Browsing by Subject "UNEMPLOYMENT"

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  • Heikkala, Eveliina; Ala-Mursula, Leena; Taimela, Simo; Paananen, Markus; Vaaramo, Eeva; Auvinen, Juha; Karppinen, Jaro (2020)
    BackgroundThe relevance of health-related behaviors to exclusion from the labor market in early adulthood remains poorly studied in relation to the magnitude of the problem. We explored whether adolescents' accumulated unhealthy behaviors and psychosocial problems are associated with later labor market exclusion, and whether multisite musculoskeletal pain (MMSP) impacts these relations.MethodsWe gathered questionnaire data on unhealthy behaviors and psychosocial problems and MMSP among adolescents aged 15 to 16 belonging to the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986. The findings were combined with registry data on unemployment, employment and permanent work disability during a five-year follow-up between the ages of 25 and 29 (n=6692). In the statistical modeling we used education, family leave and socioeconomic status of childhood family as potential confounders, as well as latent class and logistic regression analyses.ResultsThe Externalizing behavior cluster associated with over one year of unemployment (RR 1.64, CI 1.25-2.14) and permanent work disability (OR 2.49, CI 1.07-5.78) in the follow-up among the men. The Sedentary cluster also associated with over one year (RR 1.41, CI 1.13-1.75) and under one year of unemployment (RR 1.25, CI 1.02-1.52) and no employment days (RR 1.93, CI 1.26-2.95) among the men. Obese male participants were at risk of over one year of unemployment (RR 1.50, CI 1.08-2.09) and no employment days (RR 1.93, CI 1.07-3.50). Among the women, the Multiple risk behavior cluster related significantly to over one year of unemployment (RR 1.77, CI 1.37-2.28). MMSP had no influence on the associations.ConclusionsUnhealthy behavior patterns and psychosocial problems in adolescence have long-term consequences for exclusion from the labor market in early adulthood, especially among men. Simultaneously supporting psychological well-being and healthy behaviors in adolescence may reduce labor market inclusion difficulties in the early phase of working life.
  • Virtanen, Marianna; Heikkilä, Katriina; Vahtera, Jussi; Kivimäki, Mika; Halonen, Jaana; Alexanderson, Kristina; Rautiainen, Simo; Lallukka, Tea; Mittendorfer-Rutz, Ellenor (2022)
    Background To characterize geospatial patterning of disadvantage in Sweden, we examined whether municipal-level indicators of socioeconomic disadvantage and disability pension (DP) rate were clustered, whether the different geospatial clusters were overlapping and whether the findings were similar among women and men. Methods Administrative national data from all 290 Swedish municipalities were used to determine the prevalence of DP and socioeconomic disadvantage [poverty, long-term unemployment, income inequality (GINI Index) and income inequality between women and men]. Geospatial cold spots (clusters of municipalities with a DP/socioeconomic disadvantage prevalence lower than the nationwide prevalence) and hot spots (clusters of municipalities with a DP/socioeconomic disadvantage higher than the nationwide prevalence) were identified, and whether a hot spot was overlapping with another hot spot and a cold spot overlapping with another cold spot were analysed using the Getis-Ord Gi statistics. Results Among women and men, cold spots of DP were most consistently located in the Stockholm area. Hot spots of DP were found in the mid-south Sweden, characterized by mid-sized urban centres in rural territories. High DP rate and socioeconomic disadvantage were overlapping, except for income inequality. Clusters of gender income inequality and women's high DP rate were observed in mid-south Sweden. Conclusion DP and socioeconomic disadvantage are not randomly distributed in Sweden. Geospatial analyses revealed clusters of municipalities with high risk of both DP and socioeconomic disadvantage in certain areas and low risk in other areas. Further research is needed to identify preventive actions to decrease regional inequalities in work capacity.
