Browsing by Subject "ULTRAFINE PARTICLES"

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  • Hussein, Tareq; Saleh, Shatha Suleiman Ali; dos Santos, Vanessa N.; Abdullah, Huthaifah; Boor, Brandon E. (2019)
    There is a paucity of comprehensive air quality data from urban areas in the Middle East. In this study, portable instrumentation was used to measure size-fractioned aerosol number, mass, and black carbon concentrations in Amman and Zarqa, Jordan. Submicron particle number concentrations at stationary urban background sites in Amman and Zarqa exhibited a characteristic diurnal pattern, with the highest concentrations during traffic rush hours (2-5 x 10(4) cm(-3) in Amman and 2-7 x 10(4) cm(-3) in Zarqa). Super-micron particle number concentrations varied considerably in Amman (1-10 cm(-3)). Mobile measurements identified spatial variations and local hotspots in aerosol levels within both cities. Walking paths around the University of Jordan campus showed increasing concentrations with proximity to main roads with mean values of 8 x 10(4) cm(-3), 87 mu g/m(3), 62 mu g/m(3), and 7.7 mu g/m(3) for submicron, PM10, PM2.5, and black carbon (BC), respectively. Walking paths in the Amman city center showed moderately high concentrations (mean 10(5) cm(-3), 120 mu g/m(3), 85 mu g/m(3), and 8.1 mu g/m(3) for submicron aerosols, PM10, PM2.5, and black carbon, respectively). Similar levels were found along walking paths in the Zarqa city center. On-road measurements showed high submicron concentrations (>10(5) cm(-3)). The lowest submicron concentration (
  • Enroth, Joonas; Saarikoski, Sanna; Niemi, Jarkko; Kousa, Anu; Jezek, Irena; Mocnik, Grisa; Carbone, Samara; Kuuluvainen, Heino; Rönkkö, Topi; Hillamo, Risto; Pirjola, Liisa (2016)
    Traffic-related pollution is a major concern in urban areas due to its deleterious effects on human health. The characteristics of the traffic emissions on four highway environments in the Helsinki metropolitan area were measured with a mobile laboratory, equipped with state-of-the-art instrumentation. Concentration gradients were observed for all traffic-related pollutants, particle number (CN), particulate mass (PM1), black carbon (BC), organics, and nitrogen oxides (NO and NO2). Flow dynamics in different environments appeared to be an important factor for the dilution of the pollutants. For example, the half-decay distances for the traffic-related CN concentrations varied from 8 to 83aEuro-m at different sites. The PM1 emissions from traffic mostly consisted of organics and BC. At the most open site, the ratio of organics to BC increased with distance to the highway, indicating condensation of volatile and semi-volatile organics on BC particles. These condensed organics were shown to be hydrocarbons as the fraction of hydrocarbon fragments in organics increased. Regarding the CN size distributions, particle growth during the dilution was not observed; however the mass size distributions measured with a soot particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SP-AMS), showed a visible shift of the mode, detected at aEuro-100aEuro-nm at the roadside, to a larger size when the distance to the roadside increased. The fleet average emission factors appeared to be lower for the CN and higher for the NO2 than ten years ago. The reason is likely to be the increased fraction of light-duty (LD) diesel vehicles in the past ten years. The fraction of heavy-duty (HD) traffic, although constituting less than 10aEuro-% of the total traffic flow, was found to have a large impact on the emissions.
