Browsing by Subject "UNIVERSITY"

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  • Leiviskä, Anniina (2021)
    Recent controversies concerning freedom of expression on university campuses have raised the question of how the limits of free speech can be determined in a justified way in a pluralistic public space such as the campus. The article addresses this question from the viewpoint of two complementary theoretical perspectives: Rainer Forst's respect conception of toleration, and the discourse theory of democracy developed by Jurgen Habermas and Seyla Benhabib. These theories are argued to provide a non-arbitrary, impartial and procedural model for determining the limits of free speech on campus. Deriving primarily from the discourse model, the article suggests that the limits of freedom of expression on campus should be determined by collective deliberative processes involving the affected students. Moreover, it is argued that, instead of prohibiting controversial topics or views, the university administration and teachers should focus on establishing procedural rules of rational deliberation. This is argued to increase students' understanding of the nature of legitimate democratic discussion and thus accomplish the university's educational task of fostering students' ability to use their freedom of speech in a responsible way.
  • Wu, Anette; Noel, Geoffroy P. J. C.; Wingate, Richard; Kielstein, Heike; Sakurai, Takeshi; Viranta-Kovanen, Suvi; Chien, Chung-Liang; Traxler, Hannes; Waschke, Jens; Vielmuth, Franziska; Sagoo, Mandeep Gill; Kitahara, Shuji; Kato, Yojiro; Keay, Kevin A.; Olsen, Jorgen; Bernd, Paulette (2020)
    Background: At a time of global interconnectedness, the internationalization of medical education has become important. Anatomy as an academic discipline, with its close connections to the basic sciences and to medical education, can easily be connected with global health and internationalization of medical education. Here the authors present an international program based on a partnership between twelve anatomy departments in ten countries, on four continents. Details of a proposed plan for the future direction of the program are also discussed. Objective: The aim is to improve global healthcare by preparing future global healthcare leaders via early international networking, international collaboration and exchange, intercultural experience, and connecting two seemingly distant academic disciplines - anatomy and global health - via internationalization of medical education. Methods: Based in the anatomy course, the program involved early international collaboration between preclinical medical and dental students. The program provided a stepwise progression for learning about healthcare and intercultural topics beyond pure anatomy education - starting with virtual small groups of international students, who subsequently presented their work to a larger international audience during group videoconferences. The above progressed to in-person visits for research internships in the basic sciences within industrialized countries. Findings: Students appreciated the international and intercultural interaction, learned about areas outside the scope of anatomy (e.g., differences in healthcare education and delivery systems, Public and Global Health challenges, health ethics, and cultural enrichment), and valued the exchange travel for basic sciences research internships and cultural experience. Conclusions: This unique collaboration of international anatomy departments can represent a new role for the medical anatomy course beyond pure anatomy teaching - involving areas of global health and internationalization of medical education - and could mark a new era of international collaboration among anatomists.
  • Hyytinen, Heidi; Siven, Mia; Salminen, Outi; Katajavuori, Nina (2021)
    Students in higher education have been shown to have difficulties in developing their critical thinking skills, such as analysis and problem solving, reasoning and argumentation. Open-ended tasks offer opportunities for students to develop their own interpretations of various sources, to critically analyse domain-specific knowledge and utilize that knowledge in their argumentation. This study focuses on the ability of new Master's students (n=37) to utilize pharmaceutical knowledge from different sources in producing written arguments and counter-arguments in the context of open-ended assignment task. The data were analysed by qualitative content analysis. The results showed that there was substantial variation in how students analysed and processed pharmaceutical knowledge as well as how they utilized that knowledge in their argumentation. While some students were able to provide comprehensive analysis of the different sources, others superficially analysed and processed the sources and struggled to generate convincing arguments. Students' written responses were typically one-sided: only a few students provided counter-arguments associated with the pharmaceutical problem-solving situation presented in the task. Understanding the nature of the challenges in argumentation and knowledge processing encountered by pharmacy students can help pharmacy educators to modify their pedagogical practices to better support students' learning. Practitioner Notes 1. University students even in Master program level may have challenges related to argumentation and processing knowledge 2. The challenges in argumentation and processing knowledge should be taken into account and should be enhanced and practiced from the beginning of the studies. 3. Critical thinking and argumentation should be integrated into the intended learning outcomes, learning and teaching activities, the contents of the courses, and assessment.