  • Wikstrom, Miia; Anttila, Heidi; Savinainen, Minna; Kouvonen, Anne; Joensuu, Matti (2020)
    BackgroundThe unemployed have lower work ability and poorer health than the employed. This situation deteriorates when unemployment continues. The long-term unemployed often have co-morbidities and face many other challenges. This increases the need for a multidimensional assessment of work ability and functioning in different service settings. In this study, we describe the development and analyse the content validity of the Abilitator, a self-report questionnaire on work ability and functioning for those in a weak labour market position.MethodsThe Abilitator was developed in 2014-2017. Its construct was assessed by members of academic expert panels (n=30), practical expert panels of professionals (n=700) and target group clients (n=28). The structure and the content of the questionnaire was co-developed in 29 workshops and adjusted twice based on the expert panels' feedback. The Abilitator was also implemented among target group clients (n=3360) in different services and projects. During its development the Abilitator was linked to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). The content validation process followed the guidelines recommended by the Consensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement Instruments (COSMIN) panel.ResultsThe construct of the Abilitator combines the multidimensional and biopsychosocial models of work ability and functioning. It also includes aspects of social inclusion and employability. It evaluates social, psychological, cognitive and physical functioning, and the ability to cope with everyday life. The content of these concepts was validated by the academic and practical expert panels. The Abilitator's 79 ICF codes covered 57% of the Generic, 77% of the Brief Vocational Rehabilitation, and 8% of the Minimal Environmental ICF Core Sets. When compared with the Work Ability Index (WAI) and the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule (WHODAS 2.0), the direct equivalences of the ICF codes were 36 and 44%, respectively.ConclusionThe Abilitator sufficiently comprehensively covers the relevant aspects to enable the assessment of the overall work ability and functioning of the population in a weak labour market position.
  • Stevanovic, Melisa; Niska, Miira; Nevalainen, Henri; Weiste, Elina; Lindholm, Camilla; Valkeapää, Taina (2022)
    In our society, work is generally considered central to citizenship and individual well-being. However, paid employment is often out of reach for individuals with mental illness. The Clubhouse model is a community-based rehabilitation programme that therefore offers people with mental illness the possibility to enjoy some social advantages of work. However, the status of the day-to-day Clubhouse activities as “work” is a matter of discursive contestation. Drawing on 29 meetings of a Clubhouse rehabilitation group as data, and using conversation analysis and discourse analysis as methods, this study examines two competing interpretive repertoires that are systematically manifested in this context: the capitalist “paid work” repertoire used by Clubhouse clients and the more flexible “productive activity” repertoire used by support workers. The adoption of these two repertoires reflects two competing discursive agendas, which define the scope of mental health rehabilitation and the role of the client in their own rehabilitation process in distinct ways. From this perspective, the support workers' central institutional task is essentially of a discursive and ideological nature—exposing the clients to new ways of talking about their lives with reference to work.
  • Ahmad, Akhlaq (2020)
    Using a correspondence field experiment, the study reported in this article has investigated if immigrant job applicants with equivalent qualifications are treated differently in the Finnish labour market. The study consists of 5000 job applications that were sent out to 1000 advertised positions by five applicants of Finnish, English, Iraqi, Russian and Somali backgrounds, who differed only in their names. The findings show that applicants of immigrant origin receive significantly fewer invitations for a job interview than the native candidate, even if they possess identical language proficiency, education and vocational diplomas. However, the extent of discrimination is not equally distributed among the immigrant groups. Rather, job applicants from non-European backgrounds seem to suffer a significantly greater labour-market penalty. The findings clearly suggest that, despite anti-discrimination legislation and measures aimed at promoting equal employment opportunities, discrimination continues to remain a serious barrier to immigrants' labour-market integration in a Nordic welfare society.
  • Halonen, J. I.; Solovieva, S.; Pentti, J.; Kivimaki, M.; Vahtera, J.; Viikari-Juntura, E. (2016)
    Objectives Policies have been introduced to reduce sickness absence, but their effectiveness is largely unknown. In a natural experiment, we examined effects of legislative changes on return to work and work participation. Methods The source population consisted of up to 72164 Finnish public sector employees with a permanent job contract in 2008-2011 (before) and in 2013-2014 (after). We used employees with a continuous sickness absence of at least 30 calendar-days (n=5708-6393), 60 compensated days (n=1481-1655) and 90 compensated days (n=766-932). We examined sustainable return to work (a minimum of 28 consecutive working days) with survival analysis as well as monthly work participation after a sickness absence, and annual gain in work participation after the intervention, using trajectory analyses. Results Sustainable return to work after 60days of sickness absence occurred earlier after the legislative changes (p value 0.017), although the effect reduced towards the end of the follow-up. There were no differences in return to work after a 30 or 90days of sickness absence. The largest annual gain, postintervention versus preintervention, in monthly work participation was observed among employees with 60days of sickness absence and was 230.9 person-years/10000 employees. The corresponding annual gains among those with 30days and 90days of sickness absence were 51.8 and 39.6, respectively. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the legislative changes, obligating early notification of prolonged sickness absences as well as assessment of remaining work ability and possibilities to continue working, may enhance sustainable return to work in the short term. Other measures will be needed to enhance work participation, especially in the long term.
