Browsing by Subject "URBAN AIR-POLLUTION"

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  • Hellen, Heidi; Kangas, Leena; Kousa, Anu; Vestenius, Mika; Teinila, Kimmo; Karppinen, Ari; Kukkonen, Jaakko; Niemi, Jarkko V. (2017)
    Even though emission inventories indicate that wood combustion is a major source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), estimating its impacts on PAH concentration in ambient air remains challenging. In this study the effect of local small-scale wood combustion on the benzo[a] pyrene (BaP) concentrations in ambient air in the Helsinki metropolitan area in Finland is evaluated, using ambient air measurements, emission estimates, and dispersion modeling. The measurements were conducted at 12 different locations during the period from 2007 to 2015. The spatial distributions of annual average BaP concentrations originating from wood combustion were predicted for four of those years: 2008, 2011, 2013, and 2014. According to both the measurements and the dispersion modeling, the European Union target value for the annual average BaP concentrations (1 ngm(-3) ) was clearly exceeded in certain suburban detached-house areas. However, in most of the other urban areas, including the center of Helsinki, the concentrations were below the target value. The measured BaP concentrations highly correlated with the measured levoglucosan concentrations in the suburban detached-house areas. In street canyons, the measured concentrations of BaP were at the same level as those in the urban background, clearly lower than those in suburban detached-house areas. The predicted annual average concentrations matched with the measured concentrations fairly well. Both the measurements and the modeling clearly indicated that wood combustion was the main local source of ambient air BaP in the Helsinki metropolitan area.
  • Backman, John; Wood, Curtis R.; Auvinen, Mikko; Kangas, Leena; Hannuniemi, Hanna; Karppinen, Ari; Kukkonen, Jaakko (2017)
    The meteorological input parameters for urbanand local-scale dispersion models can be evaluated by pre-processing meteorological observations, using a boundarylayer parameterisation model. This study presents a sensitivity analysis of a meteorological preprocessor model (MPP-FMI) that utilises readily available meteorological data as input. The sensitivity of the preprocessor to meteorological input was analysed using algorithmic differentiation (AD). The AD tool used was TAPENADE. The AD method numerically evaluates the partial derivatives of functions that are implemented in a computer program. In this study, we focus on the evaluation of vertical fluxes in the atmosphere and in particular on the sensitivity of the predicted inverse Obukhov length and friction velocity on the model input parameters. The study shows that the estimated inverse Obukhov length and friction velocity are most sensitive to wind speed and second most sensitive to solar irradiation. The dependency on wind speed is most pronounced at low wind speeds. The presented results have implications for improving the meteorological preprocessing models. AD is shown to be an efficient tool for studying the ranges of sensitivities of the predicted parameters on the model input values quantitatively. A wider use of such advanced sensitivity analysis methods could potentially be very useful in analysing and improving the models used in atmospheric sciences.