Browsing by Subject "Treatment"

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  • Malde, S.; Umbach, R.; Wheeler, J.R.; Lytvyn, L.; Cornu, J.-N.; Gacci, M.; Gratzke, C.; Herrmann, T.R.W.; Mamoulakis, C.; Rieken, M.; Speakman, M.J.; Gravas, S.; Drake, M.J.; Guyatt, G.H.; Tikkinen, K.A.O. (2021)
    Context: Understanding men's values and preferences in the context of personal, physical, emotional, relational, and social factors is important in optimising patient counselling, facilitating treatment decision-making, and improving guideline recommendations. Objective: To systematically review the available evidence regarding the values, preferences, and expectations of men towards the investigation and treatment (conservative, pharmacological, and surgical) of male lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). Evidence acquisition: We searched electronic databases until August 31, 2020 for quantitative and qualitative studies that reported values and preferences regarding the investigation and treatment of LUTS in men. We assessed the quality of evidence and risk of bias using the Grading of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) and GRADE Confidence in the Evidence from Reviews of Qualitative Research (CERQual) approaches. Evidence synthesis: We included 25 quantitative studies, three qualitative studies, and one mixed-methods study recruiting 9235 patients. Most men reported urodynamic testing to be acceptable, despite discomfort or embarrassment, as it significantly informs treatment decisions (low certainty evidence). Men preferred conservative and less risky treatment options, but the preference varied depending on baseline symptom severity and the risk/benefit characteristics of the treatment (moderate certainty). Men preferred pharmacological treatments with a low risk of erectile dysfunction and those especially improving urgency incontinence (moderate certainty). Other important preference considerations included reducing the risk of acute urinary retention or surgery (moderate certainty). Conclusions: Men prefer lower-risk management options that have fewer sexual side effects and are primarily effective at improving urgency incontinence and nocturia. Overall, the evidence was rated to be of low to moderate certainty. This review can facilitate the treatment decision-making process and improve the trustworthiness of guideline recommendations. Patient summary: We thoroughly reviewed the evidence addressing men's values and preferences regarding the management of urinary symptoms and found that minimising adverse effects is particularly important. Further research to understand other factors that matter to men is required. (C) 2020 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Cerlinskaite, Kamile; Javanainen, Tuija; Cinotti, Raphael; Mebazaa, Alexandre (2018)
    Acute heart failure (AHF) is a life-threatening medical condition, where urgent diagnostic and treatment methods are of key importance. However, there are few evidence-based treatment methods. Interestingly, despite relatively similar ways of management of AHF throughout the globe, mid-term outcome in East Asia, including South Korea is more favorable than in Europe. Yet, most of the treatment methods are symptomatic. The cornerstone of AHF management is identifying precipitating factors and specific phenotype. Multidisciplinary approach is important in AHF, which can be caused or aggravated by both cardiac and non-cardiac causes. The main pathophysiological mechanism in AHF is congestion, both systemic and inside the organs (lung, kidney, or liver). Cardiac output is often preserved in AHF except in a few cases of advanced heart failure. This paper provides guidance on AHF management in a time-based approach. Treatment strategies, criteria for triage, admission to hospital and discharge are described.