  • Fung, Pak Lun; Zaidan, Martha Arbayani; Surakhi, Ola; Tarkoma, Sasu; Petäjä, Tuukka; Hussein, Tareq (2021)
    In air quality research, often only size-integrated particle mass concentrations as indicators of aerosol particles are considered. However, the mass concentrations do not provide sufficient information to convey the full story of fractionated size distribution, in which the particles of different diameters (Dp) are able to deposit differently on respiratory system and cause various harm. Aerosol size distribution measurements rely on a variety of techniques to classify the aerosol size and measure the size distribution. From the raw data the ambient size distribution is determined utilising a suite of inversion algorithms. However, the inversion problem is quite often ill-posed and challenging to solve. Due to the instrumental insufficiency and inversion limitations, imputation methods for fractionated particle size distribution are of great significance to fill the missing gaps or negative values. The study at hand involves a merged particle size distribution, from a scanning mobility particle sizer (NanoSMPS) and an optical particle sizer (OPS) covering the aerosol size distributions from 0.01 to 0.42 µm (electrical mobility equivalent size) and 0.3 to 10 µm (optical equivalent size) and meteorological parameters collected at an urban background region in Amman, Jordan, in the period of 1 August 2016–31 July 2017. We develop and evaluate feed-forward neural network (FFNN) approaches to estimate number concentrations at particular size bin with (1) meteorological parameters, (2) number concentration at other size bins and (3) both of the above as input variables. Two layers with 10–15 neurons are found to be the optimal option. Worse performance is observed at the lower edge (0.01<Dp<0.02 µm), the mid-range region (0.15<Dp<0.5 µm) and the upper edge (6<Dp<10 µm). For the edges at both ends, the number of neighbouring size bins is limited, and the detection efficiency by the corresponding instruments is lower compared to the other size bins. A distinct performance drop over the overlapping mid-range region is due to the deficiency of a merging algorithm. Another plausible reason for the poorer performance for finer particles is that they are more effectively removed from the atmosphere compared to the coarser particles so that the relationships between the input variables and the small particles are more dynamic. An observable overestimation is also found in the early morning for ultrafine particles followed by a distinct underestimation before midday. In the winter, due to a possible sensor drift and interference artefacts, the estimation performance is not as good as the other seasons. The FFNN approach by meteorological parameters using 5 min data (R2= 0.22–0.58) shows poorer results than data with longer time resolution (R2= 0.66–0.77). The FFNN approach using the number concentration at the other size bins can serve as an alternative way to replace negative numbers in the size distribution raw dataset thanks to its high accuracy and reliability (R2= 0.97–1). This negative-number filling approach can maintain a symmetric distribution of errors and complement the existing ill-posed built-in algorithm in particle sizer instruments.
  • Kangasniemi, Oskari; Kuuluvainen, Heino; Heikkilä, Joni; Pirjola, Liisa; Niemi, Jarkko V.; Timonen, Hilkka; Saarikoski, Sanna; Rönkkö, Topi; Dal Maso, Miikka (2019)
    Traffic is a major source of ultrafine aerosol particles in urban environments. Recent studies show that a significant fraction of traffic-related particles are only few nanometers in diameter. Here, we study the dispersion of this nanocluster aerosol (NCA) in the size range 1.3-4 nm. We measured particle concentrations near a major highway in the Helsinki region of Finland, varying the distance from the highway. Additionally, modelling studies were performed to gain further information on how different transformation processes affect NCA dispersion. The roadside measurements showed that NCA concentrations fell more rapidly than the total particle concentrations, especially during the morning. However, a significant amount of NCA particles remained as the aerosol population evolved. Modelling studies showed that, while dilution is the main process acting on the total particle concentration, deposition also had a significant impact. Condensation and possibly enhanced deposition of NCA were the main plausible processes explaining why dispersion is faster for NCA than for total particle concentration, while the effect of coagulation on all size ranges was small. Based on our results, we conclude that NCA may play a significant role in urban environments, since, rather than being scavenged by larger particles, NCA particles remain in the particle population and grow by condensation.
  • Poom, Age; Willberg, Elias; Toivonen, Tuuli (2021)
    Daily travel through the urban fabric exposes urban dwellers to a range of environmental conditions that may have an impact on their health and wellbeing. Knowledge about exposures during travel, their associations with travel behavior, and their social and health outcomes are still limited. In our review, we aim to explain how the current environmental exposure research addresses the interactions between human and environmental systems during travel through their spatial, temporal and contextual dimensions. Based on the 104 selected studies, we identify significant recent advances in addressing the spatiotemporal dynamics of exposure during travel. However, the conceptual and methodological framework for understanding the role of multiple environmental exposures in travel environments is still in an early phase, and the health and wellbeing impacts at individual or population level are not well known. Further research with greater geographical balance is needed to fill the gaps in the empirical evidence, and linking environmental exposures during travel with the causal health and wellbeing outcomes. These advancements can enable evidence-based urban and transport planning to take the next step in advancing urban livability.
