Browsing by Subject "UBIQUITIN"

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  • Hanemaaijer, Evelyn S.; Panahi, Mahmod; Swaddiwudhipong, Nol; Tikka, Saara; Winblad, Bengt; Viitanen, Matti; Piras, Antonio; Behbahani, Homira (2018)
    Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is a familial progressive degenerative disorder and is caused by mutations in NOTCH3 gene. Previous study reported that mutant NOTCH3 is more prone to form aggregates than wild-type NOTCH3 and the mutant aggregates are resistant to degradation. We hypothesized that aggregation or accumulation of NOTCH3 could be due to impaired lysosomal-autophagy machinery in VSMC. Here, we investigated the possible cause of accumulation/aggregation of NOTCH3 in CADASIL using cerebral VSMCs derived from control and CADASIL patients carrying NOTCH3(RI33C) mutation. Thioflavin-S-staining confirmed the increased accumulation of aggregated NOTCH3 in VSMCR133C compared to VSMCWT. Increased levels of the lysosomal marker, Lamp2, were detected in VSMCR133C, which also showed co-localization with NOTCH3 using double-immunohistochemistry. Increased level of LC3-II/LC3-I ratio was observed in VSMCR133C suggesting an accumulation of autophagosomes. This was coupled with the decreased co-localization of NOTCH3 with LC3, and Lamp2 and, further, increase of p62/SQSTM1 levels in VSMCR133C compared to the VSMCWT. In addition, Western blot analysis indicated phosphorylation of p-ERK, p-S6RP, and p-P70 S6K. Altogether, these results suggested a dysfunction in the autophagy-lysosomal pathway in VSMCR133C. The present study provides an interesting avenue of the research investigating the molecular mechanism of CADASIL.
  • Tranter, Dale; Filipuzzi, Ireos; Lochmann, Thomas; Knapp, Britta; Kellosalo, Juho; Estoppey, David; Pistorius, Dominik; Meissner, Axel; Paavilainen, Ville O.; Hoepfner, Dominic (2020)
    Kendomycin is a small-molecule natural product that has gained significant attention due to reported cytotoxicity against pathogenic bacteria and fungi as well as a number of cancer cell lines. Despite significant biomedical interest and attempts to reveal its mechanism of action, the cellular target of kendomycin remains disputed. Herein it is shown that kendomycin induces cellular responses indicative of cation stress comparable to the effects of established iron chelators. Furthermore, addition of excess iron and copper attenuated kendomycin cytotoxicity in bacteria, yeast, and mammalian cells. Finally, NMR analysis demonstrated a direct interaction with cations, corroborating a close link between the observed kendomycin polypharmacology across different species and modulation of iron and/or copper levels.
  • Moore, Henna M.; Bai, Baoyan; Matilainen, Olli; Colis, Laureen; Peltonen, Karita; Laiho, Marikki (2013)
  • Paakinaho, Ville; Lempiäinen, Joanna K.; Sigismondo, Gianluca; Niskanen, Einari A.; Malinen, Marjo; Jääskeläinen, Tiina; Varjosalo, Markku; Krijgsveld, Jeroen; Palvimo, Jorma J. (2021)
    Glucocorticoid receptor (GR) is an essential transcription factor (TF), controlling metabolism, development and immune responses. SUMOylation regulates chromatin occupancy and target gene expression of GR in a locus-selective manner, but the mechanism of regulation has remained elusive. Here, we identify the protein network around chromatin-bound GR by using selective isolation of chromatin-associated proteins and show that the network is affected by receptor SUMOylation, with several nuclear receptor coregulators and chromatin modifiers preferring interaction with SUMOylation-deficient GR and proteins implicated in transcriptional repression preferring interaction with SUMOylation-competent GR. This difference is reflected in our chromatin binding, chromatin accessibility and gene expression data, showing that the SUMOylation-deficient GR is more potent in binding and opening chromatin at glucocorticoid-regulated enhancers and inducing expression of target loci. Blockage of SUMOylation by a SUMO-activating enzyme inhibitor (ML-792) phenocopied to a large extent the consequences of GR SUMOylation deficiency on chromatin binding and target gene expression. Our results thus show that SUMOylation modulates the specificity of GR by regulating its chromatin protein network and accessibility at GR-bound enhancers. We speculate that many other SUMOylated TFs utilize a similar regulatory mechanism.