  • Alhede, Christina; Lauridsen, Trine K.; Johannessen, Arne; Dixen, Ulrik; Jensen, Jan S.; Raatikainen, Pekka; Hindricks, Gerhard; Walfridsson, Haakan; Kongstad, Ole; Pehrson, Steen; Englund, Anders; Hartikainen, Juha; Hansen, Peter S.; Nielsen, Jens C.; Jons, Christian (2017)
    Background: Supraventricular ectopic complexes (SVEC) originating in the pulmonary veins are known triggers of atrial fibrillation (AF) which led to the development of pulmonary vein isolation for AF. However, the long-term prevalence of SVEC after catheter ablation (CA) as compared to antiarrhythmic medication (AAD) is unknown. Our aims were to compare the prevalence of SVEC after AAD and CA and to estimate the association between baseline SVEC burden and AF burden during 24 months of follow-up. Methods: Patients with paroxysmal AF (N = 260) enrolled in the MANTRA PAF trial were treated with AAD (N = 132) or CA (N = 128). At baseline and 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months follow-up patients underwent 7-day Holter monitoring to assess SVEC and AF burden. We compared SVEC burden between treatments with Wilcoxon sum rank test. Results: Patients treated with AAD had significantly lower daily SVEC burden during follow-up as compared to CA (AAD: 19 [6-58] versus CA: 39 [14-125], p = 0.003). SVEC burden increased post-procedurally followed by a decrease after CA whereas after AAD SVEC burden decreased and stabilized after 3 months of follow-up. Patients with low SVEC burden had low AF burden after both treatments albeit this was more pronounced after CA at 24 months of follow-up. Conclusion: AAD was superior to CA in suppressing SVEC burden after treatment of paroxysmal AF. After CA SVEC burden increased immediately post-procedural followed by a decrease whereas after AAD an early decrease was observed. Lower SVEC burden was highly associated with lower AF burden during follow-up especially after CA. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Vakkamäki, Johanna; Taponen, Suvi; Heikkila, Anna-Maija; Pyörälä, Satu (2017)
    Background: The Finnish dairy herd recording system maintains production and health records of cows and herds. Veterinarians and farmers register veterinary treatments in the system. Milk samples for microbiological analysis are routinely taken from mastitic cows. The laboratory of the largest dairy company in Finland, Valio Ltd., analyzes most samples using real-time PCR. This study addressed pathogen-specific microbiological data and treatment and culling records, in combination with cow and herd characteristics, from the Finnish dairy herd recording system during 2010-2012. Results: The data derived from 240,067 quarter milk samples from 93,529 dairy cows with mastitis; 238,235 cows from the same herds served as the control group. No target pathogen DNA was detected in 12% of the samples. In 49% of the positive samples, only one target species and in 19%, two species with one dominant species were present. The most common species in the samples with a single species only were coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) (43%), followed by Staphylococcus aureus (21%), Streptococcus uberis (9%), Streptococcus dysgalactiae (8%), Corynebacterium bovis (7%), and Escherichia coli (5%). On average, 36% of the study cows and 6% of the control cows had recorded mastitis treatments during lactation. The corresponding proportions were 16 and 6% at drying-off. For more than 75% of the treatments during lactation, diagnosis was acute clinical mastitis. In the milk samples from cows with a recorded mastitis treatment during lactation, CNS and S. aureus were most common, followed by streptococci. Altogether, 48% of the cows were culled during the study. Mastitis was reported as the most common reason to cull; 49% of study cows and 18% of control cows were culled because of mastitis. Culling was most likely if S. aureus was detected in the milk sample submitted during the culling year. Conclusions: The PCR test has proven to be an applicable method also for large-scale use in bacterial diagnostics. In the present study, microbiological diagnosis was unequivocal in the great majority of samples where a single species or two species with one dominating were detected. Coagulase-negative staphylococci and S. aureus were the most common species. S. aureus was also the most common pathogen among the culled cows, which emphasizes the importance of preventive measures.
  • Vakkamäki, Johanna; Taponen, Suvi; Heikkilä, Anna-Maija; Pyörälä, Satu (BioMed Central, 2017)
    Abstract Background The Finnish dairy herd recording system maintains production and health records of cows and herds. Veterinarians and farmers register veterinary treatments in the system. Milk samples for microbiological analysis are routinely taken from mastitic cows. The laboratory of the largest dairy company in Finland, Valio Ltd., analyzes most samples using real-time PCR. This study addressed pathogen-specific microbiological data and treatment and culling records, in combination with cow and herd characteristics, from the Finnish dairy herd recording system during 2010–2012. Results The data derived from 240,067 quarter milk samples from 93,529 dairy cows with mastitis; 238,235 cows from the same herds served as the control group. No target pathogen DNA was detected in 12% of the samples. In 49% of the positive samples, only one target species and in 19%, two species with one dominant species were present. The most common species in the samples with a single species only were coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) (43%), followed by Staphylococcus aureus (21%), Streptococcus uberis (9%), Streptococcus dysgalactiae (8%), Corynebacterium bovis (7%), and Escherichia coli (5%). On average, 36% of the study cows and 6% of the control cows had recorded mastitis treatments during lactation. The corresponding proportions were 16 and 6% at drying-off. For more than 75% of the treatments during lactation, diagnosis was acute clinical mastitis. In the milk samples from cows with a recorded mastitis treatment during lactation, CNS and S. aureus were most common, followed by streptococci. Altogether, 48% of the cows were culled during the study. Mastitis was reported as the most common reason to cull; 49% of study cows and 18% of control cows were culled because of mastitis. Culling was most likely if S. aureus was detected in the milk sample submitted during the culling year. Conclusions The PCR test has proven to be an applicable method also for large-scale use in bacterial diagnostics. In the present study, microbiological diagnosis was unequivocal in the great majority of samples where a single species or two species with one dominating were detected. Coagulase-negative staphylococci and S. aureus were the most common species. S. aureus was also the most common pathogen among the culled cows, which emphasizes the importance of preventive measures.