  • Molgaard, Bjarke; Viitanen, Anna-Kaisa; Kangas, Anneli; Huhtiniemi, Marika; Larsen, Soren Thor; Vanhala, Esa; Hussein, Tareq; Boor, Brandon E.; Hämeri, Kaarle; Koivisto, Antti Joonas (2015)
    Due to the health risk related to occupational air pollution exposure, we assessed concentrations and identified sources of particles and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in a handcraft workshop producing fishing lures. The work processes in the site included polyurethane molding, spray painting, lacquering, and gluing. We measured total VOC (TVOC) concentrations and particle size distributions at three locations representing the various phases of the manufacturing and assembly process. The mean working-hour TVOC concentrations in three locations studied were 41, 37, and 24 ppm according to photo-ionization detector measurements. The mean working-hour particle number concentration varied between locations from 3000 to 36,000 cm(-3). Analysis of temporal and spatial variations of TVOC concentrations revealed that there were at least four substantial VOC sources: spray gluing, mold-release agent spraying, continuous evaporation from various lacquer and paint containers, and either spray painting or lacquering (probably both). The mold-release agent spray was indirectly also a major source of ultrafine particles. The workers' exposure can be reduced by improving the local exhaust ventilation at the known sources and by increasing the ventilation rate in the area with the continuous source.
  • Ahonen, L. R.; Kangasluoma, J.; Lammi, J.; Lehtipalo, K.; Hämeri, K.; Petäjä, T.; Kulmala, M. (2017)
    This study was conducted to observe a potential formation and/or release of aerosol particles related to manufacturing processes inside a cleanroom. We introduce a novel technique to monitor airborne sub 2nm particles in the cleanroom and present results from a measurement campaign during which the total particle number concentration (>1nm and >7 nm) and the size resolved concentration in the 1 to 2nm size range were measured. Measurements were carried out in locations where atomic layer deposition (ALD), sputtering, and lithography processes were conducted, with a wide variety of starting materials. During our campaign in the clean room, we observed several time periods when the particle number concentration was 10(5) cm(-3) in the sub 2nm size range and 10(4) cm(-3) in the size class larger than 7nm in one of the sampling locations. The highest concentrations were related to the maintenance processes of the manufacturing machines, which were conducted regularly in that specific location. Our measurements show that around 500cm(-3) sub 2nm particles or clusters were in practice always present in this specific cleanroom, while the concentration of particles larger than 2nm was less than 2cm(-3). During active processes, the concentrations of sub 2nm particles could rise to over 10(5) cm(-3) due to an active new particle formation. The new particle formation was most likely induced by a combination of the supersaturated vapors, released from the machines, and the very low existing condensation sink, leading to pretty high formation rates J(1.4 nm) = (9 4) cm(-3) s(-1) and growth rates of particles (GR(1.1-1.3 nm) = (6 +/- 3) nm/h and GR(1.3-1.8 nm) = (14 +/- 3) nm/h).Copyright (c) 2017 American Association for Aerosol Research
  • Kim, J.; Ahlm, L.; Yli-Juuti, T.; Lawler, M.; Keskinen, H.; Tröestl, J.; Schobesberger, S.; Duplissy, J.; Amorim, A.; Bianchi, F.; Donahue, N. M.; Flagan, R. C.; Hakala, J.; Heinritzi, M.; Jokinen, T.; Kuerten, A.; Laaksonen, A.; Lehtipalo, K.; Miettinen, P.; Petäjä, T.; Rissanen, M. P.; Rondo, L.; Sengupta, K.; Simon, M.; Tome, A.; Williamson, C.; Wimmer, D.; Winkler, P. M.; Ehrhart, S.; Ye, P.; Kirkby, J.; Curtius, J.; Baltensperger, U.; Kulmala, M.; Lehtinen, K. E. J.; Smith, J. N.; Riipinen, I.; Virtanen, A. (2016)
