Siironen, Jari (2016)
    BACKGROUND: Surgery for elderly patients with acute subdural hematomas (ASDH) is controversial, because postoperative mortality rates are reported to be high and long-term outcomes unknown. Thus, we aimed to describe midterm and long-term mortality rates of elderly patients operated for an ASDH. METHODS: We reviewed all consecutive >= 75-year-old patients operated on for an ASDH between 2009 and 2012. We recorded data on preadmission functional status (independent or dependent) and use of antithrombotic medication. Patients were followed up a median of 4.2 years (range, 2.5-6.4 years). RESULTS: Forty-four patients were included. The majority of the patients (70%) were independent and taking antithrombotic medication (77%). Independent patients had a 1-year mortality of 42%, compared to 69% for dependent patients; 56% of patients taking antithrombotics and 30% of those without antithrombotics died within the first postoperative year. All patients with an admission Glasgow coma scale score of 3-8 died within the first postoperative year, if they used antithrombotics or were dependent before the injury. Of all 1-year survivors, 77% were alive at the end of follow-up. CONCLUSION: In this first surgical case series of 75-year-old or older patients with ASDH, the overall mortality rate appears to be relatively low, especially for preoperatively conscious and independent patients without antithrombotic medication. Patients alive at 1-year after surgery had a life expectancy comparable to their age-matched peers. The prognosis seems to be detrimental for preoperatively unconscious patients who were functionally dependent or used antithrombotic medication before the injury.
  • Vehviläinen, Juho; Brinck, Tuomas; Lindfors, Matias; Numminen, Jussi; Siironen, Jari; Raj, Rahul (2020)
    Background Blunt cerebrovascular injuries (BCVIs) and cervical spinal injuries (CSIs) are not uncommon injuries in patients with severe head injury and may affect patient recovery. We aimed to assess the independent relationship between BCVI, CSI, and outcome in patients with severe head injury. Methods We identified patients with severe head injury from the Helsinki Trauma Registry treated during 2015-2017 in a large level 1 trauma hospital. We assessed the association between BCVI and SCI using multivariable logistic regression, adjusting for injury severity. Our primary outcome was functional outcome at 6 months, and our secondary outcome was 6-month mortality. Results Of 255 patients with a cervical spine CT, 26 patients (10%) had a CSI, and of 194 patients with cervical CT angiography, 16 patients (8%) had a BCVI. Four of the 16 BCVI patients had a BCVI-related brain infarction, and four of the CSI patients had some form of spinal cord injury. After adjusting for injury severity in multivariable logistic regression analysis, BCVI associated with poor functional outcome (odds ratio [OR] = 6.0, 95% CI [confidence intervals] = 1.4-26.5) and mortality (OR = 7.9, 95% CI 2.0-31.4). We did not find any association between CSI and outcome. Conclusions We found that BCVI with concomitant head injury was an independent predictor of poor outcome in patients with severe head injury, but we found no association between CSI and outcome after severe head injury. Whether the association between BCVI and poor outcome is an indirect marker of a more severe injury or a result of treatment needs further investigations.
  • Lindfors, Matias; Lindblad, Caroline; Nelson, David W.; Bellander, Bo-Michael; Siironen, Jari; Raj, Rahul; Thelin, Eric P. (2019)
    Background The prognosis of penetrating traumatic brain injury (pTBI) is poor yet highly variable. Current computerized tomography (CT) severity scores are commonly not used for pTBI prognostication but may provide important clinical information in these cohorts. Methods All consecutive pTBI patients from two large neurotrauma databases (Helsinki 1999-2015, Stockholm 2005-2014) were included. Outcome measures were 6-month mortality and unfavorable outcome (Glasgow Outcome Scale 1-3). Admission head CT scans were assessed according to the following: Marshall CT classification, Rotterdam CT score, Stockholm CT score, and Helsinki CT score. The discrimination (area under the receiver operating curve, AUC) and explanatory variance (pseudo-R-2) of the CT scores were assessed individually and in addition to a base model including age, motor response, and pupil responsiveness. Results Altogether, 75 patients were included. Overall 6-month mortality and unfavorable outcome were 45% and 61% for all patients, and 31% and 51% for actively treated patients. The CT scores' AUCs and pseudo-R(2)s varied between 0.77-0.90 and 0.35-0.60 for mortality prediction and between 0.85-0.89 and 0.50-0.57 for unfavorable outcome prediction. The base model showed excellent performance for mortality (AUC 0.94, pseudo-R-2 0.71) and unfavorable outcome (AUC 0.89, pseudo-R-2 0.53) prediction. None of the CT scores increased the base model's AUC (p > 0.05) yet increased its pseudo-R-2 (0.09-0.15) for unfavorable outcome prediction. Conclusion Existing head CT scores demonstrate good-to-excellent performance in 6-month outcome prediction in pTBI patients. However, they do not add independent information to known outcome predictors, indicating that a unique score capturing the intracranial severity in pTBI may be warranted.