  • Grano, Niklas; Karjalainen, Marjaana; Ranta, Klaus; Lindgren, Maija; Roine, Mikko; Therman, Sebastian (2016)
    The aim of the present study was to compare change in functioning, affective symptoms and level of psychosis-risk symptoms in symptomatic adolescents who were treated either in an early intervention programme based on a need-adapted Family- and Community-orientated integrative Treatment Model (FCTM) or in standard adolescent psychiatric treatment (Treatment As Usual, TAU). 28 pairs were matched by length of follow-up, gender, age, and baseline functioning. At one year after the start of treatment, the matched groups were.compared on change in functioning (GAF-M), five psychosis-risk dimensions of the Structured Interview for Psychosis-Risk Syndromes (SIPS), and self-reported anxiety, depression, and hopelessness symptoms (BAI, BDI-II, BHS). FCTM was more effective in improving functioning (20% vs. 6% improvement on GAF-M), as well as self-reported depression (53% vs. 14% improvement on BDI-II) and hopelessness (41% vs. 3% improvement on BHS). However, for psychosis-risk symptoms and anxiety symptoms, effectiveness differences between treatment models did not reach statistical significance. To conclude, in the present study, we found greater improvement in functioning and self-reported depression and hopelessness among adolescents who received a need-adapted Family and Community-orientated integrative Treatment than among those who were treated in standard adolescent psychiatry. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Laakso, Sini M.; Myllynen, Chris; Strbian, Daniel; Atula, Sari (2021)
    Background: The effect of comorbidities on the prognosis of myasthenia gravis (MG) remains unclear. In particular, the role of other autoimmune diseases (AD) is controversial. Methods: In this retrospective single-center cohort study, we investigated 154 consecutive generalized thymectomized MG patients, with a mean follow-up time of 8.6 (+/- 5.0) years post-thymectomy. Comorbidities diagnosed at any timepoint were retrieved from medical records and Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) scores were calculated. Patients were categorized into subgroups MG alone (n = 45) and MG with any comorbidity (n = 109); the latter was further categorized into MG with other ADs (n = 33) and MG with non-AD comorbidities (n = 76). The endpoints analyzed were complete stable remission (CSR), minimal need for medications, and need for inhospital treatments. Results: CSR was more frequent in MG alone than in MG with any comorbidity group (26.7% vs 8.3%, p = 0.004). Minimal need for medication was reached more often in the MG alone than in the MG with non-AD comorbidities group (p = 0.047). Need for in-hospital treatments was lower in the MG alone group than in MG patients with any comorbidity (p = 0.046). Logistic regression analysis revealed that lower CCI scores increased the likelihood of CSR (p = 0.033). Lower CCI scores were more prevalent both in patients with minimal need for medication and in patients who did not need in-hospital treatments (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Patients with generalized MG and comorbidities have a poorer prognosis than patients with MG alone during almost 9 years follow-up after thymectomy. AD comorbidities appeared not to translate into a higher risk compared to other comorbidities.