  • Rajavaara, Marketta; Saikku, Peppi; Määttä, Anne (2019)
    Työvoimapolitiikan pohjoismainen suunta painottaa heikossa työmarkkina-asemassa olevien henkilöiden aktivointia henkilökohtaisin ratkaisuin. Työllistymistä edistävässä monialaisessa yhteispalvelussa (TYP) selvitetään pitkään työttöminä olleiden palvelutarpeita ja pyritään tarjoamaan asiakkaille yksilöllisesti räätälöityjä palvelukokonaisuuksia kuntien työllistämis-, sosiaali- ja terveyspalvelujen sekä TE-palvelujen ja Kelan yhteistyönä. Henkilökohtaisen palvelun edellytyksiä ovat asiakkaiden tarkoituksenmukainen ohjaus palveluun, monialaisen palvelutarpeen tunnistaminen, palvelujen riittävyys ja yhteensovittaminen sekä palvelun todennettu vaikuttavuus.
  • Wikstrom, Miia; Kouvonen, Anne; Joensuu, Matti (2021)
    Objectives The Abilitator is a patient-reported outcome measure (PROM) of work ability and functioning of those in a weak labour market position. It covers items for work ability and self-rated health, for example, and summary scales for social, psychological, cognitive and physical functioning, as well as everyday skills. The aim of this study was to evaluate the intrarater test-retest reliability, internal consistency and basic psychometric properties of the Finnish version of the Abilitator. Design, setting and outcome The test-retest study was conducted in European Social Fund projects in 2018-2019. The participants completed two Abilitator questionnaires over 7-14 days. The internal consistency analysis was based on data collected in 2017-2019 in services for the long-term unemployed. The reliability was assessed using correlations (r, r(s) , intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC)), agreement with Bland-Altman analysis and internal consistency with Cronbach's alpha. Participants The test-retest study had 67 participants (52% men, mean age 43.9 years) and the internal consistency study 10 923 (48% men, mean age 38.58 years), respectively. Of all the participants, 80% had been unemployed for over a year. Results The test-retest r or r(s) ranged from 0.71 to 0.93 and ICC from 0.74 to 0.93 for the items and summary scales. An exception was the life satisfaction item, with an r(s) of 0.60 and ICC of 0.45. A statistically significant difference was observed in the summary scale for social functioning (t=-2.01, p=0.049). Agreement was observed for all variables except social functioning. Alphas for summary scales ranged from 0.74 to 0.91. Conclusions The Finnish version of the Abilitator is a reliable PROM for the target group and has acceptable to excellent intrarater test-retest reliability and internal consistency, apart from the life satisfaction item. Further testing is needed for the social functioning summary scale.
  • Hanson, Linda L. Magnusson; Rod, Naja H.; Vahtera, Jussi; Virtanen, Marianna; Ferrie, Jane; Shipley, Martin; Kivimäki, Mika; Westerlund, Hugo (2020)
    Job insecurity has been linked to increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), but underlying mechanisms remain uncertain. Our aim was to assess the extent to which this association is mediated through life style, physiological, or psychological factors. A total of 3917 men and women free from CHD provided data on job insecurity in the Whitehall II cohort study in 1997-1999. The association between job insecurity and CHD was decomposed into a direct and indirect effect mediated through unhealthy behaviors (smoking, high alcohol consumption, physical inactivity), sleep disturbances, 'allostatic load', or psychological distress. The counterfactual analyses on psychological distress indicated a marginally significant association between job insecurity and incident CHD (hazard ratio (HR) 1.32; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.00-1.75). This association was decomposed into a direct (HR 1.22, 95 %CI 0.92-1.63) and indirect association (1.08, 95 %CI 1.01-1.15), suggesting that about 30 % of the total relationship was mediated by psychological distress. No mediation was indicated via health behaviors, sleep disturbances, or allostatic load, although job insecurity was related to disturbed sleep and C-reactive protein, which, in turn were associated with CHD. In conclusion, our results suggest that psychological distress may play a role in the relation between job insecurity and CHD.
