Browsing by Subject "UNIVERSITY"

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  • Leiviskä, Anniina (2021)
    Recent controversies concerning freedom of expression on university campuses have raised the question of how the limits of free speech can be determined in a justified way in a pluralistic public space such as the campus. The article addresses this question from the viewpoint of two complementary theoretical perspectives: Rainer Forst's respect conception of toleration, and the discourse theory of democracy developed by Jurgen Habermas and Seyla Benhabib. These theories are argued to provide a non-arbitrary, impartial and procedural model for determining the limits of free speech on campus. Deriving primarily from the discourse model, the article suggests that the limits of freedom of expression on campus should be determined by collective deliberative processes involving the affected students. Moreover, it is argued that, instead of prohibiting controversial topics or views, the university administration and teachers should focus on establishing procedural rules of rational deliberation. This is argued to increase students' understanding of the nature of legitimate democratic discussion and thus accomplish the university's educational task of fostering students' ability to use their freedom of speech in a responsible way.
  • Wu, Anette; Noel, Geoffroy P. J. C.; Wingate, Richard; Kielstein, Heike; Sakurai, Takeshi; Viranta-Kovanen, Suvi; Chien, Chung-Liang; Traxler, Hannes; Waschke, Jens; Vielmuth, Franziska; Sagoo, Mandeep Gill; Kitahara, Shuji; Kato, Yojiro; Keay, Kevin A.; Olsen, Jorgen; Bernd, Paulette (2020)
    Background: At a time of global interconnectedness, the internationalization of medical education has become important. Anatomy as an academic discipline, with its close connections to the basic sciences and to medical education, can easily be connected with global health and internationalization of medical education. Here the authors present an international program based on a partnership between twelve anatomy departments in ten countries, on four continents. Details of a proposed plan for the future direction of the program are also discussed. Objective: The aim is to improve global healthcare by preparing future global healthcare leaders via early international networking, international collaboration and exchange, intercultural experience, and connecting two seemingly distant academic disciplines - anatomy and global health - via internationalization of medical education. Methods: Based in the anatomy course, the program involved early international collaboration between preclinical medical and dental students. The program provided a stepwise progression for learning about healthcare and intercultural topics beyond pure anatomy education - starting with virtual small groups of international students, who subsequently presented their work to a larger international audience during group videoconferences. The above progressed to in-person visits for research internships in the basic sciences within industrialized countries. Findings: Students appreciated the international and intercultural interaction, learned about areas outside the scope of anatomy (e.g., differences in healthcare education and delivery systems, Public and Global Health challenges, health ethics, and cultural enrichment), and valued the exchange travel for basic sciences research internships and cultural experience. Conclusions: This unique collaboration of international anatomy departments can represent a new role for the medical anatomy course beyond pure anatomy teaching - involving areas of global health and internationalization of medical education - and could mark a new era of international collaboration among anatomists.
  • Karlgren, Klas; Lakkala, Minna; Toom, Auli; Ilomäki, Liisa; Lahti-Nuuttila, Pekka; Muukkonen, Hanni (2020)
    The Collaborative Knowledge Practices Questionnaire (CKP) is an instrument designed to measure the learning of knowledge-work competence in education. The focus is on qualities of knowledge work which can be learned and taught in multiple educational settings and which may be especially important for courses with collaborative assignments. The original instrument was theoretically based on the knowledge-creation metaphor of learning. The instrument has been validated in Finnish based on student responses from a large number of higher education courses. The validation of the instrument resulted in seven scales relating to different aspects of interdisciplinary, collaborative development of knowledge-objects using digital technology. This study aimed to cross-culturally translate and adapt the original instrument into English and perform an exploratory structural equation modelling (ESEM) analysis in order to investigate whether the same factorial solution of the instrument also works in English in higher education courses in international settings. The original instrument was translated according to established guidelines for cross-cultural adaptation of self-report measures. The translated version has been tested in courses in medical education, online teaching and problem solving. The results provided evidence that the latent factor model found in the original instrument provided a good fit also for the adapted questionnaire.