  • Munier, Francis L.; Beck-Popovic, Maja; Chantada, Guillermo L.; Cobrinik, David; Kivelä, Tero T.; Lohmann, Dietmar; Maeder, Philippe; Moll, Annette C.; Carcaboso, Angel Montero; Moulin, Alexandre; Schaiquevich, Paula; Bergin, Ciara; Dyson, Paul J.; Houghton, Susan; Puccinelli, Francesco; Vial, Yvan; Gaillard, Marie-Claire; Stathopoulos, Christina (2019)
    Retinoblastoma is lethal by metastasis if left untreated, so the primary goal of therapy is to preserve life, with ocular survival, visual preservation and quality of life as secondary aims. Historically, enucleation was the first successful therapeutic approach to decrease mortality, followed over 100 years ago by the first eye salvage attempts with radiotherapy. This led to the empiric delineation of a window for conservative management subject to a "state of metastatic grace" never to be violated. Over the last two decades, conservative management of retinoblastoma witnessed an impressive acceleration of improvements, culminating in two major paradigm shifts in therapeutic strategy. Firstly, the introduction of systemic chemotherapy and focal treatments in the late 1990s enabled radiotherapy to be progressively abandoned. Around 10 years later, the advent of chemotherapy in situ, with the capitalization of new routes of targeted drug delivery, namely intra-arterial, intravitreal and now intracameral injections, allowed significant increase in eye preservation rate, definitive eradication of radiotherapy and reduction of systemic chemotherapy. Here we intend to review the relevant knowledge susceptible to improve the conservative management of retinoblastoma in compliance with the "state of metastatic grace", with particular attention to (i) reviewing how new imaging modalities impact the frontiers of conservative management, (ii) dissecting retinoblastoma genesis, growth patterns, and intraocular routes of tumor propagation, (iii) assessing major therapeutic changes and trends, (iv) proposing a classification of relapsing retinoblastoma, (v) examining treatable/preventable disease-related or treatment-induced complications, and (vi) appraising new therapeutic targets and concepts, as well as liquid biopsy potentiality.
  • Vollm, Birgit A.; Clarke, Martin; Tort Herrando, Vicenc; Seppanen, Allan O.; Gosek, Pawel; Heitzman, Janusz; Bulten, Erik (2018)
    Forensic psychiatry in Europe is a specialty primarily concerned with individuals who have either offended or present a risk of doing so, and who also suffer from a psychiatric condition. These mentally disordered offenders (MDOs) are often cared for in secure psychiatric environments orprisons. In this guidance paper we first present an overview of the field of forensic psychiatry from a European perspective. We then present a review of the literature summarising the evidence on the assessment and treatment of MDOs under the following headings: The forensic psychiatrist as expert witness, risk, treatment settings for mentally disordered offenders, and what works for MDOs. We undertook a rapid review of the literature with search terms related to: forensic psychiatry, review articles, randomised controlled trials and best practice. We searched the Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, and Cochrane library databases from 2000 onwards for adult groups only. We scrutinised publications for additional relevant literature, and searched the websites of relevant professional organisations for policies, statements or guidance of interest. We present the findings of the scientific literature as well as recommendations for best practice drawing additionally from the guidance documents identified. We found that the evidence base for forensic-psychiatric practice is weak though there is some evidence to suggest that psychiatric care produces better outcomes than criminal justice detention only. Practitioners need to follow general psychiatric guidance as well as that for offenders, adapted for the complex needs of this patient group, paying particular attention to long-term detention and ethical issues. (C) 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
  • Boom, V.; Anton, J.; Lahdenne, P.; Quartier, P.; Ravelli, A.; Wulffraat, N. M.; Vastert, S. J. (2015)
    Background: Macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) is a severe and potentially lethal complication of several inflammatory diseases but seems particularly linked to systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (sJIA). Standardized diagnostic and treatment guidelines for MAS in sJIA are currently lacking. The aim of this systematic literature review was to evaluate currently available literature on diagnostic criteria for MAS in sJIA and provide an overview of possible biomarkers for diagnosis, disease activity and treatment response and recent advances in treatment. Methods: A systematic literature search was performed in MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane. 495 papers were identified. Potentially relevant papers were selected by 3 authors after which full text screening was performed. All selected papers were evaluated by at least two independent experts for validity and level of evidence according to EULAR guidelines. Results: 27 papers were included: 7 on diagnosis, 9 on biomarkers and 11 on treatment. Systematic review of the literature confirmed that there are no validated diagnostic criteria for MAS in sJIA. The preliminary Ravelli criteria, with the addition of ferritin, performed well in a large retrospective case-control study. Recently, an international consortium lead by PRINTO proposed a new set of diagnostic criteria able to distinguish MAS from active sJIA and/or infection with superior performance. Other promising diagnostic biomarkers potentially distinguish MAS complicating sJIA from primary and virusassociated hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. The highest level of evidence for treatment comes from case-series. High dose corticosteroids with or without cyclosporine A were frequently reported as first-line therapy. From the newer treatment modalities, promising responses have been reported with anakinra. Conclusion: MAS in sJIA seems to be diagnosed best by the recently proposed PRINTO criteria, although prospective validation is needed. Novel promising biomarkers for sJIA related MAS are in need of prospective validation as well, and are not widely available yet. Currently, treatment of MAS in sJIA relies more on experience than evidence based medicine. Taking into account the severity of MAS and the scarcity of evidence, early expert consultation is recommended as soon as MAS is suspected.
