Browsing by Subject "Tumour"

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  • Vähämurto, Pauli; Silventoinen, Kaija; Vento, Seija; Karjalainen-Lindsberg, Marja-Liisa; Haapaniemi, Aaro; Back, Leif; Mannisto, Susanna; Leppa, Sirpa; Makitie, Antti A. (2016)
    Sinonasally located lymphoid malignancies are rare lesions with first symptoms similar to other obstructive conditions. Additionally, they often coexist with nasal inflammation and mucosal necrosis. Therefore, time from the first symptoms to diagnosis tends to be long. Awareness and early diagnosis of this disease entity could improve treatment outcome. Altogether, 142 patients with sinonasal or nasopharyngeal (i.e. sinonasal tract, SNT) lymphoid malignancies, diagnosed and treated at the Helsinki University Hospital, during a 39-year period from 1975 to 2013, were retrospectively reviewed. There were 90 males (63 %) and 52 females (37 %) with a median age of 64 years (range 26-92). Eighty-four percent of the patients had primary diseases and 16 % had relapses of lymphoid malignancies primarily diagnosed at other locations. The mean duration of symptoms prior to diagnosis was 4.8 months (range 0.5-24). The most common histological entity was diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (43 %), followed by plasmacytoma (18 %). The most common location was nasopharynx (58 %) followed by nasal cavity (44 %) and paranasal sinuses (35 %). Sixty-nine percent of the lesions were at a single anatomic location of the sinonasal tract. Fifty-two percent of the cases were of Ann Arbor Stage I. Lymphoid malignancies form an important and diverse group in the differential diagnosis of SNT tumours. They most often present with general obstructive nasal symptoms due to tumour location. Most of them are primary lesions, highlighting the importance of an accurate diagnosis as early as possible.
  • Hämetoja, Hanna; Hirvonen, Karoliina; Hagström, Jaana; Leivo, Ilmo; Saarilahti, Kauko; Apajalahti, Satu; Haglund, Caj; Mäkitie, Antti; Bäck, Leif (2017)
    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the long-term outcome of minor salivary and mucous gland (MiSG) adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) of the head and neck and to compare the results with earlier reports including our recently published series on major salivary gland (MaSG) ACC. The study comprised 68 MiSG ACCs operated during 1974-2012 at the Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland. Medical records and histological samples were reviewed. Our previously published cohort comprising 54 MaSG ACCs during the years from 1974 to 2009 was used for comparison. The most common locations were the oral cavity and sinonasal cavities. Most patients presented stages IV (33.8%) and I (23.5%) disease. Primary treatment with curative intent, mainly surgery, was offered for 64 patients. Thirty-three (51.6%) of these patients developed a disease recurrence and 22 (66.7%) patients in less than 5 years. The difference in the length of recurrence-free time (<5 vs. > 5 years) had an impact on OS and DSS (p <0.001) showing worse prognosis for the earlier recurring group. T classes 2-4 (p = 0.005, p <0.001, and p = 0.001, respectively) and stages II-IV (p = 0.019, p <0.001, and p = 0.002, respectively) were associated with worse OS, DSS, and DFS. MiSG ACC had a similar long-term survival compared to MaSG ACC. Patients with stage I MiSG ACC seem to carry a favourable prognosis compared with those with stages II, III, and IV tumours. It is thus noteworthy that stage II tumours represent a truly advanced disease entity warranting a more aggressive treatment approach.
  • Long, Maeve; McWilliams, Thomas G. (2020)
    Autophagy refers to an essential mechanism that evolved to sustain eukaryotic homeostasis and metabolism during instances of nutrient deprivation. During autophagy, intracellular cargo is encapsulated and delivered to the lysosome for elimination. Loss of basal autophagy in vivo negatively impacts cellular proteostasis, metabolism and tissue integrity. Accordingly, many drug development strategies are focused on modulating autophagic capacity in various pathophysiological states, from cancer to neurodegenerative disease. The role of autophagy in cancer is particularly complicated, as either augmenting or attenuating this process can have variable outcomes on cellular survival, proliferation and transformation. This complexity is compounded by the emergence of several selective autophagy pathways, which act to eliminate damaged or superfluous cellular components in a targeted fashion. The advent of sensitive tools to monitor autophagy pathways in vivo holds promise to clarify their importance in cancer pathophysiology. In this review, we provide an overview of autophagy in cancer biology and outline how the development of tools to study autophagy in vivo could enhance our understanding of its function for translational benefit.