    Sulfuric acid, amines and oxidized organics have been found to be important compounds in the nucleation and initial growth of atmospheric particles. Because of the challenges involved in determining the chemical composition of objects with very small mass, however, the properties of the freshly nucleated particles and the detailed pathways of their formation processes are still not clear. In this study,we focus on a challenging size range, i.e., particles that have grown to diameters of 10 and 15 nm following nucleation, and measure their water uptake. Water uptake is useful information for indirectly obtaining chemical composition of aerosol particles. We use a nanometer-hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (nano-HTDMA) at sub-saturated conditions (ca. 90% relative humidity at 293 K) to measure the hygroscopicity of particles during the seventh Cosmics Leaving OUtdoor Droplets (CLOUD7) campaign performed at CERN in 2012. In CLOUD7, the hygroscopicity of nucleated nanoparticles was measured in the presence of sulfuric acid, sulfuric acid-dimethylamine, and sulfuric acid-organics derived from alpha-pinene oxidation. The hygroscopicity parameter kappa decreased with increasing particle size, indicating decreasing acidity of particles. No clear effect of the sulfuric acid concentration on the hygroscopicity of 10 nm particles produced from sulfuric acid and dimethylamine was observed, whereas the hygroscopicity of 15 nm particles sharply decreased with decreasing sulfuric acid concentrations. In particular, when the concentration of sulfuric acid was 5.1 x 10(6) molecules cm(-3) in the gas phase, and the dimethylamine mixing ratio was 11.8 ppt, the measured kappa of 15 nm particles was 0.31 +/- 0.01: close to the value reported for dimethylaminium sulfate (DMAS) (kappa(DMAS) similar to 0.28). Furthermore, the difference in kappa between sulfuric acid and sulfuric acid-dimethylamine experiments increased with increasing particle size. The kappa values of particles in the presence of sulfuric acid and organics were much smaller than those of particles in the presence of sulfuric acid and dimethylamine. This suggests that the organics produced from alpha-pinene ozonolysis play a significant role in particle growth even at 10 nm sizes.
  • de Jesus, Alma Lorelei; Thompson, Helen; Knibbs, Luke D.; Kowalski, Michal; Cyrys, Josef; Niemi, Jarkko V.; Kousa, Anu; Timonen, Hilkka; Luoma, Krista; Petäjä, Tuukka; Beddows, David; Harrison, Roy M.; Hopke, Philip; Morawska, Lidia (2020)
    Urbanisation and industrialisation led to the increase of ambient particulate matter (PM) concentration. While subsequent regulations may have resulted in the decrease of some PM matrices, the simultaneous changes in climate affecting local meteorological conditions could also have played a role. To gain an insight into this complex matter, this study investigated the long-term trends of two important matrices, the particle mass (PM2.5) and particle number concentrations (PNC), and the factors that influenced the trends. Mann-Kendall test, Sen's slope estimator, the generalised additive model, seasonal decomposition of time series by LOESS (locally estimated scatterplot smoothing) and the Buishand range test were applied. Both PM2.5 and PNC showed significant negative monotonic trends (0.03-0.6 mg m(-3).yr(-1) and 0.40-3.8 x 10(3) particles. cm(-3). yr(-1), respectively) except Brisbane (+0.1 mg m(-3). yr(-1) and +53 particles. cm(-3). yr(-1), respectively). For the period covered in this study, temperature increased (0.03-0.07 degrees C.yr(-1)) in all cities except London; precipitation decreased (0.02-1.4 mm.yr(-1)) except in Helsinki; and wind speed was reduced in Brisbane and Rochester but increased in Helsinki, London and Augsburg. At the change-points, temperature increase in cold cities influenced PNC while shifts in precipitation and wind speed affected PM2.5. Based on the LOESS trend, extreme events such as dust storms and wildfires resulting from changing climates caused a positive step-change in concentrations, particularly for PM2.5. In contrast, among the mitigation measures, controlling sulphur in fuels caused a negative step-change, especially for PNC. Policies regarding traffic and fleet management (e.g. low emission zones) that were implemented only in certain areas or in a progressive uptake (e.g. Euro emission standards), resulted to gradual reductions in concentrations. Therefore, as this study has clearly shown that PM2.5 and PNC were influenced differently by the impacts of the changing climate and by the mitigation measures, both metrics must be considered in urban air quality management. (C) 2020 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Karl, Matthias; Kukkonen, Jaakko; Keuken, Menno P.; Lutzenkirchen, Susanne; Pirjola, Liisa; Hussein, Tareq (2016)