  • Wiegman, Albert; Gidding, Samuel S.; Watts, Gerald F.; Chapman, M. John; Ginsberg, Henry N.; Cuchel, Marina; Ose, Leiv; Averna, Maurizio; Boileau, Catherine; Boren, Jan; Bruckert, Eric; Catapano, Alberico L.; Defesche, Joep C.; Descamps, Olivier S.; Hegele, Robert A.; Hovingh, G. Kees; Humphries, Steve E.; Kovanen, Petri T.; Kuivenhoven, Jan Albert; Masana, Luis; Nordestgaard, Borge G.; Pajukanta, Paevi; Parhofer, Klaus G.; Raal, Frederick J.; Ray, Kausik K.; Santos, Raul D.; Stalenhoef, Anton F. H.; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth; Stroes, Erik S.; Taskinen, Marja-Riitta; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Wiklund, Olov; European Atherosclerosis Soc Conse (2015)
    Familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) is a common genetic cause of premature coronary heart disease (CHD). Globally, one baby is born with FH every minute. If diagnosed and treated early in childhood, individuals with FH can have normal life expectancy. This consensus paper aims to improve awareness of the need for early detection and management of FH children. Familial hypercholesterolaemia is diagnosed either on phenotypic criteria, i.e. an elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level plus a family history of elevated LDL-C, premature coronary artery disease and/or genetic diagnosis, or positive genetic testing. Childhood is the optimal period for discrimination between FH and non-FH using LDL-C screening. An LDL-C a parts per thousand yen5 mmol/L (190 mg/dL), or an LDL-C a parts per thousand yen4 mmol/L (160 mg/dL) with family history of premature CHD and/or high baseline cholesterol in one parent, make the phenotypic diagnosis. If a parent has a genetic defect, the LDL-C cut-off for the child is a parts per thousand yen3.5 mmol/L (130 mg/dL). We recommend cascade screening of families using a combined phenotypic and genotypic strategy. In children, testing is recommended from age 5 years, or earlier if homozygous FH is suspected. A healthy lifestyle and statin treatment (from age 8 to 10 years) are the cornerstones of management of heterozygous FH. Target LDL-C is <3.5 mmol/L (130 mg/dL) if > 10 years, or ideally 50% reduction from baseline if 8-10 years, especially with very high LDL-C, elevated lipoprotein(a), a family history of premature CHD or other cardiovascular risk factors, balanced against the long-term risk of treatment side effects. Identifying FH early and optimally lowering LDL-C over the lifespan reduces cumulative LDL-C burden and offers health and socioeconomic benefits. To drive policy change for timely detection and management, we call for further studies in the young. Increased awareness, early identification, and optimal treatment from childhood are critical to adding decades of healthy life for children and adolescents with FH.