  • Paljarvi, Tapio; Martikainen, Pekka; Pensola, Tiina; Leinonen, Taina; Herttua, Kimmo; Makela, Pia (2015)
    Background Long-term employment trajectories of young problem drinkers are poorly understood. Methods We constructed retrospective labour market participation histories at ages 18-34 of 64 342 persons born in 1969-1982. Beginning from the year of each subject's 18th birthday, we extracted information from the records of Statistics Finland on educational attainment, main type of economic activity, months in employment, and months in unemployment for a minimum of seven years (range 7-16 years). We used information on the timing of alcohol-related hospitalizations and deaths in the same period to define problem drinkers with early onset limited course, early onset persistent course, and late onset problem drinking. Results Early onset limited course problem drinkers improved their employment considerably by age, whereas early onset persistent problem drinkers experienced a constant decline in their employment by age. From the age of 18 to 34, early onset persistent problem drinkers were in employment merely 12% of the time, in comparison with 39% among the early onset limited course problem drinkers, and 58% among the general population. Conclusions These results indicate that young adults who were retrospectively defined as having early onset persistent course problem drinking were extensively marginalized from the labour market early on during their life course, and that their employment trajectory was significantly worse compared to other problem drinkers.
  • Leinsalu, Mall; Baburin, Aleksei; Jasilionis, Domantas; Krumins, Juris; Martikainen, Pekka; Stickley, Andrew (2020)
    Introduction: In the 2000s, the Baltic countries experienced unprecedented economic growth followed by a deep recession. This study aimed to examine changes and educational inequalities in suicide mortality among working-age men in the Baltic countries and Finland in relation to macroeconomic fluctuations. Methods: We analysed changes in overall suicide mortality and by educational level between the 2000-2003, 2004-2007, 2008-2011 and 2012-2015 periods among men aged 30-64 years using census-linked longitudinal mortality data. We estimated age-standardised mortality rates, mortality rate ratios (Poisson regression), the relative index of inequality and slope index of inequality. Results: Overall suicide mortality fell markedly from 2000-2003 to 2004-2007. The decline was largest among high educated men in the Baltic countries and among middle and low educated men in Finland. From 2004-2007 to 2008-2011, the positive trend slowed and while suicide mortality continued to fall among middle and low educated men, it increased somewhat among high educated men in all Baltic countries. In Finland, suicide mortality decreased among the high educated and increased slightly among low educated men. Conclusions: In the Baltic countries, lower educated men had a smaller decline in suicide mortality than higher educated men during a period of rapid economic expansion, however, they were not more disadvantaged during the recession, possibly because of being less exposed to financial loss. Consequently, relative inequalities in suicide mortality may increase during economic booms and decrease during recessions.
  • Remes, Tiina M.; Hoven, Emma; Ritari, Niina; Pohjasniemi, Heli; Puosi, Riina; Arikoski, Pekka M.; Arola, Mikko O.; Lähteenmäki, Päivi M.; Lönnqvist, Tuula R. I.; Ojaniemi, Marja K.; Riikonen, V. Pekka; Sirkiä, Kirsti H.; Winqvist, Satu; Rantala, Heikki M. J.; Harila, Marika; Harila-Saari, Arja H. (2021)
    Background. Little is known of the cognitive functions, employment, and social status in adult survivors of childhood brain tumor (BT). We aimed to determine the long-term neurocognitive profile of radiotherapy-treated adult survivors of childhood BT and the relationship between cognitive functions and employment and social status. Methods. Neurocognitive profiles of survivors were assessed in a Finnish national cohort of 71 radiotherapy-treated survivors of childhood BT (median follow-up time: 21 years [range: 5-33 years]) using a cross-sectional design. Neurocognitive outcomes were compared to control (n = 45) and normative values. Tumor- and treatment-related data were collected from the patient files. Information on employment and social status was gathered. Results. Survivors' (median age: 27 years [range: 16-43 years]) median verbal and performance intelligence quotient (IQ) was 90 (range: 49-121) and 87 (range: 43-119), respectively. The cognitive domains with the greatest impairment were executive functions (median z score, 3.5 SD [range: -25.0 to 1.3 SD]), and processing speed and attention (median z score, -2.5 SD [range: -24.9 to 0.5 SD]). Executive functions were associated with employment, educational level, living independently, having an intimate relationship, and having a driving license. Processing speed and attention were related to educational level, living independently, having an intimate relationship, and having a driving license. Performance IQ was associated with educational level and employment status. Working memory was associated with educational level and living independently. Conclusions. Radiotherapy-treated adult survivors of childhood BT experience significant neurocognitive impairment, which is associated with difficulties related to employment and social status.
