Browsing by Subject "Trust"

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  • Seppälä, Tuija; Pirttilä-Backman, Anna-Maija; Lipsanen, Jari Olavi (2012)
    In this article, we present a trust-focused model for understanding leader’s fairness enactment. The model suggests that leaders are motivated to act fairly to gain subordinates’ trust, to show trust in their subordinates, to show that they are worth the subordinates’ trust in them, and because they are willing to be vulnerable to the actions of cooperative subordinates. The mediating role of the leader’s trust in the relationship between a subordinate’s cooperation and the leader’s fairness is also tested.
  • van den Born, Riyan J.G.; Verbrugge, Laura; Ganzevoort, Wessel (2020)
    Adaptive management strategies are required to manage multi-actor and multifunctional river landscapes. Such strategies need to be inclusive of perspectives of different stakeholders. We present a case study of a pilot engineering project in the Dutch river Waal, which drastically changed the appearance of the river landscape. We study perceptions of four stakeholder groups (residents, recreational anglers, recreational boaters and shipping professionals) regarding the impacts of this intervention on landscape values, including aesthetics, naturalness, biodiversity, flood safety and accessibility. Results show that stakeholders differ in which functions of the river landscape they found important and how they perceive the longitudinal dams to influence the landscape. They also differ in levels of place attachment and trust in the responsible authority. Shipping professionals stood out for their more negative evaluations of the dams compared to the other stakeholders, while especially residents demonstrated high levels of place identity and connection with nature. Residents also feel that the dams are improving flood risk safety in the area, and they positively evaluate knowledge and skills of Dutch water managers. These results provide water managers with much needed insights into landscape functions valued by different stakeholder groups and those perceived as most endangered by landscape interventions.
  • Puhakka, Riikka; Ollila, Sari; Valve, Raisa; Sinkkonen, Aki Tapio (2019)
    A health effect is a credence quality feature which is difficult for consumers to detect, and they need to be convinced of its trustworthiness. This study explores the role of trust-related arguments in Finnish, German, and British consumers' willingness to try a novel health-enhancing, non-edible product. Scientific evidence in particular would convince consumers, particularly Finnish ones, to try a product. Receiving recommendations from other users was more important for younger than for older respondents when it came to trying this type of product. Different marketing strategies may be needed to convince potential users of the benefits of a novel product.
  • Garcia Torres, Yvette Maria Vanessa (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    This study aims to analyze institutional change and transparency practices of the National Audit Office of Peru (NAO), whose job is to promote accountability in public administration but paradoxically faced an accountability crisis in 2017. This study analyzes the combination of logics of explanation that fostered the changes in the NAO during 2010 to 2020, and the role of transparency practices in institutional change. This study answers two research questions about the logics of explanation that were decisive to promote institutional change and the role of transparency in institutional change at the National Audit of Peru during the ten-year study of 2010-2020. In that regard, this theory-based qualitative research is based on institutional change theories and the four logics of explanation proposed by Vivien Schmidt: institutional design, evolutionary, appropriateness, and communication, the perceptions of seven decision-makers, managers, authors, or participants who worked during the time of the study frame of ten years, plus the analysis of statistical data. Since only one logics of explanation cannot explain the changes, a combination of the four logics of explanation were necessary. Each of the logics of explanation merge with thematical axis proposed after coding the interviewees' perspectives to explain how the changes were produced and the role of the transparency practices that fostered the changes within an accountability public institution between 2010 2020. Moreover, theories of accountability, trustworthiness, transparency and communication are presented to answer the research questions. This study uses the content analysis method and other qualitative research tools such as document review, website review, and information from the organization, which is of public domain. Finally, the conclusions of this study show that the combination of the four logics of explanation was crucial for the changes at the National Audit Office, and the practices of transparency were effects of those changes.
  • Laine, Verna (2020)
    In this thesis the author introduces a concept (leap of faith) and traces back its practical application as an artistic-pedagogical premise and method in the making of a performance (Leap Beyond). The central concept and the concepts surrounding it have been explored by the author previously in another artistic research context (wherein the author theorised a possible approach to actor movement training based on the concept of a leap of faith) and have been expanded and explored further in this thesis. The thesis focuses around two questions: 1) How do I (the author) as an art pedagogue implement ideas of Leap of Faith in a rehearsal process for a performance? 2) What kind of pedagogy does this call forth? The first question allows the author to map out the training and rehearsal process towards the performance Leap Beyond in the light of the concept of a leap of faith and relate them with the surrounding concepts of anxiety, the unknown and that-which-is-not-yet. The surrounding concepts enable the author to contextualise and place the work within a larger discourse on art practice, art pedagogy and learning. The author presents and outlines the practical application and means with which the implementation of ideas of a leap of faith was made, with specific focus on the aerial work and the developments towards it. The second question acts as a follow-up question that opens up possibilities for further investigation in the future. It allows the author to reflect on the pedagogical choices that were made before and during the process. Through the second question it also becomes possible for the author to reflect on features about the work that have clarified their meaning to the author only after the official part of the production process had come to an end. The author concludes the thesis by proposing potential future developments and prospects.