  • Öhman, J.; Harjola, Veli-Pekka; Karjalainen, P.; Lassus, Johan (2018)
    Aims There is little evidence-based therapy existing for acute heart failure (AHF), hospitalizations are lengthy and expensive, and optimal monitoring of AHF patients during in-hospital treatment is poorly defined. We evaluated a rapid cardiothoracic ultrasound (CaTUS) protocol, combining focused echocardiographic evaluation of cardiac filling pressures, that is, medial E/e' and inferior vena cava index, with lung ultrasound (LUS) for guiding treatment in hospitalized AHF patients. Methods and results We enrolled 20 consecutive patients hospitalized for AHF, whose in-hospital treatment was guided using the CaTUS protocol according to a pre-specified treatment protocol targeting resolution of pulmonary congestion on LUS and lowering cardiac filling pressures. Treatment results of these 20 patients were compared with those of a standard care sample of 100 patients, enrolled previously for follow-up purposes. The standard care sample had CaTUS performed daily for follow-up and received standard in-hospital treatment without ultrasound guidance. All CaTUS exams were performed by a single experienced sonographer. The CaTUS-guided therapy resulted in significantly larger decongestion as defined by reduction in symptoms, cardiac filling pressures, natriuretic peptides, cumulative fluid loss, and resolution of pulmonary congestion (P <0.05 for all) despite a shorter mean length of hospitalization. Congestion parameters were significantly lower also at discharge (P <0.05 for all), without any significant difference in these parameters on admission. The treatment arm displayed better survival regarding the combined endpoint of 6 month all-cause death or AHF re-hospitalization (log rank P = 0.017). No significant difference in adverse events occurred between the groups. Conclusions The CaTUS-guided therapy for AHF resulted in greater decongestion during shorter hospitalization without increased adverse events in this small pilot study and might be associated with a better post-discharge prognosis.
  • Järvenpää, Pia; Arkkila, Perttu; Aaltonen, Leena-Maija (2018)
    Globus is a non-painful sensation of a lump or a foreign body in the throat, and it frequently improves with eating. Although globus is a common symptom, only little is known about the etiology, and the causes have remained controversial. Previously, globus was labelled as a hysterical symptom. However, nowadays, the research has been mainly focused on somatic causes and it is suspected that the etiology is complex. Because of the unclear etiology, the diagnostics and treatment are varying, predisposing patients to possible unnecessary investigations. This review presents the current literature of globus: its etiology, diagnostics, and treatment. In addition, a special aim is to discuss the rational investigation methods in globus diagnostics and present a diagnostic algorithm based on recent researches.
  • Tanno, Luciana K.; Haahtela, Tari; Calderon, Moises A.; Cruz, Alvaro; Demoly, Pascal; Joint Allergy Academies (2017)
    Asthma and allergic diseases can start in childhood and persist throughout life, but could also be manifested later, at any time for still misunderstood reasons. They are major chronic multifactorial respiratory diseases, for which prevention, early diagnosis and treatment is recognized as a priority for the Europe's public health policy and the United Nations. Given that allergy triggers (including infections, rapid urbanization leading to loss in biodiversity, pollution and climate changes) are not expected to change in a foreseeable future, it is imperative that steps are taken to develop, strengthen and optimize preventive and treatment strategies. Currently there are good treatments for asthma, several risk factors are known (e.g., allergies, rhinitis, tobacco smoke) and tools to control the disease have been developed. However, we are still uncertain how to prevent patients from developing asthma and allergic diseases. In this paper, we list the positive and negative experiences in this field as well as analyze the missing links in the process. This critical analysis will be the basis of setting-up an effective program for prevention and making, a process labeled as "implementation gaps". (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Hänninen, K.; Viitala, M.; Atula, S.; Laakso, S. M.; Kuusisto, H.; Soilu-Hänninen, M. (2022)
    Background The optimal treatment strategy with disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) remains uncertain. Objective To compare outcomes of initial treatment with infusion therapies and starting therapy with medium efficacy therapy in a propensity-matched cohort of Finnish RRMS patients. Methods A total of 154 RRMS patients initiating natalizumab, alemtuzumab, ocrelizumab or rituximab as first DMT (high efficacy DMT, heDMT group) and 1771 patients initially treated with injectable therapies, teriflunomide or dimethylfumarate and escalated based on disease activity (moderate efficacy DMT, meDMT group) were identified from the Finnish MS registry. Nearest neighbor propensity matching (1:1, caliper 0.1) was performed for age, sex, baseline Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), annual relapse rate (ARR) one year prior DMT and time since MS symptom onset. Primary outcome was time to 6-month confirmed EDSS progression and the secondary outcome time to first relapse. Results In the propensity-matched group comparisons, the probability of 6-month confirmed disability progression (CDP) at 5 years after DMT start was 28.4% (95% CI 15.7-39.3) in the heDMT group (n = 66) and 47.0% (95% CI 33.1-58.1) in meDMT group (n = 66), p = 0.013. Probability of relapse at 5 years was 34.6% (95% CI 24.1-43.6) for heDMT (n = 105) and 47.2% (95% CI 36.6-56.1) for meDMT (n = 105), p = 0.019. Conclusions Initiating MS-therapy with heDMT significantly reduced the risk of 5-year disability progression and relapse compared to using meDMT as first DMT choice in propensity-matched groups of Finnish MS-patients.
