Browsing by Subject "Tumor microenvironment"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-5 of 5
  • Vered, Marilena; Shnaiderman-Shapiro, Anna; Zlotogorski-Hurvitz, Ayelet; Salo, Tuula; Yahalom, Ran (2019)
    Objectives: To examine different immunophenotypes of cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) in tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC) and to investigate how they related to clinical outcomes. Methods: Serial sections from 54 cases of TSCC were immunohistochemically stained with a-smooth muscle actin (alpha SMA, CAF marker) to determine CAF density, and double-immunostained with alpha SMA combined with CD80 and CD86 (myeloid/monocytic-derived cell markers), Nanog (mesenchymal stem cell marker) and CD133 (hematopoietic/endothelial stem cell marker). Density of cells co-expressing these marker combinations was semi-quantitatively assessed in 5 randomly selected high power fields within the tumor area and scored as 1 - one-to-five stained cells in each field, 2 - more than 5 stained cells in each field; any finding less than score 1, was allocated a score of 0. Results: There were 26 CAF-poor, 16 CAF-rich and 12 CAF-intermediated cases. CD86(+) alpha SMA(+) cells were the most frequent (80.4%) followed by CD80(+) alpha SMA(+) (72%) and Nanog(+) alpha SMA(+) cells (56%). The CD133(+) alpha SMA(+) phenotype was found only in association with blood vessels. High density of aSMA CAFs was associated with disease recurrence and poor survival (p <0.05). Increased density of CD86(+) alpha SMA(+) cells was significantly associated with CAF-rich tumors and with poor survival (p <0.05). Conclusion: In TSCC, CAFs demonstrate heterogeneous and overlapping phenotypes with the myeloid/monocytic type being the most frequent and having an impact on the clinical outcomes. Further studies are needed in order to further characterize CAF phenotypes in carcinomas of various oral sites, as this may open new frontiers for personalized medicine.
  • Vered, Marilena; Lehtonen, Meri; Hotakainen, Lari; Pirila, Emma; Teppo, Susanna; Nyberg, Pia; Sormunen, Raija; Zlotogorski-Hurvitz, Ayelet; Salo, Tuula; Dayan, Dan (2015)
  • Lopes, Alessandra; Feola, Sara; Ligot, Sophie; Fusciello, Manlio; Vandermeulen, Gaëlle; Préat, Véronique; Cerullo, Vincenzo (2019)
    Background: DNA vaccines against cancer held great promises due to the generation of a specific and long lasting immune response. However, when used as a single therapy, they are not able to drive the generated immune response into the tumor, because of the immunosuppressive microenvironment, thus limiting their use in humans. To enhance DNA vaccine efficacy, we combined a new poly-epitope DNA vaccine encoding melanoma tumor associated antigens and B16F1-specific neoantigens with an oncolytic virus administered intratumorally. Methods: Genomic analysis were performed to find specific mutations in B16F1 melanoma cells. The antigen gene sequences were designed according to these mutations prior to the insertion in the plasmid vector. Mice were injected with B16F1 tumor cells (n = 7-9) and therapeutically vaccinated 2, 9 and 16 days after the tumor injection. The virus was administered intratumorally at day 10, 12 and 14. Immune cell infiltration analysis and cytokine production were performed by flow cytometry, PCR and ELISPOT in the tumor site and in the spleen of animals, 17 days after the tumor injection. Results: The combination of DNA vaccine and oncolytic virus significantly increased the immune activity into the tumor. In particular, the local intratumoral viral therapy increased the NK infiltration, thus increasing the production of different cytokines, chemokines and enzymes involved in the adaptive immune system recruitment and cytotoxic activity. On the other side, the DNA vaccine generated antigen-specific T cells in the spleen, which migrated into the tumor when recalled by the local viral therapy. The complementarity between these strategies explains the dramatic tumor regression observed only in the combination group compared to all the other control groups. Conclusions: This study explores the immunological mechanism of the combination between an oncolytic adenovirus and a DNA vaccine against melanoma. It demonstrates that the use of a rational combination therapy involving DNA vaccination could overcome its poor immunogenicity. In this way, it will be possible to exploit the great potential of DNA vaccination, thus allowing a larger use in the clinic.