  • Palokangas, Tapio (2020)
    This document sets up a unionized general oligopolistic equilibrium model of countries, where capital is footloose and governments maximize utilitarian welfare. When capital owners have weak influence on public policy, there is unemployment and the governments compete for jobs, causing a distortion with suboptimal wages. Then globalization -- as characterized by a decrease in impediments to international investment -- increases the wage elasticity of capital flight, decreasing wages and increasing employment. This benefits the capital owners and the unemployed workers getting a job, but harms the other workers. International coordination of public policy alleviates these consequences of globalization.
  • Haikkola, Lotta (2019)
    Activation policies form the core of employment policies in most OECD countries. They are part of 'active' welfare states and associated neoliberal forms of governance that seek to govern through freedom by producing self-governing and responsible subjectivities. Ethnographies of governmentalities have been used in the research reported in this article to examine if and how such subjectivities are put in practice in street-level encounters in local welfare delivery. Based on an ethnographic research of youth services in the Public Employment Services (PES) in Helsinki, Finland, it is shown that despite the policy focus on active citizenship the street-level practice entails not only liberal ideas of self-governing individuals but also authoritarian measures. What is governed in the meetings is not the young people's selves but their time and behaviour. In the process, the notion of active citizenship is emptied and transformed to mean participation in supervised activities offered by the PES. Such practice also reworks the temporal structures and creates insecure and eventful experience of time for PES clients. In contrast to governing through freedom, the localized interpretation of activation policies represents the authoritarian and paternalistic side of neoliberal governance.
  • Shi, Jiaxin; Tarkiainen, Lasse; Martikainen, Pekka; van Raalte, Alyson (2021)
    Income is a strong predictor of adult mortality. Measuring income is not as simple as it may sound. It can be conceptualized at the individual or the household level, with the former better reflecting an individual's earning ability, and the latter better capturing living standards. Furthermore, respondents are often grouped into income categories based on their positions in the income distribution, and this operationalization can be done on the basis of age-specific or total population income distributions. In this study, we look at how four combinations of different conceptualizations (individual vs. household) and operationalizations (age-specific vs. total population) of income can affect mortality inequality estimates. Using Finnish registry data, we constructed period life tables for ages 25+ from 1996 to 2017 by gender and for four income definitions. The results indicated that the slope index of inequality for life expectancy varied by 1.1-5.7 years between income definitions, with larger differences observed for women than for men. The overall age patterns of relative index of inequality for mortality rates yielded by the four definitions were similar, but the levels differed. The period trends across income definitions were consistent for men, but not for women. We conclude that researchers should pay particular attention to the choice of the income definitions when analyzing the association between income and mortality, and when comparing the magnitude of inequality across studies and over time.
  • Yijälä, Anu; Luoma, Tiina (2019)
    This study considers long-term adaptation among well-educated Iraqis who applied for international protection in Finland in 2015. We interviewed the participants approximately 3 months after their arrival, and subsequently after being granted international protection 1.5 and 2.5 years after arrival. We apply a theoretically constructed Benefits of Employment in Intercultural Contexts model in the context of skilled refugees to examine the role of employment in their acculturation process. We analysed the data using qualitative content analysis. Despite the difficulties faced at the beginning of the asylum and job-search processes, employment – including inadequate employment that connected an individual to a work community – enhanced participants’ subjective well-being and promoted their whole acculturation process. The key explanation seems to lie not in increasing economic wealth but in the establishment of social networks, a sense of collective purpose, a possibility to maintain a positive identity, and importantly, the accumulation of cultural capital that employment or active functioning in work-life-related contexts enabled. By the end of the follow-up period, the aforementioned latent benefits of employment were more salient, while the urge to manifest benefits, i.e. salary, had lessened due to reconciling with having to make ends meet with the help of social benefits.