    This study evaluates the influence of aerosol processes on the particle number (PN) concentrations in three major European cities on the temporal scale of 1aEuro-h, i.e., on the neighborhood and city scales. We have used selected measured data of particle size distributions from previous campaigns in the cities of Helsinki, Oslo and Rotterdam. The aerosol transformation processes were evaluated using the aerosol dynamics model MAFOR, combined with a simplified treatment of roadside and urban atmospheric dispersion. We have compared the model predictions of particle number size distributions with the measured data, and conducted sensitivity analyses regarding the influence of various model input variables. We also present a simplified parameterization for aerosol processes, which is based on the more complex aerosol process computations; this simple model can easily be implemented to both Gaussian and Eulerian urban dispersion models. Aerosol processes considered in this study were (i) the coagulation of particles, (ii) the condensation and evaporation of two organic vapors, and (iii) dry deposition. The chemical transformation of gas-phase compounds was not taken into account. By choosing concentrations and particle size distributions at roadside as starting point of the computations, nucleation of gas-phase vapors from the exhaust has been regarded as post tail-pipe emission, avoiding the need to include nucleation in the process analysis. Dry deposition and coagulation of particles were identified to be the most important aerosol dynamic processes that control the evolution and removal of particles. The error of the contribution from dry deposition to PN losses due to the uncertainty of measured deposition velocities ranges from -76 to +64aEuro-%. The removal of nanoparticles by coagulation enhanced considerably when considering the fractal nature of soot aggregates and the combined effect of van der Waals and viscous interactions. The effect of condensation and evaporation of organic vapors emitted by vehicles on particle numbers and on particle size distributions was examined. Under inefficient dispersion conditions, the model predicts that condensational growth contributes to the evolution of PN from roadside to the neighborhood scale. The simplified parameterization of aerosol processes predicts the change in particle number concentrations between roadside and urban background within 10aEuro-% of that predicted by the fully size-resolved MAFOR model.
  • Ribalta, Carla; Koivisto, Antti J.; Salmatonidis, Apostolos; López-Lilao, Ana; Monfort, Eliseo; Viana, Mar (2019)
    Mass balance models have proved to be effective tools for exposure prediction in occupational settings. However, they are still not extensively tested in real-world scenarios, or for particle number concentrations. An industrial scenario characterized by high emissions of unintentionally-generated nanoparticles (NP) was selected to assess the performance of a one-box model. Worker exposure to NPs due to thermal spraying was monitored, and two methods were used to calculate emission rates: the convolution theorem, and the cyclic steady state equation. Monitored concentrations ranged between 4.2 x 10(4)-2.5 x 10(5) cm(-3). Estimated emission rates were comparable with both methods: 1.4 x 10(11)-1.2 x 10(13) min(-1) (convolution) and 1.3 x 10(12)-1.4 x 10(13) min(-1) (cyclic steady state). Modeled concentrations were 1.4-6 x 10(4) cm(-3) (convolution) and 1.7-7.1 x 10(4) cm(-3) (cyclic steady state). Results indicated a clear underestimation of measured particle concentrations, with ratios modeled/measured between 0.2-0.7. While both model parametrizations provided similar results on average, using convolution emission rates improved performance on a case-by-case basis. Thus, using cyclic steady state emission rates would be advisable for preliminary risk assessment, while for more precise results, the convolution theorem would be a better option. Results show that one-box models may be useful tools for preliminary risk assessment in occupational settings when room air is well mixed.