  • Rolin, Kristina (2021)
    I examine ramifications of the widespread view that scientific objectivity gives us a permission to trust scientific knowledge claims. According to a widely accepted account of trust and trustworthiness, trust in scientific knowledge claims involves both reliance on the claims and trust in scientists who present the claims, and trustworthiness depends on expertise, honesty, and social responsibility. Given this account, scientific objectivity turns out to be a hybrid concept with both an epistemic and a moral-political dimension. The epistemic dimension tells us when scientific knowledge claims are reliable, and the moral-political dimension tells us when we can trust scientists to be socially responsible. While the former dimension has received a fair amount of attention, the latter is in need of analysis. I examine what it means for scientists to be socially responsible, that is, to follow "sound" moral and social values in different stages of scientific inquiry (Kourany in Philosophy of science after feminism, Oxford University Press, New York, 2010). Social responsibility is especially important when scientists function as experts in society. Members of the public and policymakers do not want to rely on scientific research shaped by moral and social values they have good reasons to reject. Moreover, social responsibility is important in social research in which moral and social values can legitimately play many roles. I discuss the strengths and weaknesses of different answers to the question of how social scientists can identify appropriate moral and social values to inform their research. I argue that procedural accounts of social responsibility, such as well-ordered science and deliberative polling, have limitations.
  • Green, Sarah; Froud, Julie; Williams, Karel (2012)
    This paper focuses on private equity in the UK and is set in the context of debates about transformations in the City of London and the financial services sector specifically. The article focuses on a particular concept of trust as expressed by senior members of the private equity sector. The argument developed is based on interviews with five senior founding partners of private equity firms who talked to us about their background and education, their understanding of how private equity worked and the basis for successful money making and their relationships with those inside and outside the organisation. All interviewees strongly asserted the need for absolute trust between senior partners as an essential condition for the successful operation of their business. At the same time, their description of trust in this context was that while it is deep, it is also easily broken, and that once broken, the breach cannot be forgiven. We call this ‘brittle trust:’ asserted to be simultaneously strong while extremely fragile. The paper argues, drawing on Diego Gambetta’s work on the Sicilian Mafia, that this concept of ‘trust’ reflects a particular understanding of the practice of private equity as a high risk, tough and unforgiving business that nevertheless requires high standards of personal integrity. The study allows us to understand something more about the social ideals that were built into this financial sector by its founders, which we argue formed a crucial part of the transformation of the financial sector.
  • Oksanen, Atte; Kaakinen, Markus; Latikka, Rita; Savolainen, Iina; Savela, Nina; Koivula, Aki (2020)
    Background: The outbreak of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has dramatically changed societies in 2020. Since the end of February, Europe has been hit particularly hard by COVID-19, but there are major country differences in both the spread of the virus and measures taken to stop the virus. Social psychological factors such as institutional trust could be important in understanding the development of the epidemic. Objective: The aim of this study was to examine country variations of COVID-19 mortality in Europe by analyzing social risk factors explaining the spread of the disease, restrictions and control measures, and institutional trust. Methods: The present study was based on a background analysis of European Social Survey data on 25 European countries (N=47,802). Multilevel mixed effects linear regression models focused on 84 days of the COVID-19 epidemic (January 22 to April 14, 2020) and modelled the daily COVID-19 mortality. Analysis focused on the impact of social relations, restrictions, and institutional trust within each country. Results: The spread of the COVID-19 epidemic has been fast everywhere, but the findings revealed significant differences between countries in COVID-19 mortality. Perceived sociability predicted higher COVID-19 mortality. Major differences between the 25 countries were found in reaction times to the crisis. Late reaction to the crisis predicted later mortality figures. Institutional trust was associated with lower COVID-19 mortality. Conclusions: The analyses demonstrated the importance of societal and social psychological factors in the spread of the COVID-19 epidemic. By considering multiple perspectives, this study showed that country differences in Europe are major, and this will have an impact on how countries will cope with the ongoing crisis in the following months. The results indicated the importance of timely restrictions and cooperation with people. © Atte Oksanen.