  • Lindfors, Matias (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Tausta: Lävistävän aivovamman saaneen potilaan ennuste on huono mutta vaihteleva. Nykyaikaisia, pään tie-tokonetomografia(TT)kuvien löydöksiin perustuvia pisteytysjärjestelmiä ei aiemmin ole hyödynnetty lävistä-vien aivovammojen ennustearvioinnissa, vaikka niiden sisältämä informaatio voisi olla hyödyllistä. Menetelmät: Tutkimusaineiston muodostivat kaikki Helsingissä vuosina 1999–2015 ja Tukholmassa vuosina 2005–2014 neurokirurgisella tehovalvontaosastolla hoidetut, lävistävän aivovamman saaneet potilaat. Pääte-muuttujia olivat kuolleisuus ja omatoimisuuden aste 6 kuukautta vammasta. Pään TT-kuvat luokiteltiin neljän pisteytysjärjestelmän (Marshall CT classification, Rotterdam CT score, Stockholm CT score, Helsinki CT sco-re) mukaisesti. Pisteytysjärjestelmien ennustamiskykyä arvioitiin määrittämällä niille erottelukyky (area un-der the receiver operating curve [AUC]) ja selitysaste (pseudo-R2), ja näitä arvioitiin sekä itsenäisinä että osa-na kliinistä (potilaan ikään, tajunnantasoon ja pupillien valoreaktiivisuuteen perustuvaa) vertailumallia. Tulokset: Tutkimusaineisto käsitti 75 potilasta. Koko aineistossa 6 kuukauden kuolleisuus oli 45 % ja ei-omatoimisiksi toipui 61 %; aktiivisesti hoidettujen potilaiden osalta vastaavat prosenttiosuudet olivat 31 % ja 51 %. Eri pisteytysjärjestelmien AUC vaihteli välillä 0.77–0.90 kuolleisuuden ennustamisessa ja välillä 0.85–0.89 ei-omatoimisuuden ennustamisessa, ja pseudo-R2 vaihteli välillä 0.35–0.60 kuolleisuuden ennustamisessa ja välillä 0.50–0.57 ei-omatoimisuuden ennustamisessa. Kliinisen vertailumallin ennustamiskyky oli erin-omainen sekä kuolleisuuden (AUC 0.94; pseudo-R2 0.71) että ei-omatoimisuuden (AUC 0.89; pseudo-R2 0.53) ennustamisessa. Mikään tutkituista pisteytysjärjestelmistä ei merkitsevästi parantanut kliinisen vertailumallin AUC-arvoa (p > 0.05), mutta lisäsivät sen pseudo-R2-arvoa (+0.09–0.15) ei-omatoimisuuden ennustamisessa. Yhteenveto: Nykyaikaisten pään TT-löydöksiin perustuvien pisteytysjärjestelmien tilastollinen ennustamisky-ky lävistävän aivovamman saaneen potilaan toipumisen ennustamisessa vaihtelee hyvän ja erinomaisen välil-lä. Ne eivät kuitenkaan tuo tilastollista lisäarvoa kliiniseen ennustemalliin, viitaten lävistäville vammoille spesifisesti räätälöidyn pisteytysmallin tarpeeseen.