  • Kukkonen, J.; Karl, M.; Keuken, M. P.; van der Gon, H. A. C. Denier; Denby, B. R.; Singh, V.; Douros, J.; Manders, A.; Samaras, Z.; Moussiopoulos, N.; Jonkers, S.; Aarnio, M.; Karppinen, A.; Kangas, L.; Lutzenkirchen, S.; Petäjä, T.; Vouitsis, I.; Sokhi, R. S. (2016)
    We present an overview of the modelling of particle number concentrations (PNCs) in five major European cities, namely Helsinki, Oslo, London, Rotterdam, and Athens, in 2008. Novel emission inventories of particle numbers have been compiled both on urban and European scales. We used atmospheric dispersion modelling for PNCs in the five target cities and on a European scale, and evaluated the predicted results against available measured concentrations. In all the target cities, the concentrations of particle numbers (PNs) were mostly influenced by the emissions originating from local vehicular traffic. The influence of shipping and harbours was also significant for Helsinki, Oslo, Rotterdam, and Athens, but not for London. The influence of the aviation emissions in Athens was also notable. The regional background concentrations were clearly lower than the contributions originating from urban sources in Helsinki, Oslo, and Athens. The regional background was also lower than urban contributions in traffic environments in London, but higher or approximately equal to urban contributions in Rotterdam. It was numerically evaluated that the influence of coagulation and dry deposition on the predicted PNCs was substantial for the urban background in Oslo. The predicted and measured annual average PNCs in four cities agreed within approximately
  • Lazaridis, Mihalis; Eleftheriadis, Kostas; Zdimal, Vladia; Schwarz, Jaroslav; Wagner, Zdenek; Ondracek, Jakub; Drossinos, Yannis; Glytsos, Thodoros; Vratolis, Sterios; Torseth, Kjetil; Moravec, Pavel; Hussein, Tareq; Smolik, Jiri (2017)
    Indoor/outdoor aerosol size distribution was measured in four European cities (Oslo-Norway, Prague-Czech Republic, Milan-Italy and Athens-Greece) during 2002 in order to examine the differences in the characteristics of the indoor/outdoor modal structure and to evaluate the effect of indoor sources to the aerosol size distributions. All the measurement sites were naturally ventilated and were occupied during the campaigns by permanent residents or for certain time periods by the technical staff responsible for the instrumentation. Outdoor particle number (PN) concentrations presented the higher values in Milan and Athens (median values 1.4 x 10(4) # cm(-3) and 2.9 x 10(4) # cm(-3) respectively) as a result of elevated outdoor emissions and led to correspondingly higher indoor values compared to Oslo and Prague. In absence of indoor activities, the indoor concentrations followed the fluctuations of the outdoor concentrations in all the measurement sites. Indoor activities (cooking, smoking, etc.) resulted in elevated indoor PN concentrations (maximum values ranging between 1.7 x 10(5) # cm(-3) and 3.2 x 10(5) # cm(-3)) and to I/O ratios higher than one. The I/O ratios were size dependant and for periods without indoor activities, they presented the lowest values for particles <50 nm (0.51 +/- 0.15) and the ratios increased with fine particle size (0.79 +/- 0.12 for particles between 100-200 nm). The analysis of the modal structure showed that the indoor aerosol size distribution characteristics differ from the outdoors under the effect of indoor sources. The percentage of unimodal size distributions increased during indoor emissions, compared to periods without indoor sources, along with the number concentration of Aitken mode particles, indicating emissions in specific size ranges according to the type of the indoor source.
  • Kulmala, Markku; Luoma, Krista; Virkkula, Aki; Petäjä, Tuukka; Paasonen, Pauli; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Nie, Wei; Qi, Ximeng; Shen, Yicheng; Chi, Xuguang; Ding, Aijun (2016)
    Aerosol particle concentrations in the atmosphere are governed by their sources and sinks. Sources include directly-emitted (primary) and secondary aerosol particles formed from gas-phase precursor compounds. The relative importance of primary and secondary aerosol particles varies regionally and with time. In this work, we investigated primary and secondary contributions to mode-segregated particle number concentrations by using black carbon as a tracer for the primary aerosol number concentration. We studied separately nucleation, Aitken and accumulation mode concentrations at a rural boreal forest site (Hyytiala, Finland) and in a rather polluted megacity environment (Nanjing, China) using observational data from 2011 to 2014. In both places and in all the modes, the majority of particles were estimated to be of secondary origin. Even in Nanjing, only about half of the accumulation mode particles were estimated to be of primary origin. Secondary particles dominated particularly in the nucleation and Aitken modes.