  • Ripatti-Torniainen, Leena (2018)
    This article extends the ongoing argumentation of 'public', publics and universities by providing a conceptual discussion of issues at the core of the public sphere: how does public form and exist amid private and individual life and pursuits, and how does a collective public body identify itself. The discussion is placed in dialogue with two earlier contributions to 'becoming (a) public' by Simons and Masschelein (European Educational Research Journal, 8(2), 204-217, 2009) and Biesta (Social & Cultural Geography, 13(7), 683-697, 2012). Brought together, these contributions constitute a definition of a programmatic public pedagogy at the university. This article develops the definition of a programmatic public pedagogy by drawing on the conceptual core meanings of public in continental antiquity, Enlightenment and American pragmatism. The author discusses public as (1) indefinitely circulating discourses, (2) sociability between strangers, (3) macro structures and (4) the political public sphere. The article reveals that the 'becoming (a) public' extends and occurs across a broad spectrum, and that the discursive and sociable manifestations of public are not secondary to explicitly political action but have an inherent value in themselves. The article distinguishes the character of public as constant openness to the emergence of what is yet not known from interpretations that locate public in the existing structures, ideologies and forms of action. The dialogue with Simons and Masschelein and Biesta shows that this distinction has critical implications on how programmatic public pedagogy is understood at the university.
  • Katila, Saija; Laamanen, Mikko; Laihonen, Maarit; Lund, Recebba; Meriläinen, Susan; Rinkinen, Jenny; Tienari, Janne (2020)
    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to analyze how global and local changes in higher education impact upon writing practices through which doctoral students become academics. The study explores how norms and values of academic writing practice are learned, negotiated and resisted and elucidates how competences related to writing come to determine the academic selves. Design/methodology/approach The study uses memory work, which is a group method that puts attention to written individual memories and their collective analysis and theorizing. The authors offer a comparison of experiences in becoming academics by two generational cohorts (1990s and 2010s) in the same management studies department in a business school. Findings The study indicates that the contextual and temporal enactment of academic writing practice in the department created a situation where implicit and ambiguous criteria for writing competence gradually changed into explicit and narrow ones. The change was relatively slow for two reasons. First, new performance management indicators were introduced over a period of two decades. Second, when the new indicators were gradually introduced, they were locally resisted. The study highlights how the focus, forms and main actors of resistance changed over time. Originality/value The paper offers a detailed account of how exogenous changes in higher education impact upon, over time and cultural space, academic writing practices through which doctoral students become academics.
  • Clavert, Maria; Löfström, Erika; Niemi, Hannele; Nevgi, Anne (2018)
    In the face of organizational transformations, academics are given a role as informal ‘change agents’ in their discipline-specific communities of practice (DCoP). Simultaneous participation in pedagogically oriented communities of practice (PCoP) enables them to promote pedagogical development through brokering at community interfaces. This empirical study explores academics’ experiences of acting as informal change agents at the interfaces of DCoP and PCoP during an organizational transition phase of three years. The longitudinal data were collected with interviews of 13 academics from the fields of science and technology. The findings reveal a variety of pedagogical development activities related to shared meanings, practices, identities, and ways of belonging. The activities are aligned with the organizational transition process and enabled by collegial support. The findings indicate that lack of supportive formal leadership may terminate the informal development activities. The resulting model of change agency provides a novel approach to pedagogical development in higher education.