  • Ahmad, Akhlaq (2020)
    This article considers the possibilities and limits of human-capital credentials in entering the labor market for immigrants in Finland. It reports findings of a correspondence study on how employers respond to job applicants of five different backgrounds who were otherwise equivalently matched on various demographic and human-capital characteristics. The findings strongly indicate the continuing salience of ethnicity in securing employment opportunities in the Finnish labor market. Employers significantly prefer Finnish applicants over ethnic candidates, and within ethnic applicants, they prefer candidates with a European name over a non-European name. They further show that locally acquired human capital provides a better payoff only when the job candidate belongs to a group that is placed higher on the ethnic preference ladder. Drawing on the empirical observations, the article thus suggests that a recruitment process driven by abstract or impersonal criteria and governed by mere considerations of human capital in real-life situations is much less prevalent than often claimed.
  • Kujanpää, Linda; Arffman, Riikka K.; Vaaramo, Eeva; Rossi, Henna-Riikka; Laitinen, Jaana; Morin-Papunen, Laure; Tapanainen, Juha; Ala-Mursula, Leena; Piltonen, Terhi T. (2022)
    Objective: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) presents with multiple comorbidities potentially affecting function. This was the first general population-based study to evaluate work ability, participation in working life, and disability retirement in middle-aged women with and without PCOS. Design: This is a cohort study. Methods: Women with PCOS (n = 280) and women without PCOS symptoms or diagnosis (n = 1573) were identified in the Northern Finland Birth Cohort in 1966 and were evaluated for self-rated work ability and potential confounders at age 46. Next, incidence rate ratios (IRRs) for disability and unemployment days were extracted from national registers during a prospective 2-year follow-up. Lastly, we assessed hazard ratios (HRs) for disability retirement between 16 and 52 years of age from national registers. Results: The women with PCOS reported poorer ability to work at age 46, especially due to poorer health. During the 2-year follow-up period, the affected women gained on average an additional month of disability and unemployment days, corresponding to an approximately 25% higher risk for both disability (IRR (95% CI): 1.25 (1.22-1.27)) and unemployment days (IRR (95% CI): 1.26 (1.23-1.28)) in models adjusted for health and socioeconomic factors. Lastly, we found a two-fold higher cumulative risk for disability retirement by age 52 compared to non-PCOS women (HR (95% CI): 1.98 (1.40-2.80)), which remained after adjusting for confounding factors (aHR (95% CI): 1.55 (1.01-2.38)). Conclusions: PCOS is associated with lower participation in working life already in midlife. Acknowledging PCOS-related multimorbidity, concerted efforts are needed to support sustainable careers for women with PCOS.
  • Räsänen, Aleksi; Heikkinen, Kimmo; Piila, Noora; Juhola, Sirkku (2019)
    Climate change is likely to increase the risks related to heat waves in urban areas. We map spatial pattern of heat wave vulnerability and risk in the Helsinki metropolitan area in southern Finland. First, we assess differences that zoning, i.e., differences in spatial units of analysis, and weighting, i.e., weights given to indicators when constructing the index, cause in map production. Second, we evaluate how maps of consensus and certainty could pave the way for visualizing and assessing uncertainties in risk and vulnerability indices. For vulnerability, we use socioeconomic data using 5 different zoning options and 11 different weighting options. For risk, we add two extra layers to vulnerability maps: hazard map showing the spatial pattern of heat based on Landsat satellite images and exposure map showing the spatial pattern of population. We found that when different zoning options are used, the spatial pattern of vulnerability may differ dramatically. In risk maps, the differences between zoning options are smaller. Contrary to previous literature, differences in indicator weighting alter the final maps slightly. The consensus and certainty maps show their potential, e.g., in pointing out areas which may have both high risk/vulnerability and high certainty for risk/vulnerability. Finally, we discuss other possibilities in tackling the uncertainties in mapping and propose new avenues for research.