  • Zhao, Jiangyue; Birmili, Wolfram; Wehner, Birgit; Daniels, Anja; Weinhold, Kay; Wang, Lina; Merkel, Maik; Kecorius, Simonas; Tuch, Thomas; Franck, Ulrich; Hussein, Tareq; Wiedensohler, Alfred (2020)
    Few studies investigated residential particle concentration levels with a full picture of aerosol particles from 10 mu m to 10 mu m size range with size-resolved information, and none was performed in central Europe in the long-term in multiple homes. To capture representative diurnal and seasonal patterns of exposure to particles, and investigate the driving factors to their variations, measurements were performed in 40 homes for around two weeks each in Leipzig and Berlin, Germany. These over 500 days' measurements combined PM10 and PM2. 5 mass concentrations, particle number concentration and size distribution (PNC and PNSD, 10-800 nm), CO2 concentration, and residential activities diary into a unique dataset. Natural ventilation was dominated, the mean ventilation rate calculated from CO2 measurements was 0.2 h(-1) and 3.7 h(-1) with closed and opened windows, respectively. The main findings of this study showed that, the residents in German homes were exposed to a significantly higher mass concentration of coarse particles than outdoors, thus indoor exposure to coarse particles cannot be described by outdoors. The median indoor PNC diurnal cycles were generally lower than outdoors (median I/O ratio 0.69). However, indoor exposure to particles was different in the cold and warm season. In the warm season, due to longer opening window periods, indoor sources' contribution was weakened, which also resulted in the indoor PNC and PNSD being very similar to the outdoors. In the cold season, indoor sources caused strong peaks of indoor PNC that exceeded outdoors, along with the relatively low penetration factor - 0.5 for all size ranges, and indoor particle losses, which was particularly effective in reducing the ultrafine PNC, resulting in a different particle exposure load than outdoors. This study provides a detailed understanding of residential particle exposure in multiple homes, facilitating future studies to assess health effects in residential environments.
  • Nallathamby, Punith D.; Hopke, Philip K.; Rossner, Alan; Dhaniyala, Suresh; Marzocca, Piergiovanni; Petäjä, Tuukka; Barthelmie, Rebecca J.; Pryor, Sara C. (2014)
  • Fonseca, A. S.; Maragkidou, A.; Viana, M.; Querol, X.; Hämeri, K.; de Francisco, I.; Estepa, C.; Borrell, C.; Lennikov, V.; de la Fuente, G. F. (2016)
    The ceramic industry is an industrial sector in need of significant process changes, which may benefit from innovative technologies such as laser sintering of ceramic tiles. Such innovations result in a considerable research gap within exposure assessment studies for process-generated ultrafine and nanoparticles. This study addresses this issue aiming to characterise particle formation, release mechanisms and their impact on personal exposure during a tile sintering activity in an industrial-scale pilot plant, as a follow-up of a previous study in a laboratory-scale plant. In addition, possible particle transformations in the exhaust system, the potential for particle release to the outdoor environment, and the effectiveness of the filtration system were also assessed. For this purpose, a tiered measurement strategy was conducted. The main findings evidence that nanoparticle emission patterns were strongly linked to temperature and tile chemical composition, and mainly independent of the laser treatment. Also, new particle formation (from gaseous precursors) events were detected, with nanoparticles A potential risk for nanoparticle and ultrafine particle release to the environment was also identified, despite the fact that the efficiency of the filtration system was successfully tested and evidenced a >87% efficiency in particle number concentrations removal. (C) 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.