  • Karlgren, Klas; Lakkala, Minna; Toom, Auli; Ilomäki, Liisa; Lahti-Nuuttila, Pekka; Muukkonen, Hanni (2020)
    The Collaborative Knowledge Practices Questionnaire (CKP) is an instrument designed to measure the learning of knowledge-work competence in education. The focus is on qualities of knowledge work which can be learned and taught in multiple educational settings and which may be especially important for courses with collaborative assignments. The original instrument was theoretically based on the knowledge-creation metaphor of learning. The instrument has been validated in Finnish based on student responses from a large number of higher education courses. The validation of the instrument resulted in seven scales relating to different aspects of interdisciplinary, collaborative development of knowledge-objects using digital technology. This study aimed to cross-culturally translate and adapt the original instrument into English and perform an exploratory structural equation modelling (ESEM) analysis in order to investigate whether the same factorial solution of the instrument also works in English in higher education courses in international settings. The original instrument was translated according to established guidelines for cross-cultural adaptation of self-report measures. The translated version has been tested in courses in medical education, online teaching and problem solving. The results provided evidence that the latent factor model found in the original instrument provided a good fit also for the adapted questionnaire.
  • Ripatti-Torniainen, Leena (2018)
    This article extends the ongoing argumentation of 'public', publics and universities by providing a conceptual discussion of issues at the core of the public sphere: how does public form and exist amid private and individual life and pursuits, and how does a collective public body identify itself. The discussion is placed in dialogue with two earlier contributions to 'becoming (a) public' by Simons and Masschelein (European Educational Research Journal, 8(2), 204-217, 2009) and Biesta (Social & Cultural Geography, 13(7), 683-697, 2012). Brought together, these contributions constitute a definition of a programmatic public pedagogy at the university. This article develops the definition of a programmatic public pedagogy by drawing on the conceptual core meanings of public in continental antiquity, Enlightenment and American pragmatism. The author discusses public as (1) indefinitely circulating discourses, (2) sociability between strangers, (3) macro structures and (4) the political public sphere. The article reveals that the 'becoming (a) public' extends and occurs across a broad spectrum, and that the discursive and sociable manifestations of public are not secondary to explicitly political action but have an inherent value in themselves. The article distinguishes the character of public as constant openness to the emergence of what is yet not known from interpretations that locate public in the existing structures, ideologies and forms of action. The dialogue with Simons and Masschelein and Biesta shows that this distinction has critical implications on how programmatic public pedagogy is understood at the university.
  • Katila, Saija; Laamanen, Mikko; Laihonen, Maarit; Lund, Recebba; Meriläinen, Susan; Rinkinen, Jenny; Tienari, Janne (2020)
    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to analyze how global and local changes in higher education impact upon writing practices through which doctoral students become academics. The study explores how norms and values of academic writing practice are learned, negotiated and resisted and elucidates how competences related to writing come to determine the academic selves. Design/methodology/approach The study uses memory work, which is a group method that puts attention to written individual memories and their collective analysis and theorizing. The authors offer a comparison of experiences in becoming academics by two generational cohorts (1990s and 2010s) in the same management studies department in a business school. Findings The study indicates that the contextual and temporal enactment of academic writing practice in the department created a situation where implicit and ambiguous criteria for writing competence gradually changed into explicit and narrow ones. The change was relatively slow for two reasons. First, new performance management indicators were introduced over a period of two decades. Second, when the new indicators were gradually introduced, they were locally resisted. The study highlights how the focus, forms and main actors of resistance changed over time. Originality/value The paper offers a detailed account of how exogenous changes in higher education impact upon, over time and cultural space, academic writing practices through which doctoral students become academics.