  • Sinkkonen, Elina; Elovainio, Marko (2020)
    People's threat perceptions play a role in influencing foreign policies towards perceived adversary countries. Earlier research has identified multiple components shaping mass-level threat perceptions including military power, adversary country's perceived intentions, and national identities. On the individual level, education, use of media, and interest in politics have been shown to influence threat perceptions. However, most studies on perceptions of security threats fail to include both contextual and individual-level explanatory factors and to consider that different national threats may be constructed differently. This research bridges formation of threat perceptions on the individual level to wider societal processes and provides an empirical perspective to understanding threat perceptions among the educated section of the Chinese population. To analyze threat perceptions, students from leading Chinese universities (N = 771) took part in a survey in the autumn of 2011 and spring of 2012. Respondents who followed conventional media were more likely to perceive both the United States and Japan as threatening, and the effect of media consumption was particularly strong with regards to perceived threat from Japan. In addition, each threat perception was significantly associated with threat-specific explanatory factors. Potential explanatory factors of threat perceptions were explored with linear regression models.
  • Tuononen, Tarja; Parpala, Anna; Lindblom-Ylänne, Sari (2020)
    Students are expected to develop academic competences during their studies. However, research regarding the relation between academic competences and student learning is scarce. The present mixed-methods study aims to investigate the complex interrelations between academic competences and approaches to learning using both quantitative and qualitative methods. The data included 1023 graduates' survey answers and 83 interviews. The results showed that academic competences correlated positively with a deep approach to learning as well as with organised studying, and negatively with a surface approach. The qualitative analysis, however, revealed that descriptions of a deep approach were also found among graduates who evaluated academic competences less highly. Further, the results showed that putting effort into studying and seeing various competences as transferable were also positively related to academic competences and greater satisfaction with the degree obtained. The present study also showed that approaches to learning are closely intertwined with academic competences. The study suggests that the development of academic competences and an ability to identify them can be supported by emphasising deep-level learning and organised studying.
  • Vehviläinen, Sanna; Löfström, Erika; Nevgi, Anne (2018)
    This article deals with the demands that plagiarism places on academic communities, and with the resources staff possess in dealing with these demands. It is suggested that plagiarism ought to be placed in the context of network of intertwining communities (scholarly, pedagogical and administrative), to which participants are engaged to a different extent. The relationship to the ethical issue of plagiarism is related to the subject’s engagement in these communities. The article examines the way teachers deal with plagiarism from the point of view of work engagement and work-related wellbeing. In particular, we analyse job demands created by episodes of dealing with plagiarism as well as job resources teachers possess that aid them in coping with these demands. We used thematic analysis of semi-structured interviews of teachers in two universities. Our results show that the demands fall on five thematic categories: 1. rupture in the personal pedagogical relationship, 2. challenge on the supervisory “gatekeeping” responsibility; 3. a breach of the “everyday normality”; 4. ambivalence in explaining plagiarism and 5. the strain of performing the act of accusation. A key job demand in dealing with plagiarism is that teachers must balance both rule-ethical and care-ethical orientations in their reactions and actions. The resources teachers draw upon when dealing with these demands are: 1) dialogue and reflection in collegial dialogue 2) support from superiors and administration 3) shared protocols, procedures and plagiarism detection software. Our analysis shows that there are various demands that make dealing with plagiarism a strenuous task, but university environments also provide teachers with resources to cope with them.
  • Ahola, Aila J.; Forsblom, Carol; Harjutsalo, Valma; Groop, Per-Henrik (2020)
    Stress may negatively impact self-management of diabetes and thereby deteriorate glycaemic control. Eating is the most frequently reported stress-release method. In this study, we investigated the association between perceived stress (PS), dietary adherence, and glycaemic control. Data from participants in the FinnDiane Study with type 1 diabetes who had completed a diet questionnaire and Cohen's perceived stress scale (PSS) were included. In addition to using a continuous PSS score, participants were divided into three groups based on the PSS scores: the first PSS quartile, low levels of PS; second and third quartiles, moderate levels of PS; and fourth quartile, high levels of PS. A diet score reflecting the level of adherence to dietary recommendations was calculated. Analyses were conducted in the whole sample and in subgroups divided by body mass index (BMI <25 kg/m(2) vs. BMI >= 25 kg/m(2)). In the whole sample, high PS and continuous stress score were negatively associated with the diet score and with adherence to fish, fresh vegetable, low-fat liquid milk product, and vegetable oil-based cooking fat recommendations. The stress score was negatively associated with the diet score both in lean and in those overweight or obese. However, fish and fresh vegetable recommendations were only affected in those with corpulence. PS was not associated with mean blood glucose concentrations in the whole sample. When divided by BMI status, worse glycaemic control was observed in lean subjects reporting stress. In individuals with overweight or obesity, instead, high glucose concentrations were observed regardless of the level of perceived stress. Interventions to improve stress management could improve dietary adherence and glycaemic control and could thereby have the potential to improve long-term health and well-being of individuals with type 1 diabetes.