  • Wierzbicka, A.; Bohgard, M.; Pagels, J. H.; Dahl, A.; Löndahl, J.; Hussein, T.; Swietlicki, E.; Gudmundsson, A. (2015)
    For the assessment of personal exposure, information about the concentration of pollutants when people are in given indoor environments (occupancy time) are of prime importance. However this kind of data frequently is not reported. The aim of this study was to assess differences in particle characteristics between occupancy time and the total monitoring period, with the latter being the most frequently used averaging time in the published data. Seven indoor environments were selected in Sweden and Finland: an apartment, two houses, two schools, a supermarket, and a restaurant. They were assessed for particle number and mass concentrations and number size distributions. The measurements using a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer and two photometers were conducted for seven consecutive days during winter in each location. Particle concentrations in residences and schools were, as expected, the highest during occupancy time. In the apartment average and median PM2.5 mass concentrations during the occupancy time were 29% and 17% higher, respectively compared to total monitoring period. In both schools, the average and medium values of the PM2.5 mass concentrations were on average higher during teaching hours compared to the total monitoring period by 16% and 32%, respectively. When it comes to particle number concentrations (PNC), in the apartment during occupancy, the average and median values were 33% and 58% higher, respectively than during the total monitoring period. In both houses and schools the average and median PNC were similar for the occupancy and total monitoring periods. General conclusions on the basis of measurements in the limited number of indoor environments cannot be drawn. However the results confirm a strong dependence on type and frequency of indoor activities that generate particles and site specificity. The results also indicate that the exclusion of data series during non-occupancy periods can improve the estimates of particle concentrations and characteristics suitable for exposure assessment, which is crucial for estimating health effects in epidemiological and toxicological studies. (C) 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/).
  • Salma, Imre; Nemeth, Zoltan; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Aalto, Pasi; Nieminen, Tuomo; Weidinger, Tamas; Molnar, Agnes; Imre, Kornelia; Kulmala, Markku (2016)
    Secondary aerosol particle production via new particle formation (NPF) has been shown to be a major contributor to the global aerosol load. NPF has also been observed frequently in urban environments. Here, we investigate the effect of regional NPF on urban aerosol load under well-defined atmospheric conditions. The Carpathian Basin, the largest orogenic basin in Europe, represents an excellent opportunity for exploring these interactions. Based on long-term observations, we revealed that NPF seen in a central large city of the basin (Budapest) and its regional background occur in a consistent and spatially coherent way as a result of a joint atmospheric phenomenon taking place on large horizontal scales. We found that NPF events at the urban site are usually delayed by > 1 h relative to the rural site or even inhibited above a critical condensational sink level. The urban processes require higher formation rates and growth rates to be realized, by mean factors of 2 and 1.6, respectively, than the regional events. Regional-and urban-type NPF events sometimes occur jointly with multiple onsets, while they often exhibit dynamic and timing properties which are different for these two event types.
  • Zaidan, Martha A.; Surakhi, Ola; Fung, Pak Lun; Hussein, Tareq (2020)
    Sub-micron aerosols are a vital air pollutant to be measured because they pose health effects. These particles are quantified as particle number concentration (PN). However, PN measurements are not always available in air quality measurement stations, leading to data scarcity. In order to compensate this, PN modeling needs to be developed. This paper presents a PN modeling framework using sensitivity analysis tested on a one year aerosol measurement campaign conducted in Amman, Jordan. The method prepares a set of different combinations of all measured meteorological parameters to be descriptors of PN concentration. In this case, we resort to artificial neural networks in the forms of a feed-forward neural network (FFNN) and a time-delay neural network (TDNN) as modeling tools, and then, we attempt to find the best descriptors using all these combinations as model inputs. The best modeling tools are FFNN for daily averaged data (with R2=0.77) and TDNN for hourly averaged data (with R2=0.66) where the best combinations of meteorological parameters are found to be temperature, relative humidity, pressure, and wind speed. As the models follow the patterns of diurnal cycles well, the results are considered to be satisfactory. When PN measurements are not directly available or there are massive missing PN concentration data, PN models can be used to estimate PN concentration using available measured meteorological parameters.