  • Clavert, Maria; Löfström, Erika; Niemi, Hannele; Nevgi, Anne (2018)
    In the face of organizational transformations, academics are given a role as informal ‘change agents’ in their discipline-specific communities of practice (DCoP). Simultaneous participation in pedagogically oriented communities of practice (PCoP) enables them to promote pedagogical development through brokering at community interfaces. This empirical study explores academics’ experiences of acting as informal change agents at the interfaces of DCoP and PCoP during an organizational transition phase of three years. The longitudinal data were collected with interviews of 13 academics from the fields of science and technology. The findings reveal a variety of pedagogical development activities related to shared meanings, practices, identities, and ways of belonging. The activities are aligned with the organizational transition process and enabled by collegial support. The findings indicate that lack of supportive formal leadership may terminate the informal development activities. The resulting model of change agency provides a novel approach to pedagogical development in higher education.
  • Sinkkonen, Elina; Elovainio, Marko (2020)
    People's threat perceptions play a role in influencing foreign policies towards perceived adversary countries. Earlier research has identified multiple components shaping mass-level threat perceptions including military power, adversary country's perceived intentions, and national identities. On the individual level, education, use of media, and interest in politics have been shown to influence threat perceptions. However, most studies on perceptions of security threats fail to include both contextual and individual-level explanatory factors and to consider that different national threats may be constructed differently. This research bridges formation of threat perceptions on the individual level to wider societal processes and provides an empirical perspective to understanding threat perceptions among the educated section of the Chinese population. To analyze threat perceptions, students from leading Chinese universities (N = 771) took part in a survey in the autumn of 2011 and spring of 2012. Respondents who followed conventional media were more likely to perceive both the United States and Japan as threatening, and the effect of media consumption was particularly strong with regards to perceived threat from Japan. In addition, each threat perception was significantly associated with threat-specific explanatory factors. Potential explanatory factors of threat perceptions were explored with linear regression models.
  • Tuononen, Tarja; Parpala, Anna; Lindblom-Ylänne, Sari (2020)
    Students are expected to develop academic competences during their studies. However, research regarding the relation between academic competences and student learning is scarce. The present mixed-methods study aims to investigate the complex interrelations between academic competences and approaches to learning using both quantitative and qualitative methods. The data included 1023 graduates' survey answers and 83 interviews. The results showed that academic competences correlated positively with a deep approach to learning as well as with organised studying, and negatively with a surface approach. The qualitative analysis, however, revealed that descriptions of a deep approach were also found among graduates who evaluated academic competences less highly. Further, the results showed that putting effort into studying and seeing various competences as transferable were also positively related to academic competences and greater satisfaction with the degree obtained. The present study also showed that approaches to learning are closely intertwined with academic competences. The study suggests that the development of academic competences and an ability to identify them can be supported by emphasising deep-level learning and organised studying.
  • Vehviläinen, Sanna; Löfström, Erika; Nevgi, Anne (2018)
    This article deals with the demands that plagiarism places on academic communities, and with the resources staff possess in dealing with these demands. It is suggested that plagiarism ought to be placed in the context of network of intertwining communities (scholarly, pedagogical and administrative), to which participants are engaged to a different extent. The relationship to the ethical issue of plagiarism is related to the subject’s engagement in these communities. The article examines the way teachers deal with plagiarism from the point of view of work engagement and work-related wellbeing. In particular, we analyse job demands created by episodes of dealing with plagiarism as well as job resources teachers possess that aid them in coping with these demands. We used thematic analysis of semi-structured interviews of teachers in two universities. Our results show that the demands fall on five thematic categories: 1. rupture in the personal pedagogical relationship, 2. challenge on the supervisory “gatekeeping” responsibility; 3. a breach of the “everyday normality”; 4. ambivalence in explaining plagiarism and 5. the strain of performing the act of accusation. A key job demand in dealing with plagiarism is that teachers must balance both rule-ethical and care-ethical orientations in their reactions and actions. The resources teachers draw upon when dealing with these demands are: 1) dialogue and reflection in collegial dialogue 2) support from superiors and administration 3) shared protocols, procedures and plagiarism detection software. Our analysis shows that there are various demands that make dealing with plagiarism a strenuous task, but university environments also provide teachers with resources to cope with them.