  • Lopes, Alessandra; Feola, Sara; Ligot, Sophie; Fusciello, Manlio; Vandermeulen, Gaëlle; Préat, Véronique; Cerullo, Vincenzo (BioMed Central, 2019)
    Abstract Background DNA vaccines against cancer held great promises due to the generation of a specific and long-lasting immune response. However, when used as a single therapy, they are not able to drive the generated immune response into the tumor, because of the immunosuppressive microenvironment, thus limiting their use in humans. To enhance DNA vaccine efficacy, we combined a new poly-epitope DNA vaccine encoding melanoma tumor associated antigens and B16F1-specific neoantigens with an oncolytic virus administered intratumorally. Methods Genomic analysis were performed to find specific mutations in B16F1 melanoma cells. The antigen gene sequences were designed according to these mutations prior to the insertion in the plasmid vector. Mice were injected with B16F1 tumor cells (n = 7–9) and therapeutically vaccinated 2, 9 and 16 days after the tumor injection. The virus was administered intratumorally at day 10, 12 and 14. Immune cell infiltration analysis and cytokine production were performed by flow cytometry, PCR and ELISPOT in the tumor site and in the spleen of animals, 17 days after the tumor injection. Results The combination of DNA vaccine and oncolytic virus significantly increased the immune activity into the tumor. In particular, the local intratumoral viral therapy increased the NK infiltration, thus increasing the production of different cytokines, chemokines and enzymes involved in the adaptive immune system recruitment and cytotoxic activity. On the other side, the DNA vaccine generated antigen-specific T cells in the spleen, which migrated into the tumor when recalled by the local viral therapy. The complementarity between these strategies explains the dramatic tumor regression observed only in the combination group compared to all the other control groups. Conclusions This study explores the immunological mechanism of the combination between an oncolytic adenovirus and a DNA vaccine against melanoma. It demonstrates that the use of a rational combination therapy involving DNA vaccination could overcome its poor immunogenicity. In this way, it will be possible to exploit the great potential of DNA vaccination, thus allowing a larger use in the clinic.
  • Wahbi, Wafa; Naakka, Erika; Tuomainen, Katja; Suleymanova, Ilida; Arpalahti, Annamari; Miinalainen, Ilkka; Vaananen, Juho; Grenman, Reidar; Monni, Outi; Al-Samadi, Ahmed; Salo, Tuula (2020)
    The interaction between squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cells and the tumor microenvironment (TME) plays a major role in cancer progression. Therefore, understanding the TME is essential for the development of cancer therapies. We used four (primary and metastatic) head and neck (HN) SCC cell lines and cultured them on top of or within 5 matrices (mouse sarcoma-derived Matrigel (R), rat collagen, human leiomyoma-derived Myogel, human fibronectin and human fibrin). We performed several assays to study the effects of these matrices on the HNSCC behavior, such as proliferation, migration, and invasion, as well as cell morphology, and molecular gene profile. Carcinoma cells exhibited different growth patterns depending on the matrix. While fibrin enhanced the proliferation of all the cell lines, collagen did not. The effects of the matrices on cancer cell migration were cell line dependent. Carcinoma cells in Myogel-collagen invaded faster in scratch wound invasion assay. On the other hand, in the spheroid invasion assay, three out of four cell lines invaded faster in Myogel-fibrin. These matrices significantly affected hundreds of genes and a number of pathways, but the effects were cell line dependent. The matrix type played a major role in HNSCC cell phenotype. The effects of the ECMs were either constant, or cell line dependent. Based on these results, we suggest to select the most suitable matrix, which provides the closest condition to the in vivo TME, in order to get reliable results in in vitro experiments.