  • Husa, Anja P.; Moilanen, Jani; Murray, Graham K.; Marttila, Riikka; Haapea, Marianne; Rannikko, Irina; Barnett, Jennifer H.; Jones, Peter B.; Isohanni, Matti; Remes, Anne M.; Koponen, Hannu; Miettunen, Jouko; Jaaskelainen, Erika (2017)
    This naturalistic study analysed the association between cumulative lifetime antipsychotic dose and cognition in schizophrenia after an average of 16.5 years of illness. Sixty participants with schizophrenia and 191 controls from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 were assessed at age 43 years with a neurocognitive test battery. Cumulative lifetime antipsychotic dose-years were collected from medical records and interviews. The association between antipsychotic dose-years and a cognitive composite score based on principal component analysis was analysed using linear regression. Higher lifetime antipsychotic dose-years were significantly associated with poorer cognitive composite score, when adjusted for gender, onset age and lifetime hospital treatment days. The effects of typical and atypical antipsychotics did not differ. This is the first report of an association between cumulative lifetime antipsychotic dose and global cognition in midlife schizophrenia. Based on these data, higher lifetime antipsychotic dose-years may be associated with poorer cognitive performance at age 43 years. Potential biases related to the naturalistic design may partly explain the results; nonetheless, it is possible that large antipsychotic doses harm cognition in schizophrenia in the long-term.
  • Rantala, Elina S.; Hernberg, Micaela M.; Piperno-Neumann, Sophie; Grossniklaus, Hans E.; Kivelä, Tero T. (2022)
    Treatment of primary intraocular uveal melanoma has developed considerably, its driver genes are largely unraveled, and the ways to assess its risk for metastases are very precise, being based on an international staging system and genetic data. Unfortunately, the risk of distant metastases, which emerge in approximately one half of all patients, is unaltered. Metastases are the leading single cause of death after uveal melanoma is diagnosed, yet no consensus exists regarding surveillance, staging, and treatment of disseminated disease, and survival has not improved until recently. The final frontier in conquering uveal melanoma lies in solving these issues to cure metastatic disease. Most studies on metastatic uveal melanoma are small, uncontrolled, retrospective, and do not report staging. Meta-analyses confirm a median overall survival of 10–13 months, and a cure rate that approaches nil, although survival exceeding 5 years is possible, estimated 2% either with first-line treatment or with best supportive care. Hepatic ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging as surveillance methods have a sensitivity of 95–100% and 83–100%, respectively, to detect metastases without radiation hazard according to prevailing evidence, but computed tomography is necessary for staging. No blood-based tests additional to liver function tests are generally accepted. Three validated staging systems predict, each in defined situations, overall survival after metastasis. Their essential components include measures of tumor burden, liver function, and performance status or metastasis free interval. Age and gender may additionally influence survival. Exceptional mutational events in metastases may make them susceptible to checkpoint inhibitors. In a large meta-analysis, surgical treatment was associated with 6 months longer median overall survival as compared to conventional chemotherapy and, recently, tebentafusp as first-line treatment at the first interim analysis of a randomized phase III trial likewise provided a 6 months longer median overall survival compared to investigator's choice, mostly pembrolizumab; these treatments currently apply to selected patients. Promoting dormancy of micrometastases, harmonizing surveillance protocols, promoting staging, identifying predictive factors, initiating controlled clinical trials, and standardizing reporting will be critical steppingstones in reaching the final frontier of curing metastatic uveal melanoma.