  • Tammeleht, Anu; Lofstrom, Erika; Rodriguez-Triana, Ja Maria Jesus (2022)
    To build a culture of integrity in a HE institution, innovative approaches are needed to enhance education of research ethics and integrity (REI). In addition to educating students, understanding is needed on how to facilitate for those who lead others. The focus is on early-career researchers (ECRs) as future REI leaders. The current study sheds light on how learning and REI leadership competencies evolve during scaffolded collaborative research ethics training for this target group. The study combines new instruments as part of holistic DBR. Data was collected from 3 groups of experienced researchers attending 3 training sessions in the form of written group reports and group discussion recordings. Qualitative deductive analysis was utilised for monitoring the learning process, scaffolding patterns, and display of REI leadership principles. Also, quantitative analysis was applied to group discussion data, displaying the nature of collaboration. Results imply that collaborative case-based role play format is effective in training future REI leaders. All groups displayed high levels of understanding. Combining ECRs and researchers with leadership experience supported knowledge building in the groups by bringing in various perspectives. Even though groups required different amounts of scaffolding, the nature was similar: maintaining goal orientation, highlighting critical features and redirecting learners. Learning analytics of collaboration indicated that the person with leadership experience was not necessarily the most active participant nor took the role of a 'group leader'. Still, it was mostly that person who displayed leadership competencies thus supporting other group members to develop leadership aspects.
  • Iqbal, Javed; Asghar, Muhammad Zaheer; Asghar, Ali; Waqar, Yasira (2022)
    This study explored the direct and indirect influences of the entrepreneurial curriculum on entrepreneurial competencies, using the campus learning environment as a mediator. In this study, a survey questionnaire composed of 48 items was used to collect data on the entrepreneurial curriculum, entrepreneurial competencies, and campus learning environment from pre-service vocational teachers enrolled in six universities located in Hunan Province, China. The entrepreneurial curriculum has four components, namely, curriculum content, curriculum material, teaching strategies, and feedback and assessment. Partial least squares structural equation modeling was used through SmartPLS 3.3.3 to measure the effects. The curriculum content has a direct, significant, and positive influence on entrepreneurial competencies. For the indirect influence, all four dimensions of the entrepreneurial curriculum influenced the campus learning environment, which, in turn, was positively associated with entrepreneurial competencies. The campus learning environment was therefore revealed to play a mediating role between the entrepreneurial curriculum and entrepreneurial competencies. The study explored that effective entrepreneurial curriculum delivery and campus learning environment are helpful for developing entrepreneurial competencies among the pre-service vocational teachers. Universities should take initiatives to update the entrepreneurial curriculum and create a conducive campus learning environment that brings a positive change to develop entrepreneurial competencies among their students. Moreover, practical implications and future research directions are also discussed in this article.
  • Kita, Yosuke; Yasuda, Shoko; Gherghel, Claudia (2022)
    While the negative impact of the pandemic on students' mental health has been studied around the world, very little is known about the mental health of faculty and staff. This research aims to examine mental health among Japanese faculty members who taught online courses during the COVID-19 pandemic. We recruited 537 university faculty members and assessed their mental health using the World Health Organization-Five Well-Being Index (WHO-5), both retrospectively (during the academic year before the onset of the pandemic) and during the pandemic. We also evaluated workload (number of online lectures taught and preparation time per class), difficulty in using information technology (IT) for online classes, and satisfaction with the university support service for online education. As a result, the WHO-5 score during the COVID-19 pandemic was significantly lower than before, and 33.5% of the faculty members were recognized as being at risk for mental illness during the COVID-19 pandemic. A binomial logistic regression analysis revealed two significant risk factors for mental illness-faculty members were more at risk for mental illness when they experienced difficulty in using IT for online classes, and were unsatisfied with the administrative support for online education. The deterioration of mental health during the COVID-19 was not predicted by workload, such as the number of online lectures and preparation time. These results suggest the importance of improving workplace support services, especially IT support, to prevent mental health deterioration among faculty teaching online.