  • Mikkonen, Era D.; Skrifvars, Markus B.; Reinikainen, Matti; Bendel, Stepani; Laitio, Ruut; Hoppu, Sanna; Ala-Kokko, Tero; Karppinen, Atte; Raj, Rahul (2020)
    Background: Our aim was to assess the occurrence and risk factors for psychotropic medication use after pediatric traumatic brain injury treated in the intensive care unit. Methods: We combined data from the Finnish Intensive Care Consortium database, data on reimbursed medications from the Social Insurance Institute, and individual electronic health care data. We analyzed data on children aged five to 17 years treated for traumatic brain injury in intensive care units of four university hospitals in Finland during 2003 to 2013 and being alive six months after injury with no history of psychotropic medication use before traumatic brain injury. Results: We identified 248 patients of whom 46 (19%) were prescribed a new psychotropic medication after traumatic brain injury. In multivariable logistic regression, a higher age associated with a higher probability for use of any psychotropic medication. Subgroup analyses showed that higher age associated with an increased risk of antidepressant and antipsychotic use but with a decreased risk of stimulant use. Apart from age, we found no other clinical, radiological, or treatment-related factors that significantly associated with subsequent use of psychotropics. Psychotropic medication was most common (45%) in children aged 12 to 17 years and had moderate disability at six-month follow-up. Conclusions: One fifth of children treated in the intensive care unit for traumatic brain injury were prescribed a new psychotropic medication during a median follow-up of three years and five months. Psychotropic medication was most common among teenagers with moderate post-traumatic disability. The need and use of psychotropics postinjury seem multifactorial and not related to any traumatic brain injury type. (C) 2020 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Vehviläinen, Juho; Skrifvars, Markus B.; Reinikainen, Matti; Bendel, Stepani; Marinkovic, Ivan; Ala-Kokko, Tero; Hoppu, Sanna; Laitio, Ruut; Siironen, Jari; Raj, Rahul (2021)
    Background Psychiatric sequelae after traumatic brain injury (TBI) are common and may impede recovery. We aimed to assess the occurrence and risk factors of post-injury psychotropic medication use in intensive care unit (ICU)-treated patients with TBI and its association with late mortality. Methods We conducted a retrospective multi-centre observational study using the Finnish Intensive Care Consortium database. We included adult TBI patients admitted in four university hospital ICUs during 2003-2013 that were alive at 1 year after injury. Patients were followed-up until end of 2016. We obtained data regarding psychotropic medication use through the national drug reimbursement database. We used multivariable logistic regression models to assess the association between TBI severity, treatment-related variables and the odds of psychotropic medication use and its association with late all-cause mortality (more than 1 year after TBI). Results Of 3061 patients, 2305 (75%) were alive at 1 year. Of these, 400 (17%) became new psychotropic medication users. The most common medication types were antidepressants (61%), antipsychotics (35%) and anxiolytics (26%). A higher Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score was associated with lower odds (OR 0.93, 95% CI 0.90-0.96) and a diffuse injury with midline shift was associated with higher odds (OR 3.4, 95% CI 1.3-9.0) of new psychotropic medication use. After adjusting for injury severity, new psychotropic medication use was associated with increased odds of late mortality (OR 1.19, 95% CI 1.19-2.17, median follow-up time 6.4 years). Conclusions Psychotropic medication use is common in TBI survivors. Higher TBI severity is associated with increased odds of psychotropic medication use. New use of psychotropic medications after TBI was associated with increased odds of late mortality. Our results highlight the need for early identification of potential psychiatric sequelae and psychiatric evaluation in TBI survivors.