  • Salovaara, Janne J.; Pietikäinen, Janna; Cantell, Hannele (2021)
    As sustainability becomes a focal point and important aspect of educational development in several disciplines and universities globally, it is important to critically reflect on the different utilisations of sustainability education. Research on educational aims and the potential transformative impact of sustainability courses is quite timely. Among several others, the theory of interconnected learning has been gaining traction as an approach to transformative sustainability education, as it employs a distinct approach to systemic sustainability awareness. This approach aims to further express the plurality of sustainability, with the aim to foster a deeper comprehension beyond the dichotomous thinking often typical in disciplined science. The aim of our research was to study the efficiency of employing the pedagogy of interconnected learning on the types of sustainability transition narratives produced by the students attending an online sustainability course. The sustainability transition narratives, as expressed through fifty-eight students’ course assignments, were studied pre- and post-course, and analysed against a collection of established narratives drawn from transition studies. The comparison from the pre-to post-course answers revealed that while some of the student narratives remained unchanged, the majority of the narratives were expanded during the course experience. Our analysis revealed that while most of the students’ answers referenced a single type of transition narrative, some students produced narratives that hybridised two or more types of narratives. Additionally, some of the students produced elements of a pathway for a transition narrative that are currently unarticulated in the transition narrative framework employed herein. The elements of this newly articulated narrative focused on changes in the societal mindset, achievable through sustainability education.
  • Halffman, Willem; Radder, Hans; Lacroix, Michel; Brown, Mark B.; Dagnino, Renato; de Oliveira, Marcos Barbosa; Katsumori, Makoto; Batterbury, Simon; Byrne, Jason; Hibert, Mario; Lesic-Thomas, Andrea; Wessely, Anna; Hvorecky, Jozef; Visnovsky, Emil; Porubjak, Matus; Välikangas, Anita; Watermeyer, Richard; Bogaert, Koen; De Craene, Valerie; Froeyman, Anton; Stroobants, Karen; Vertommen, Sigrid; Vico, Eva; Charle, Christophe; Halffman, Willem; Radder, Hans (2018)
    This set of articles discusses and investigates the conditions and situation of Public Universities in 14 countries around the globe. It analyzes the productivist model created for the public university in an era of withdrawal and lack of political and institutional support. It discusses the loss of self-assessment criteria of the academics and their universities, their submission to the quantometric evaluation system that is inadequate d unfair, and it proposes the organization of a global academical joint action to defend and restore in their position the public university and higher education, fighting for its essential role in social development.
  • Salovaara, Janne J.; Soini, Katriina; Pietikainen, Janna (2020)
    Sustainability science is an emerging, free-standing scientific discipline. It has introduced a new approach to both sustainability research and educational programmes, while evoking novel perspectives to stronger societal contextualization. Among several other areas of sustainability research, competencies for sustainability have become a focal topic of sustainability education research. This research explores the educational programmes and the representation of the theory-based key competencies for sustainability. Through a qualitative content study of 45 master programmes associated with sustainability science, we aim to understand what kind of sustainability competencies can be found in sustainability science master's programmes and how they reflect the current discussions of the discipline of sustainability science and possibly drive the future education in the field. The study reveals that commonly suggested competencies including systems thinking, anticipatory, strategic, interpersonal, and normative competencies were frequently mentioned as content and learning outcomes in the curricula and are firmly present and widely employed in sustainability education. Additionally, this study identified three other clusters of competencies: diverse modes of thinking, methodological plurality, and competencies for autonomy. In addition to the contribution to education in the field by suggesting three emerged competencies for sustainability science specifically, we aim to contribute to the ongoing discussion about the discipline by suggesting a process-oriented framing of sustainability science.