  • Ahola, Aila J.; Forsblom, Carol; Harjutsalo, Valma; Groop, Per-Henrik (2020)
    Stress may negatively impact self-management of diabetes and thereby deteriorate glycaemic control. Eating is the most frequently reported stress-release method. In this study, we investigated the association between perceived stress (PS), dietary adherence, and glycaemic control. Data from participants in the FinnDiane Study with type 1 diabetes who had completed a diet questionnaire and Cohen's perceived stress scale (PSS) were included. In addition to using a continuous PSS score, participants were divided into three groups based on the PSS scores: the first PSS quartile, low levels of PS; second and third quartiles, moderate levels of PS; and fourth quartile, high levels of PS. A diet score reflecting the level of adherence to dietary recommendations was calculated. Analyses were conducted in the whole sample and in subgroups divided by body mass index (BMI <25 kg/m(2) vs. BMI >= 25 kg/m(2)). In the whole sample, high PS and continuous stress score were negatively associated with the diet score and with adherence to fish, fresh vegetable, low-fat liquid milk product, and vegetable oil-based cooking fat recommendations. The stress score was negatively associated with the diet score both in lean and in those overweight or obese. However, fish and fresh vegetable recommendations were only affected in those with corpulence. PS was not associated with mean blood glucose concentrations in the whole sample. When divided by BMI status, worse glycaemic control was observed in lean subjects reporting stress. In individuals with overweight or obesity, instead, high glucose concentrations were observed regardless of the level of perceived stress. Interventions to improve stress management could improve dietary adherence and glycaemic control and could thereby have the potential to improve long-term health and well-being of individuals with type 1 diabetes.
  • Salovaara, Janne J.; Pietikäinen, Janna; Cantell, Hannele (2021)
    As sustainability becomes a focal point and important aspect of educational development in several disciplines and universities globally, it is important to critically reflect on the different utilisations of sustainability education. Research on educational aims and the potential transformative impact of sustainability courses is quite timely. Among several others, the theory of interconnected learning has been gaining traction as an approach to transformative sustainability education, as it employs a distinct approach to systemic sustainability awareness. This approach aims to further express the plurality of sustainability, with the aim to foster a deeper comprehension beyond the dichotomous thinking often typical in disciplined science. The aim of our research was to study the efficiency of employing the pedagogy of interconnected learning on the types of sustainability transition narratives produced by the students attending an online sustainability course. The sustainability transition narratives, as expressed through fifty-eight students’ course assignments, were studied pre- and post-course, and analysed against a collection of established narratives drawn from transition studies. The comparison from the pre-to post-course answers revealed that while some of the student narratives remained unchanged, the majority of the narratives were expanded during the course experience. Our analysis revealed that while most of the students’ answers referenced a single type of transition narrative, some students produced narratives that hybridised two or more types of narratives. Additionally, some of the students produced elements of a pathway for a transition narrative that are currently unarticulated in the transition narrative framework employed herein. The elements of this newly articulated narrative focused on changes in the societal mindset, achievable through sustainability education.
  • Kosunen, Sonja; Haltia, Nina; Saari, Juhani; Jokila, Suvi; Halmkrona, Esa (2021)
    Private supplementary tutoring in the form of preparatory courses to university entrance examinations is present in Finland alongside public higher education (HE). We explore the participation in preparatory courses. Our data derive from the university undergraduate subsample (n = 2969) of a larger cross-sectional national survey targeting tertiary students. We found a strong association between the SES of the students and preparatory course participation rates. Preparatory course participation is also more common in competitive disciplines. Students from higher SES backgrounds get more parental help in financing their participation than their counterparts coming from lower SES backgrounds. Therefore, the role of private economic capital in access to HE in Finland, despite its tuition-fee-free nature, is evident.