  • Fan, Ruili; Geritz, Stefan A. H. (2022)
    Given an endemic infectious disease and a budget, how do we optimally allocate interventions to control the disease? This paper shows that the optimal strategy varies depending on the budget, the type of intervention, the trajectory of pathogen load, and the objective.Using a model with explicit within-and between-host dynamics, we model isolation, supportive treatment, and specific treatment. Isolation and supportive treatment affect the transmission coefficient and the disease -induced mortality rate, respectively, in the between-host dynamics. Specific treatment affects the clearance rate of pathogens in the within-host dynamics.We study the optimisation of the three interventions for various budget levels via evaluating isolation and supportive treatment at the population level and specific treatment at both the population and individual levels. At the population level, we consider the risk of transmission, the burden of illness, and the survival probability, and to that end, we choose the population-level infection rate, the population density of infected individuals, and the total disease-induced mortality rate as objective functions. At the individual level, we consider the length of infection and the pathogen load, and to that end, we choose the maximum infection-age and the maximum pathogen load as objective functions. The objective is to minimise these functions through varying two variables that refer to when the intervention starts and when it stops for an infected individual and also indicate what kind of individuals can get the intervention from the population perspective.We find that the optimal strategy of isolation is to isolate individuals with a higher pathogen load, given a lower budget. The optimal strategy of supportive treatment can be the same as isolation or simply no treatment. The optimal strategy of specific treatment is complicated, and it can be to treat individuals with pathogen loads above a particular level until they recover or until the pathogens can decrease when treatment stops, or it can be another scenario.
  • Leivo, Tiina; Sarmela, Johanna; Enckell-Aaltonen, Maria; Dafgård Kopp, Eva; Schmitt, Caroline; Toft, Peter B.; Sigurdsson, Haraldur; Uusitalo, Marita (2020)
    Background The purpose was to describe the Nordic treatment practices and to reach a Nordic consensus for the treatment of sebaceous eyelid carcinoma. Methods The treatment practices data was collected by a questionnaire with 37 questions to the Nordic oculoplastic surgeons and analyzed. A PubMed MEDLINE database search was done to gather data on the published treatment practices and recommendations. A working group that consisted of in minimum one senior consultant from each leading Nordic University Eye Hospital was assigned. A structured interactive method was used to establish the consensus. Results Twenty-four doctors responded to the questionnaire. 23/24 (96%) of the respondents took a biopsy before surgery. Regional lymph node scanning was routinely done by 14/23 (61%) and a systemic screening of a metastatic disease by 13/23 (57%). 6/22 (27%) never took conjunctival mapping biopsies and 12/23 (52%) never screened for Muir- Torre. Respondents used Mohs surgery, frozen section or multi-stage excision with delayed closure, and 5-6 mm was the mostly preferred margin. Sentinel lymph node biopsy was a possible option for 9/22 (41%) and cryotherapy and Mitomycin C for 6/22 (27%) respondents. 50% of respondents considered radiation as a treatment option. 15/16 (94%) respondents always followed-up their patients, most for 5 years. Two thirds scanned regional lymph nodes during the follow-up. Consensus was reached for 18 statements representing three domains: preoperative work-up, treatment and follow-up. Conclusion Treatment practices differ in between the five Nordic countries which have similar public health care systems. In the article the authors present a Nordic consensus for the treatment of eyelid sebaceous carcinoma.
  • Rodrigo, Juan P.; Hernandez-Prera, Juan C.; Randolph, Gregory W.; Zafereo, Mark E.; Hartl, Dana M.; Silver, Carl E; Suárez, Carlos; Owen, Randall P.; Bradford, Carol R.; Mäkitie, Antti A.; Shaha, Ashok R.; Bishop, Justin A.; Rinaldo, Alessandra; Ferlito, Alfio (2020)
    Parathyroid cancer (PC) is a rare malignant tumor which comprises 0.5-5% of patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). Most of these cancers are sporadic, although it may also occur as a feature of various genetic syndromes including hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor syndrome (HPT-JT) and multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) types 1 and 2A. Although PC is characterized by high levels of serum ionized calcium (Ca) and parathyroid hormone (PTH), the challenge to the clinician is to distinguish PC from the far more common entities of parathyroid adenoma (PA) or hyperplasia, as there are no specific clinical, biochemical, or radiological characteristic of PC. Complete surgical resection is the only known curative treatment for PC with the surgical approach during initial surgery strongly influencing the outcome. In order to avoid local recurrence, the lesion must be removed en-bloc with clear margins. PC has high recurrence rates of up to 50% but with favorable long-term survival rates (10-year overall survival of 60-70%) due to its slow-growing nature. Most patients die not from tumor burden directly but from uncontrolled severe hypercalcemia. In this article we have updated the information on PC by reviewing the literature over the past 10 years and summarizing the findings of the largest series published in this period.