  • Särkkä-Tirkkonen, Anne Marjo Kaarina; Mynttinen, Sinikka; Logrén, Johanna; Rautiainen, Teija (Association for Tourism and Leisure Education and Research, 2015)
    Russians are the largest national group among tourists visiting Finland, even after the recent downturn caused by the economic situation/devaluation of the Ruble. Russian tourists in Finland spend money mainly on food, household goods, sweets and children's clothing. Thus, food is a fundamental element of the holiday experience. Finnish food products are highly valued by Russians, and, therefore, Russian tourists are an interesting target group in order to understand the perceptions of authenticity better in relation to local food as a tourism experience. Moreover, the research focused on this topic has been quite scarce so far. Foods and drinks engage all the senses and have strong connections with place, because we have personal, sensory memories of consuming them in a certain setting. It can be argued that food has an ability to recall emotions and that is why tourists often search for authentic experiences via food products. Furthermore, they buy food e.g. as souvenirs in order to relive the holiday events with family and friends at home. Among Russian tourists also cross-border food tourism is common based on perceptions of high-quality foodstuffs and authenticity of the products in their original environment. The process of forming the perception of an authentic food experience is very sensitive. An essential element in this process is trust, which is founded upon past experiences and knowledge and, at the same time, upon expectations for the future. Further, it is proposed that together with pre-contractual trust, trust in individuals and collective entities plays a role in the process of creating predictability. Thus, tourists’ perceptions of authenticity of local food are argued to relate to their trust in the food chain as a whole as well as in its actors: farmers, processors of food, restaurants, retail and the control system. This study applies qualitative methods to reach a more in-depth understanding of Russian tourists’ relations to local food during their visit to Finland, especially, their trust in its authenticity. The results show that there is an interaction between the three forms of trust and perceived authenticity of local food among Russian tourists. The perceived authenticity and trust, accordingly, seem to be based on a positive image of Finnish food throughout the post-soviet period, the institutional performance of the Finnish food system as well as one’s own and other’s experiences.
  • Lindahl, Anna; Patja, Kristiina; Keski-Rahkonen, Anna (2019)
    Terveysvalmennus on näyttöön perustuva elintapainterventio, joka nostaa potilaan toimijaksi. Se tukee potilaan sitoutumista hoitoon ja myönteisiä elintapamuutoksia pitkäaikaissairauksissa. Lääkärille ja lääkäriksi opiskelevalle terveysvalmennus tarjoaa uusia työkaluja. Se voi parantaa potilas–lääkärisuhdetta ja lisätä terveydenhuollon tasa-arvoa.
  • Piirainen, Antti-Juhani (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    This study provides an analysis on the role of communications in enhancing tax compliance from building an overall view of OECD’s Forum of Tax Administration’s member countries’ tax administrations’ perceptions about communications’ role on improving tax compliance. Prior to this study, there was no comprehensive view about the state of communications in the aforementioned countries. This study examines the perceptions of tax administration communications departments on whether tax compliance can be improved by means of communication. In the recent tax-related theories, there are two ways of encouraging the payment of taxes: coercive power and trust. According to theories, trust can be increased by the transparency that modern government communication is nowadays very much aimed towards. The tax communication units of OECD’s Forum of Tax Administrations' member countries' tax administrations were viewed in regards of organisational factors, communication practices and strategic approaches. This study has been carried out as a quantitative observational study targeting the members of the aforementioned network. An online survey was used to collect the data and was sent to the member countries in 2017 and 2018. This way it was possible to gain further insight with the year-by-year comparison. In addition, the data obtained through the survey was compared to other materials such as the OECD's Tax Administration Series. Key concepts and theories are related to tax compliance, government communication as well as transparency and trust. One of the key findings of the study is that the size of the tax administrations does not have impact on communications departments’ perceptions or activities on enhancing tax compliance with communications. Seems that tax administrations have not been able to leverage the economics of scale communications-wise. All of the tax administrations perceived their communications to be successful despite the variance in their actual performance within strategic goals, usage of different media channels or monitoring their performance. However, tax administrations’ attitudes towards transparency have moved in a positive direction within one year. According to the results, communication measurements are underutilised, as they could be reflected more with the goals and directions of communication strategies. The link between strategic objectives and practice is broken, despite the fact that tax administrations use a wide range of different service channels, marketing communicational tools as well as social networks when communicating towards tax payers and stakeholders. With this in mind, it can be said that on a general level, tax administrations are well prepared for the challenges of the new information age and its pressures for more transparency, but do not necessarily have the optimal organisational setting for it yet.
  • Tandon, Anushree; Dhir, Amandeep; Kaur, Puneet; Kushwah, Shiksha; Salo, Jari (2020)
    Although consumer interest in organic food has risen over time, resulting in a generally positive attitude toward these organic food products, scholarly research suggests a comparatively low volume of its consumption in the market. This has resulted in an urgent need to study the motivations which enhance consumers' proclivity to purchase food items produced organically. The current research attempts to understand potential associations between motivations (intrinsic and extrinsic), attitude, and buying behaviour towards organic food. Self-determination theory (SDT) was applied to develop a theoretically grounded framework which was evaluated with 378 organic food consumers. The hypotheses were tested by analyzing the data through structural equation modelling (SEM), wherein environmental concerns and trust were the moderating variables. The study results demonstrate the significant influence of intrinsic motivation, integrated and external regulation on consumer attitude, and buying behaviour. But, attitude had no significant association with buying behaviour. The findings indicate consumers' motivation may be stimulated to encourage higher frequencies of purchasing organic food by emphasizing values that reflect motivations arising from ethical or green consumerism, health, and social benefits. Furthermore, policymakers should focus on avenues to integrate organic food as permanent parts of individual lives and a socially exalting behavioral action.