  • Puustinen, Mikko; Säntti, Janne; Koski, Anna; Tammi, Tuure (2018)
    This article analyses teacher training in Finland from the teacher candidate's perspective. The focus is on two key concepts, the Teacher as a Researcher and the Personal Practical Theory, which characterise the agenda of Finnish teacher education. Cluster analysis divided the respondents into five groups, and each cluster had a short textual description. Qualitative data were included in the summary. According to our analysis, the main concepts of the Teacher as a Researcher and the Personal Practice Theory are unclear to teacher candidates and are appreciated differently. Subject teacher candidates in particular, who come from other academic cultures, might consider these concepts educational jargon that have no substance. We also argue that teacher students are not always able to connect the theoretical parts of their studies with practice. These results challenge the claim that Finnish teacher education has resolved the demanding relationship between theory and practice. (C) 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Vesikivi, Petri; Lakkala, Minna; Holvikivi, Jaana; Muukkonen, Hanni (2020)
    Technological and social developments during the past years emphasise the importance of knowledge work competence. Additionally, funding of universities in Finland was changed to be based largely on yearly accumulated credits, therefore, improving retention is of critical importance for the institution. In order to improve first-year retention (measured by credit accumulation) and learning of knowledge work practices, Metropolia UAS changed the information technology curriculum by integrating single topic 3?5 credit courses into multidisciplinary 15 credit courses that included substantially more project work where students solve open-ended problems. This study focuses on investigating how the new curriculum influenced first-year retention, students? study experiences and self-evaluated development of knowledge work competence. Research data included study register data on course completion and student feedback collected through online questionnaires after each course. Retention rate was substantially improved compared to previous years. Furthermore, student collaboration and independence were found to increase overall satisfaction and to boost learning in project teams.
  • Hyytinen, Heidi; Toom, Auli; Postareff, Liisa (2018)
    Critical thinking is a key capability for academic experts and for developing one’s expertise from the very beginning of studying at university. Self-efficacy beliefs and approaches to learning are important in this process, although their relationships with critical thinking are not clear. This study explores the relationship between critical thinking, approaches to learning and self-efficacy beliefs among Finnish first-year students in educational sciences (n=92). The self-reported data were used to measure approaches to learning and self-efficacy beliefs, and performance-based assessment data of critical thinking skills were analysed by using both quantitative and qualitative procedures. The results showed that most of the new students applied the deep approach to learning and had high self-efficacy beliefs related to learning. However, there were great differences in the quality of their critical thinking. Three groups with remarkable differences in critical thinking skills were detected. There were no connections between critical thinking, approaches to learning and self-efficacy beliefs. The results imply that the development of critical thinking needs to be facilitated systematically during study at university.
  • Virtanen, Viivi; Taina, Juha; Pyhältö, Kirsi (2017)
    This study explored the causes of student disengagement from their doctoral studies in the biological and environmental sciences. The data came from interviews of 40 doctoral students (male = 15, female = 25) and underwent qualitative analysis for content. Our results showed that doctoral studies provide multiple contexts for disengagement, such as the scholarly community and supervision, while doctoral students’ sense of distress, cynicism and inefficacy emerged as central components of disengagement. The study identified isolation, indifference, and lack of support and constructive feedback as sources of cynicism, while distress and inefficacy were more often related to failure or lack of progress in research. Our findings indicate that the source of disengagement can vary not only between individuals, but also between the academic activities at hand. Thus, while promoting an engaging doctoral experience, awareness of what typically triggers disengagement in the doctoral journey is vital.