Browsing by Subject "UPPER-MANTLE STRUCTURE"

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  • Kozlovskaya, E.; Elo, S.; Hjelt, S.-E.; Yliniemi, J.; Pirttijärvi, M.; SVEKALAPKO Seismic Tomography Work (2004)
  • Fred, Riikka; Heinonen, Aku; Heinonen, Jussi S. (2020)
    Fe–Ti–P-rich mafic to intermediate rocks (monzodiorites and oxide–apatite–gabbronorites, OAGNs) are found as small intrusions in most AMCG (anorthosite–magnerite–charnokite–granite) suites. The origin of the monzodioritic rocks is still debated, but in many studies, they are presumed to represent residual liquid compositions after fractionation of anorthositic cumulates. In the 1.64 Ga Ahvenisto complex, SE Finland, monzodioritic rocks occur as minor dike-like lenses closely associated with anorthositic rocks. We report new field, petrographic, and geochemical (XRF, ICP-MS, EMPA) data complemented with crystallization modeling (rhyolite-MELTS, MAGFRAC) for the monzodioritic rocks, apatite–oxide–gabbronorite, and olivine-bearing anorthositic rocks of the Ahvenisto complex. The presented evidence suggest that the monzodioritic rocks closely represent melt compositions while the apatite–oxide–gabbronorite and olivine-bearing anorthositic rocks are cumulates. The monzodioritic rocks seem to form a liquid line of descent (LLD) from primitive olivine monzodiorites to more evolved monzodiorites. Petrological modeling suggests that the interpreted LLD closely corresponds to a residual melt trend left after fractional crystallization (FC) and formation of the cumulate anorthositic rocks and minor apatite–oxide–gabbronorite in shallow magma chambers. Consequent equilibrium crystallization (EC) of separate monzodioritic residual magma batches can produce the observed mineral assemblages and the low Mg numbers measured from olivine (Fo25–45) and pyroxenes (En48–63, Mg#cpx 60–69). The monzodioritic rocks and apatite–oxide–gabbronorites show similar petrological and geochemical characteristics to corresponding rock types in other AMCG suites, and the model described in this study could be applicable to them as well.
  • Tiira, Timo; Janik, Tomasz; Skrzynic, Tymon; Komminaho, Kari; Heinonen, Aku; Veikkolainen, Toni; Väkevä, Sakari; Korja, Annakaisa (2020)
    The Kokkola–Kymi Deep Seismic Sounding profile crosses the Fennoscandian Shield in northwest-southeast (NW–SE) direction from Bothnian belt to Wiborg rapakivi batholith through Central Finland granitoid complex (CFGC). The 490-km refraction seismic line is perpendicular to the orogenic strike in Central Finland and entirely based on data from quarry blasts and road construction sites in years 2012 and 2013. The campaign resulted in 63 usable seismic record sections. The average perpendicular distance between these and the profile was 14 km. Tomographic velocity models were computed with JIVE3D program. The velocity fields of the tomographic models were used as starting points in the ray tracing modelling. Based on collected seismic sections a layer-cake model was prepared with the ray tracing package SEIS83. Along the profile, upper crust has an average thickness of 22 km average, and P-wave velocities (Vp) of 5.9–6.2 km/s near the surface, increasing downward to 6.25–6.40 km/s. The thickness of middle crust is 14 km below CFGC, 20 km in SE and 25 km in NW, but Vp ranges from 6.6 to 6.9 km/s in all parts. Lower crust has Vp values of 7.35–7.4 km/s and lithospheric mantle 8.2–8.25 km/s. Moho depth is 54 km in NW part, 63 km in the middle and 43 km in SW, yet a 55-km long section in the middle does not reveal an obvious Moho reflection. S-wave velocities vary from 3.4 km/s near the surface to 4.85 km/s in upper mantle, consistently with P-wave velocity variations. Results confirm the previously assumed high-velocity lower crust and depression of Moho in central Finland.