  • Halffman, Willem; Radder, Hans; Lacroix, Michel; Brown, Mark B.; Dagnino, Renato; de Oliveira, Marcos Barbosa; Katsumori, Makoto; Batterbury, Simon; Byrne, Jason; Hibert, Mario; Lesic-Thomas, Andrea; Wessely, Anna; Hvorecky, Jozef; Visnovsky, Emil; Porubjak, Matus; Välikangas, Anita; Watermeyer, Richard; Bogaert, Koen; De Craene, Valerie; Froeyman, Anton; Stroobants, Karen; Vertommen, Sigrid; Vico, Eva; Charle, Christophe; Halffman, Willem; Radder, Hans (2018)
    This set of articles discusses and investigates the conditions and situation of Public Universities in 14 countries around the globe. It analyzes the productivist model created for the public university in an era of withdrawal and lack of political and institutional support. It discusses the loss of self-assessment criteria of the academics and their universities, their submission to the quantometric evaluation system that is inadequate d unfair, and it proposes the organization of a global academical joint action to defend and restore in their position the public university and higher education, fighting for its essential role in social development.
  • Riuttanen, Laura; Ruuskanen, Taina; Aijäla, Mikko; Lauri, Anniina (2021)
    The urgent societal need for climate action requires climate change expertise. But who is a climate change expert? What is the role of atmospheric and Earth system science education? In this study, we examine what competencies do atmospheric and Earth system scientists teach in selected programmes in seven European countries, and how they view the importance of various competencies for the students to learn. We also asked about teacher experiences and wishes related to teaching collaboration. We found that the atmospheric and Earth system scientists taught and valued the highest the traditional academic competencies related e.g. to critical thinking and applying knowledge. The normative, strategic and interpersonal competencies of sustainability were generally less valued and taught. The largest teaching gaps were found in competencies such as developing new ideas, interpersonal competency, making arguments and looking for solutions, critical thinking, collaboration and communication skills. Preferred collaborators for atmospheric and Earth system scientists were scientists from their own field or from other natural sciences, while collaborators from other sciences and wider society were less popular choices. The atmospheric and Earth systems scientists in our study did not see themselves as climate change experts. We foresee here a need to define climate change competencies.
  • Salovaara, Janne J.; Soini, Katriina; Pietikainen, Janna (2020)
    Sustainability science is an emerging, free-standing scientific discipline. It has introduced a new approach to both sustainability research and educational programmes, while evoking novel perspectives to stronger societal contextualization. Among several other areas of sustainability research, competencies for sustainability have become a focal topic of sustainability education research. This research explores the educational programmes and the representation of the theory-based key competencies for sustainability. Through a qualitative content study of 45 master programmes associated with sustainability science, we aim to understand what kind of sustainability competencies can be found in sustainability science master's programmes and how they reflect the current discussions of the discipline of sustainability science and possibly drive the future education in the field. The study reveals that commonly suggested competencies including systems thinking, anticipatory, strategic, interpersonal, and normative competencies were frequently mentioned as content and learning outcomes in the curricula and are firmly present and widely employed in sustainability education. Additionally, this study identified three other clusters of competencies: diverse modes of thinking, methodological plurality, and competencies for autonomy. In addition to the contribution to education in the field by suggesting three emerged competencies for sustainability science specifically, we aim to contribute to the ongoing discussion about the discipline by suggesting a process-oriented framing of sustainability science.
  • Puustinen, Mikko; Säntti, Janne; Koski, Anna; Tammi, Tuure (2018)
    This article analyses teacher training in Finland from the teacher candidate's perspective. The focus is on two key concepts, the Teacher as a Researcher and the Personal Practical Theory, which characterise the agenda of Finnish teacher education. Cluster analysis divided the respondents into five groups, and each cluster had a short textual description. Qualitative data were included in the summary. According to our analysis, the main concepts of the Teacher as a Researcher and the Personal Practice Theory are unclear to teacher candidates and are appreciated differently. Subject teacher candidates in particular, who come from other academic cultures, might consider these concepts educational jargon that have no substance. We also argue that teacher students are not always able to connect the theoretical parts of their studies with practice. These results challenge the claim that Finnish teacher education has resolved the demanding relationship between theory and practice. (C) 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.