  • Sarajuuri, Jaana; Vink, Martie; Tokola, Kari (2018)
    Objective: To explore the relation between objectively measured outcomes of neurorehabilitation and subjective self-appraisal of those outcomes in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Methods: Forty-five adults (34 men; age at injury, mean +/- SD, 30.1 +/- 10.3 years) with chronic moderate-to-severe TBI (9.7 +/- 5.5 years from injury; post-traumatic amnesia, 80% over one week) from two rehabilitation centres, in two countries. The subjects have had to resume working at various levels of competence following post-acute comprehensive neuropsychologically oriented neurorehabilitation, and experienced no functionally incapacitating, medical or psychological problems, for a minimum of six months after discharge. Objective outcome measure was the level of work competence attained post-rehabilitation transposed from the descriptions of the types of work attained by each subject into a number along a 10-point scale. Subjective outcome measure was the personal evaluations by ratings in six consequences of rehabilitation (effort during rehabilitation, meaning in life, productivity, acceptance, social life and intimate relationships) along a 10-point scale. Results: The attained work competence was statistically significantly related to the subjective self-appraisal of the ability to establish intimate relationships [odds ratio (OR), 1.79; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.20-2.68; P = .005]. Otherwise, no association between subjective ratings and the levels of work was found. Of the patients, 67% attained competitive, 22% subsidized, and 11% volunteer or sheltered work. The subjective self-rated outcomes of the patients were relatively good [median, lower quartile (Q1) - upper quartile (Q3): 8 to 9, 7 to 8 - 8 to 9 out of 10]. The lowest ratings were observed for the ability to establish intimate relationships (8, 7-8 out of 10). Conclusions: The results support the need to evaluate rehabilitation outcomes involving both objective measures and subjective appraisals of them. The findings suggest that community functioning and satisfaction with that are distinct aspects of the subjects ' experience that must be considered in the evaluation of rehabilitation. It seems that comprehensive neurorehabilitation improve outcome, and patients with TBI with tailored placements were largely satisfied with the areas of wellness in their life. Additional larger controlled studies are needed to clarify how composition of neurorehabilitation and individualization in outcomes assessment might enhance the outcome of TBI rehabilitation.
  • Taipale, Heidi; Koponen, Marjaana; Tanskanen, Antti; Lavikainen, Piia; Sund, Reijo; Tiihonen, Jari; Hartikainen, Sirpa; Tolppanen, Anna-Maija (BioMed Central, 2017)
    Abstract Background Antidepressant use has been associated with an increased risk of falling, but no studies have been conducted on whether antidepressant use is associated with an increased risk of head injuries which often result from falling among older persons. The objective of this study was to investigate the risk of head and brain injuries associated with antidepressant use among community-dwelling persons with Alzheimer’s disease. Methods A matched cohort study was conducted by comparing new antidepressant users (n = 10,910) with two matched nonusers (n = 21,820) in the MEDALZ study cohort. The MEDALZ cohort includes all community-dwelling persons newly diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease between 2005 and 2011 in Finland. Incident antidepressant users were identified based on register-based dispensing data from the Prescription register with a 1-year washout period for antidepressant use. Nonusers were matched with users based on age, gender, and time since Alzheimer’s disease diagnosis. The outcome events were defined as any head injuries and traumatic brain injuries based on diagnoses in Hospital Discharge and Causes of Death registers. Propensity score adjusted Cox proportional hazard models were utilized. Sensitivity analyses with case-crossover design were conducted. All registers are linkable with unique personal identification numbers assigned for each resident. Results Antidepressant use was associated with an increased risk of head injuries (age-adjusted event rate per 100 person-years 2.98 (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.49–3.06) during use and 2.43 (95% CI 2.06–2.35) during nonuse, adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 1.35, 95% CI 1.20–1.52) and traumatic brain injuries (age-adjusted event rate per 100 person-years 1.33 (95% CI 1.13–1.53) during use and 1.10 (95% CI 1.00–1.20) during nonuse, adjusted HR 1.26, 95% CI 1.06–1.50). The risk was highest during the first 30 days of use (HR 1.71, 95% CI 1.10–2.66 for head injuries; HR 2.06, 95% CI 1.12–3.82 for traumatic brain injuries) and remained at an elevated level for head injuries for over 2 years of use. In case-crossover analyses, antidepressant use was consistently associated with a higher risk of head injuries. Conclusions Antidepressant use was associated with an increased risk of the most severe outcomes, head and brain injuries, in persons with Alzheimer’s disease. Antidepressant use should be carefully considered and the association confirmed in future studies.
  • TBI Collaborative; Harrois, A.; Anstey, J. R.; Skrifvars, M. B. (2019)
    Background In traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients desmopressin administration may induce rapid decreases in serum sodium and increase intracranial pressure (ICP). Aim In an international multi-centre study, we aimed to report changes in serum sodium and ICP after desmopressin administration in TBI patients. Methods We obtained data from 14 neurotrauma ICUs in Europe, Australia and UK for severe TBI patients (GCS